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econdition in which the south has been placed it was left to them by the southern members to

by its passage, yet it may perhaps not be say what was a fair revenue duty. Any scheme, Het is deemned inappropriate to this occasion, to offer therefore, by which the tariff was to be so ad

some additional, observations. My vote against justed as to keep up the duties on the pro. the new tariff was mainly influenced by a con-tected articles at 40 or 50 per cent., while the viction that it embraced not only a distinct re- duties on the unprotected articles were to be

cognition of the principle of protection, but that carried down to 5 or 10 per cent., or to be ento it carried out that principle in its most objec- tirely repealed, could not have received my rationable form, by making so broad and unwar- support, for besides that such an arrangement is rantable a discrimination between what are of the tariff obviously increased the inequality

called the PROTECTED and the UNPROTECTED and aggravated the injustice of which we had SOLARTICLES, as to show a fixed and settled pur- so long and so loudly complained, it was im

pose of relieving the latter entirely from taxa- possible not lo perceive that it was calculated tion, and throwing the whole burden of sup- to establish the protecting system on an im.

porting the Government upon the former: If moveable foundation. The extinction of the F Besi could have been satisfied that all the state. national debt was a most interesting crisis in

ments which have been made as to the aggre. our affairs, and one not likely to occur again. gate reduction of duties, were perfectly cor- The country was now to be relieved from a derect, I should, for this reason alone, have still mand upon its Treasury equal to $12,000,000 voted against the bill. From the moment the per annum, and if this was not to be followed American system became the subject of serious by a corresponding reduction of the duties on

dispute, the point on which the whole contro- the protected as well as the unprotected ar. heugen versy has turned, has been, whether duties not ticles, if by a new and uncalled for extension

necessary for revenue should be imposed mere of the appropriations, or by a total repeal of ly for the protection of domestic manufactures. the taxes on the unprotected articles, high du.

Against duties imposed for revenue, not one ties on the protected articles should be render. pepe word of objection has ever been arged. The ed necessary to meet the expenses of the Go

south did not complain that teas, and wines, vernment, it was perfectly obvious that no fur...? silks, and laces, spices, yelvets and jewellery, ther reduction on those articles could be rea

bo had duties imposed upon them to raise a revenue sonably expected, especially as the payment spain for the support of Government, and the pay-of the public debt had, by common consent, icelesment of the public debt, but that sugar and been looked to as the period when the policy 114 salt, woollens, cottons, iron, and other similar of the country, in reference to this great ques.

\" articles, had duties imposed upon them beyond tion, was to be permanently fixed and the ques. :69 the revenue standard, and for the avowed pur- tion settled for ever.

k pose of affordling prolection, as it was called, to Since my return home, I have seen it fretie ir the American manufacturer of similar articles. quently asserted in the public prints that the

It was because the cotton, rice, and tobacco of new bill must be regarded by us as the first step the south were exchanged in European markets towards further concessions on the part of the

for the very articles thus exorbitantly taxed, in manufacturers; a sort of “entering wedge,” by order to secure to our rivals an advantage in which the system is in the end to be split to is our own markets, that we protested against the pieces, and I am aware that it is on this ground

imposition of these protecting duties, as an act that it is supported by some, who profess an unof the grossest injustice towards us, rendering alterable determination not permanently to subin effect our industry tributary to the industry mit to the protective system. On this point, I of others. In this aspect of the question, it is can only say that the bill did not come to me manifest, that nothing short of the present or recommended by any vain expectations of that prospective abandonment of this system, by sort. No promises of further reductions, as far bringing down the protecting duties to the true as I know or believe, were held out by the revenue standard, could possibly satisfy the tariff party in Washington or elsewbere; nor just claims of the soutb. According to my do I remember ever to have heard a single supviews of this great question, it would have been porter of the system, in Congress, or out of it, utterly impossible for me to have given my utter one word to encourage the hope that, at support to any bill, which proposed to arrange any future day, however distant, the protecting the duties after the payment of the public debt, system was to be abandoned, or a further reas in effect to relieve the unprotecled articles duction made on the protected articles. From from taxation, while the duties on the protect the commencement of the discussion in the Se. ed articles were to remain substantially undi- nate, up to the debate on the final passage of minished. A careful examination of the condi- the bill, the language of Mr. Dickerson, Mr. tion of our finances had satisfiew me that duties Clay, and ile other supporters of the system. ranging from 125 10 15 per cent. would, under distinctly and uniformly was, that the protective

system of free trade, have been abundantly system was to be maintained uniinpaired; and sufficient, with the other sources of revenue, they supported the bill on its final passage, ex. to meet all the necessary expenses of Guvern-pressly on the ground that it amounted, in the ment. This indeed was admitted by the tariff emphatic language of Mr. Clay bimself, “To party themselves, on several occasions during a OLBAR, DISTINCT, AND INDISPUT ABLE ADMISthe last session of Congress, and especially in Sion of THE PRINCIPLE OF PROTECTION.” Let fixing the duty on indigo at 15 per cent, when these facts be taken in connexion with the fol

