would be attended with the ruin of millions ; merly, to use all my exertions to erase it from to enleavor to obtain an amelioration of its pro- our statute book; and I derive no little confi

visions by compromise with their opponents, dence in the repeal of protective tariffs, from *** and to postpone all efforts for its repeal to a fu. the faci, that a diminution of the power of tar ture and more auspicious period. Gen. Blair, those who have hitherto, been regarded to be

so far from conceiving that his vote was a re- the veteran and uncompromising supporters of in cognition " of the settled policy of the protec. protection, was manifested, by the passage of

tive system,” declared that he did not vote the act of July last, in spite of their unremitting 2. for the bill as a compromise of the subject, or and strenuous opposition to it, aided by the coe as a quietus of the complaints of the south, but operation of several of those who lerm them.

on the principle of reduction;" and Mr. Mitch- selves the friends of free trade, among whom sell, who spoke at length against the bill, gave were included both of our Senators and six of

to it his support, for reasons similar to those oor Representatives. These Senators and Repwhich had been assigned by General Blair.resentatives might have been able to reconcile Had my conduct in relation to this bill been the their conduct with what they conceived to be

reverse of what it was; had I voted against it, policy and duty. I could not imitate their ex. and had this vote been cited to establish that i ample, nor shall I be prevailed upon to think had been inconsistent and treacherous to my ibat I ought to have done so, until I shall be duty, I should have felt that I was incompe. persuaded that theburthen of protective dutent to defend myself against these grave accu. ties is increased, by reducing their rate and sations. I might have urged, as a subterfuge, amount—and that where the choice is submitthat I would not suffer my name to be enrolled ted to a representative of subjecting his con, in favor of any protective tariff; but would 1 stituents to a greater or a lesser evil, he ought not have been confounded and silenced by the to prefer inflicting upon them the greater. reply, that if the law which I refused to vote for Ameliorations in the existing tariff have been

had been rejected, a law more grievous, and achieved by the act of 1832. When that change dve which contained protective duties more one. shall take place in Congress, which will be pro.

rous, would be in force; and that, by declining duced by the election of new members, accord. to exert myself to accomplish the passage of ing to the Apportionment Bill of the last ses. the act of 1832, I virtually contributed to rivet sion, there is every reason to expect that still

upon my fellow.citizens the greater oppression further advances will be made toward the fulil of the sct of 1828 ?

filment of what is desired by the friends of unThe compromise which I recommended in the restricted industry. In the interim, what has House of Representatives, was declared tobe in- been done cannot impede, but will rather accel. tended to meet the existing crisis, which, in the erate the progress of more just and liberal legis, apprehension of many wise and patriotic men, lition. Were I called upon to state what i threatened the destruction of the Union. To firmly believe to be the cause of the tariff sys. avert this deep and dire calamity an immediate tem wbich now convulses our State, I should remedy was necessary--that reinedy could not conscientiously reply, that it is to be attributed be administered without the co-operation of the to the act of the 27th of April, 1816, the pas. friends and the adversaries of protection; that sage of which was strenuously advocated by .co-operation, to the extent which has been three-fourths of the delegation from South Ca. mentioned, was obtained: it was unconnected rolina; that they insisted upon "he necessity of with any compact, express or implied, as to affording protection to the manufuctures, to put "the settled policy of the country," or as to the ther beyond the reach of contingency from fotrue construction of the powers “to lay and reign competition.” The restrictive measures collect taxes” or “to regulate commerce." of the Government before the late war with That the protective principle is contained in the Great Britain, and the interruption to our com'act of 1832, is undeniable: it was also contained merce, during that war, had virtually protected in the bill which was reported by Mr. McDuffie, domestic manufactures; but when the act of as the chairman of the Committee of Ways and April, 1816, was under discussion, the duties Means; for infthat bill, duties of 25 per centum which were intended for protection were gene, ad valorem, for prescribed periods, were to be rally so light, as almost o lave escaped obserlevied upon the protected articles of Irun, Salt

, vation. In April, 1816, the principle of proSugar, Cotton Bagging, Woollens, &c. rafter-tection was openly avowed, and enforced in wards the duty was to be gradually reduced many instances by correspondent duties. Then 13 per centum, ad valorem, which, under that was invented the mischievous and delusive conbill, was estimaled to be the rate of duty which trivance of the minimums, which was first ap las necessury for revenue. The constitulimuli- plied io ibat fabric, the raw material of which ty of the protective system was as plainly constitutes the great staples of the south. It is admitted, by legisluting for the continuance of true, that a provision was inserted, that the some protected items, during a single year, rates of duty upon manufactures of cotton and as by legislating for all of them, witú jut any wool should be reduced within three years: but limitation as to time. Although the principle thiese were the only restrictions in that act. Its of protection has never been abandoned by any protective character, in other respects, was preprovisions of the act of 1832, I have, yet, never loperation of which those of the East Indies were supposed myself less at liberty now, than for. Idriven from the market, was to be retained at