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And so on, with a pers, chamomile flow. which left not a shadow of doubt in my mind

great variety of other ers, coriander seed, as to the real sentiments of the tariff party, 2007. protected articles, such cantharides, castanas, or the principles intended to be embodied in

as Coal, Glass, Candles, catsup, chalk, coculus the new bill. The first was my amendment to

Cotton Bugging, &c. indicus, coral, dates, Mr. Clay's resolution, which I proposed to so y to all which the pro- filber:s, filteringstones, bring down the duties gradually to the revenue seperti per addition is to be frankincence, grapes, standard, adjusting them on the protected and

made for cash duties. gamboge, hemlock, unprotected articles on principles of perfect

diminished credits, and henbane, horn plates equality. My proposition was treated by the sent change in the poundster. for lanterns, ox horns, tariff party as a scheme to destroy the manu" 'ling.

other horns and tips, facturers, by pledging Congress to the ultimate The amount of the India rubber, ipecacu. abandonment of the protecting system, which kien importation on these. ana, ivory unmanufac- it was declared had become the settled poli

protected articles in tured, juniper berries, cy of the country. It was said that while an 1830 exceeded $29,-. musk nuts of all kinds, immediate reduction to the revenue standard

000,000, and the duties olives, oil of juniper, would be " sudden destruction to the manufacterke : under the new bill will paintings, & drawing's, iurers," a gradual reduction would be “a slow

probabl fall far rattans unmanufactur- poison" and my proposition was rejected. My short of $12,000,000. ed, reeds unmanufac. next motion was, to add to the clause of the

tured, rhubarb, rotten bill imposing a duty of 16 cents a yard upon stone, tamarinds, tor. Aannels, a Proviso that the duty should in no toise shell, &c. &c.&c. case exceed 50 per cent. I had in my possession all free.

documents derived from mercantile men, who To exhibit clearly the true character of this had long been engaged in the sale both of the bill, I will here state, that taking the whole im. foreign and domestic article, showing that flan. portation of the year 1830, ($58,130,629,) it nels of the description used by the great mass appears from Colonel Drayton's own statement, of the laboring people in both countries, could that $29,120,626 were of protected articles, be purchased in England at 8 cts. equal to 10 leaving for the unprotected and free articles or 12 cts. the square yard, making the propo$29,010,046-on which there will be levied, sed duty on coarse flannels used by the poor 160 under the new bill, a nett revenue (after deduct, per cent, while on the finest description of flaning drawbacks, 'adding the duties omitted, and nels used by the rich, the duty was bui 32 per the valuation of the pound sterling) on the pru- cent. Yet This proposition was rejected, on the lected articles of $10,224,595, and on the un- ground that a duty of 50 per cent was insuffiprotected and free articles of only $3,227,353. cient for the effectual protection of the AmerA statement, with which I have been furnished ican manufacturer of Hannels, while the disexhibiting this result, is hereto annexed.t crimination between the fine and the coarse

Putting out of view other clear indications of article was justified on the ground that it was the the spirit by which the late Congress was ani- coarse flannels which were chiefly manufactured mated in the arrangement of the tariff, there this country. I was unable to construe this were four distinct propositions made by myself vote in any other way than that the protecting in the Senate-all cordially and zealously sup- system was to be maintained inviolate, howeve ported by the southern members—the fate ofer- unjustly, unequally, and oppressively it ISTATEMENT.

might operate upon the comnunity; for surely

if there be any one article in the whole cata. Value of Duties as Am'nt of logue of our domestic and foreign productions imports 1 puodified duties aft, which the people at large, and especially the Sep.1830 July, 1832. ing draw- poor have a right to obtain, subject to the

smallest possible amount of taxation, it is an Whole importation

article like flannels, which is essential to the 58,130,675 15,126,959 Add omissions in duties


comfort, health and sufety of their families; an

article too, in relation to which, the manufactu15,451,948 13,451,948 rers had long enjoyed a complete monopoly,

and must have acquired skill from ample exProtected articles 29,120,629 10,962,716 perience. It is true that the duty on this arti

324,989 Add difference in pound

cle has been reduced from 22 to 16 cents, but sterling


on the coarse fannels this reduction is merely Unprotected articles 20,170,000 4,724,595, 95,595 and being actually prohibitory, and surely it

nominal, the duty still exceeding 100 per cent. Free articles


can make no difference whether prohibition be 58,130,675 15,451,948 13,451,948 effected by a duty of 50 or 200 per cent.

My *These consist of over-estimates of reductions on wool- lent device; the minimums on cottons, by which

next proposition was to strike out that fraudulens, cotton bagging, twist, yarn, hardware, &c.

Col. Draytou makes this amount greater, but this ari. an article costing 5 or 6 cents a yard, was to "Lies w which had been added the change in the pound and to pay duty accordingly. My colleague les from his having taken from the gross amount of du. " be deemed and taken to have cost 35 cents," stelling, the duties on the protected articles, without adding therefo the change in the pound sterling.

Mr. McDuffie had attempted the same thing in

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