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this bar tot of duty on all importations, excepting woollens, not furnished us with any data to support the
being about 25 per cent.*

positions, that upon the "manufactures receiv. It not a little excites my surprise, that a paled'in exchange for staple productions of the per of so grave a character as "the address," southern States-the aggregate taxation is be

which it is presumed, was drawn up with the lieved to be increased upwards of $1,000,000,” Urdu la utmost deliberation, should hazard the asser. beyond the tariff of 1828, “ while the reduc.

tion, that "the duties on the unprotected artition” or repeal of the duties on those imports desdeny cles, are,

with a few inconsiderable exceptions, which are received in exchange for the produc- van die entirely repealed," when

the amount of all the tions of the tariff States, amounts to about $4,duties declared free by the act of 1832, are esti-000,000.” How this grogg inequality in the

mated, in the statement of the Treasury, at no distribution of burthens and benefits is produc0982 more than $400,000.f “The Address" has ed, by the act of 1832, I am unable to ima

gine. Upon some woollens, the duties will be * On a close calculation, omitting the 10 and rather bigher than they are now, but the ag.

per cent. addition to the value on goods gregate of the duties upon woollens, will be paying ad valorem duties, the following is the very considerably less.

difference arising from the alteration of the The duties upon cottons will be reduced in the press pound sterling, and the cash duties with short- almost every instance, and increased in none. ened credits.

Upon silks, the duties will be largely reduced.
The reduction on protected arti.

The duties upon iron, hemp, cotton bagging,
cles will be

$1,869,056 sugars, and wine, are all diminished in greater Deduct interest on cash duties on

or smaller ratios. The staple productions of in every po woollens, amount of which being

the south being received in exchange for every 1,953,159, for 10 months, at 6 per

one of the commudities which I have enumerat. centum per annum, $97,658

ed, if, the duties upon them be reduced, it ne. Do. on duties on other

cessarily follows, so far as relates to those com. protected articles, amount

modities (and they constitute the great articles being $9,009,557 for 5 mo.

of importation) ihat the burthen of southern at 6 per cent. per annum, 247,763

taxation will be diminished. Neither can I dis.

cover what “reduction or repeal of the duties $355,421

on those imports which are received in exDifference originating,

change for the productions of the tariff States,

amounts to about $5,000,000.I have specifor the posterling, affecting imports

fied important articles upon which the duties from Great Britain paying

will be reduced, after March, 1833, and it is ad valorem duty, amount

known to every merchant, that for the more of these imports being

valuable proportion of them, the productions of

the south are received in exchange, in a greater ference $1,075,160, at the

degree, than those of the north, whilst the cotaverage rate of duty on

ton and rice of the southern States are almost protected articles 37% per

exclusively exchanged for the wines of Spain


and Portugal, and for the silks and wines of 759,949 France, and their rice and lumber for the su

gars of the West Indies. The north will be Net reduction on pro

benefitted by the reduction of the duties upon $1,109,107 indigo and raw wool not costing more than 8

cents the pound, and by the repeal of the duAdding the 10 and 20

ties upon madder, wood, cochineal, and some

other materials used in dyeing, and as ingrediabove to about

$1,550,000 ents in the process of manufacturing ; but the

community participates in those advantages, as ! | The aggregate amount of duties under the the effect must necessarily be to lower the price new bill, is estimated at

$15,126,959 of manufactures. With respect to the repeal Deduct duties un protected ar.

of the duties upon teas and coffee, and the reticles,


average rate of duty on
Leaves a duty on unprotected ar-

unprotected articles, 143
$4,164,243 per cent.

Add interest for 59 months short-

ened credits, at the rate of 6 per
cent. per annum,

Total amount of duties
Difference from change

on unprotected articles,

$4,357,564 in the pound sterling on

The increase in the aggregate amount of the imports from Great Britain,

duties, without the 10 and 20 per cent., and paying ad valorem duties,

adding ihe difference from the new valuation of
amount of the imports

the pound sterling with cash duties and shor-
"being $7,400,852, and the
difference $548,210, at the

tened credits, is $953,270, equal to about 13
per cent.

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articles; and who will deny, that, in the in- declared, that the articles could be procured creased consumption of coffee, by being free at the prices mentioned, I cannot hesitate to Jumber, and other articles of its produce. No would rectify the mistake. However desirou State in the Union furnishes more, if as much the restrictionists may be, and unquestionably want of semblance of a foundation for the as- interests, it would be doing them injustice ished, and their relative burthens very greatly the commission of so egregious an act of Colly increased," is plainly demonstrated by the facts as to calculate on being able to deceive when which I have stated. As to those items ex- the means of detection would be so soon, and

The minimums upon woollens, which cock verted, I will only remark, that the south and ted peculiar discontent, for the strongest and the north are relieved by these exemptions, ex- most obvious reasons, have also been abolished actly in ratio proportionate to their consump- for the gratification of the south. Lu several

of our newspapers, it has been insisted, het It is alleged in all the newspapers in this the benefit of this abolition has been more that State, which adopt the reasoning of "the Ad-counterbalanced, by the imposition of staty dress,” that no spirit of compromise or concilia. under the act of 1832, of 50 per cent ad rah tariffact, and that its sole object was to confer 35 cents the square yard. Let me briefly, de tion entered into the composition of the late rem upon all woollen cloths costing more the additional bounties upon the tariff States, and monstrate the unsoundness of this objection to increase the burthens upon the planting By the existing tariff, woollen clothe not cesting it to merits which I have hitherte denied to it, per cent. ad valorem. Woullens cutting expressed; and it is not my intention to ascribe cents the square yard, which is actually 5143 States. My opinion of that act I have already more than 33 cts, the sqr. yd. pay a duty of but I cannot refrain from admitting, that the cents the square yard, and not more a

act of July, 1832, does contain some provisions cents, are estimated at 50 cents the Toceedobs which proceeded from a spirit of compromise yard, and pay a duty of 45 cent ad malore

duction of the duty upon India silks, I will sub- and conciliation on the part of the advocates
mit the following communication which I have of protection. It is notorious that loud and to
received from one of the most enlightened and iterated complaints were made in the southern
experienced merchants in this city.

States, and particularly in South Carolina, on
“Nothing is more certain than that the south-account of the high duties upon course wod-
ern States will be more than proportionably be- lens and blankets, and upon cotton bagging,
nefitted by an increased consumption of teas, and that the duties upon them were dimutis
and East India silks, that will take place in con-ed, to gratify and conciliate the south. After
sequence of the reduction of the duties upon March, 1833, upon course woollens of a
them; because the course of trade is now so lue not exceeding 35 cents the square yard
changed, that, compared with former times, and upon blankets, of a value not exceeding
little or no specie is exported. The India mer- 75 cents each, the duty will be almost nominal,
chant now either furnishes himself with bills being 5 per cent. ad valorem; and upon cotton
drawn by the United States Bank on London, bagging, the duty will be reduced from 5 to
or at twelve months dates, (which pay in India 3} cents the square yard. I have read in no-
at a premium,) for he purchases merchant bills merous publications in the newspapers ef this
at ordinary sights on London, and lodges his city, that the woollens and blankets which are
funds there, ordering his ship to touch at Gib- imported by the planters for their negres
raltar, where he can draw from his London cannot be purchased at the prices limited by
funds at 10 of 15 per cent advance, and

he has the act, so as to be included within the reduced
dollars at par, or at most from 1 to 2 per cent. duty of 5 per cent. My reply to this state
premium, these dollars being procured entirely ment, I should presume, would be perfectly
from Spain, in payment of our rice, cotton, to-satisfactory. I am informed by the most com
bacco, &c., carried into that country by her petent and respectable authority, that such
own subjects clandestinely. If the bank fur- woollens and blankets as the planters are in
nishes the India bills, it covers them by mer- the

habit of importing for the negres, con
chants drafts on England. Thus,

whether the now be purchased abroad at the prices speci:
India cargo be procured by bank bills or spe- fied in the act, and that no doubt is entertain
cie, they are all raised by bills on England, ed that this will be the case, after that set shall
which bills are almost altogether found by be in force. Should this, however, beu
southern rice and cotton.
incontrovertibly appears, that the south fur articles was made, and was expected to be
nishes the principal part of the funds for India made by the advocates of the prutective priser
cargoes, and, consequently, must be greatly tem, exclusively, for the accomodation of the

by the increased consumption of those south; and as they repeatedly and positively

, when they are told that the Island of. Cu satisfactorily establishing it, such a law wall
of duty, that the south is benefitted in a double believe, if the fact be otherwise, that upon
ba alone, takes about 30,000 casks of rice, with be passed at the next session of Congreso
burthens of the southern States are not asinin ciple, as a deliberate design to defraud
empted from the payment of duties by the act so easily afforded.
of 1852, to which I have not particularly ad-

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which is, actually, 48 per cent.

Woollens I have thus, fellow citizens, submitted to you costing 50 cents, and not more than $1, the my reasons for the vote which I gave upon the square yard, are estimated at $1, and pay a du passage of the late tariff act, and my views of ty of 45 per cent, which is, actually, 50-59 per that act, both in its immediate effects, and as cent. ad valorem: Woollens costing $1, and compared with the existing tariff. I feel connot more than $2,50 the square yard, are esti- fident that my vote will be approved of by all

mated at $2,50, and pay a duty of 45 per cent of you, wlio prefer conciliation and compro. op ad valorem, which is actually a duty of 54-82 mise to a rupture with the members of our

per cent. ad valorem. Woollens costing $2,50 confederacy. When a system has long been and not more than $4 the square yard, are esti-established, which extensively controls the na

mated at $4, and pay a duty of 45 per cent. tional capital and labor, however unwisely it 14, di ad valorem, which is, actually, 61-59 per cent. may have been introduced, it cannot, suddenly he ad valorem. All woollen cloths costing over be abolished, without spreading desolution and

$4 the square yard, pay a duty of 50 per cent. ruin among millions, and communicating a per 2 ad valorem, which with the additional 10 per rilous shock to our tranquillity and security. procent, under the tariff of 1828, is 55 per However we may deprecate a protective turill', 60 valorem. The foregoing duties, which I have in its principle and in its details; however in, on stated as actually paid, are laken from an offi- digdantly we may arraign the motives in which basere cial document of the Treasury Department. It it originated, and the consequences resulting

is thus seen that the existing duties, in every from it, the majority of the people are, never

item, exceeds those of the act of 1832, except theless, convinced, that it is warranted by the €89.), ing upon woollen clothis costing between 331 Constitution, and recommended by the soundest

cents, and 50.cents the square yard, and be policy. From the prevalence of these sentiments tween 60 cents and $1 the square yard, when among the majority, and the legislative encoura they are less in a very small degree; but upon ageident of them by high and stimulating pro. such as cost more than $1 the square yard, they tective duties, immense capitals have been inle are, considerably, higher. This difference in vested in numerous and complicated branches the rate of the duties is, by no means the prin- of human industry, which, it must be obvious, cipal benefit derived from the late act; for by ought not to be interfered with, excepting with the substitution of ad valorem for minimum tbe utmost caution, deliberation, and forbearduties, the manufacturers are deprived of what ance. Thus impressed with the importance, amounts almost to a monopoly, in the home the intricacy, and the delicacy of this subject, market, as to all wollen cloths, the prices of when the consideration of the tariff was brought which are between tbe minimum reductions. up,during the last session of Congress, my anticiThis fact was openly and repeatedly avowed pations of its improvement were limited to such in the House of Bepresentatives, during the alierations as would lighten some of its burthens, pendency of the bill, in the last session of

Con. obliterate some of its most obn xious enactments, gress, and it was owing to the abolition of the and manifest a temper and disposition indicative minimums upon woollens, that the leading ad- of still further amelioration. When the foun. vocates of the American System" were so hos-dations of the system should be thus uudermincile to the passage of the law. *

ed, the cheering prospect would be presented,

that Congress would gradually act upon the • Mr. ETERETT, of Vermont said, what in principles which ought never to be lost sight of substance, was repeated by several other mem--that domestic industry should only be incibers who advocated protection, than "he con- dentally protected by duties upon foreign imsidered that system (the minimums) as afford. portations. Although the tariff act of 1832 is, ing the most efficient protection, with the least in my opinoin, imperfect, although it still reburthen on the consumer. The operation of tains no small portion of its ancient defect, that system had been misrepresenteil. He bad although it still requires great and radical been surprised to hear gentlemen affirm that it improvements, yet it does appear to me that it levied duties of 100 and 150, and even of 225 makes such approaches to what it ought to be, per cent. A yard of cloth costing $1, pays us to render it worthy of acceptance, at 'this 45 cents, and a yard costing one dollar and one time, tu every patriotic and reflecting states. cent, it is true, if imported, would pay 1121 man, who seeks to obtain the recognition of the cents, which would be at the rate of 112 per principles of free trade, by temperate and praccent; so'a yard costing 50 cents; would pay ticable means. 22 cents, being at the rate of 90 per cent. But To what extent the duties and the revenue what was the fact? No cloths chargeable with will be reduced by the late tariff act, I have al

these high duties were imported. The importa- ready shown. Surely, a diminution in the pro: 'tons were confined to cloths valued at or a lit- tecting duties of $1,869,056, and in the aggre

tle under the minimums. The effect then, was gate of the revenue from the customs of $5,prohibition of the importation of most of the 187,078, is a relief, in the gross and in the de.

cloths between the minimums. Of those ex. tail. Surely a diminution in taxes, which recluded, the cloths of the intermediate values, the duces their nett receipts from $17,288,645 10 American munufacturer will have the whole mur. $12,101,567, is a general benefit. These ameket.”—(Extract from Mr. Everett's speech on liorations, combined with some concessions of the tariff bill delivered 18th June, 1832, as the south, and the repeal of the minimums upon published in the National Intelligencer. woollens, ought to be hailed, ith some satis

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