« ForrigeFortsett »
denouncing him, and intended to give color, trust, requires no apology, and if it did, I have and effect to the intrigues by which Wm. B. too much self-respect to make it to any one in Lewis and Amos Kendall expect to perpetu- a case touching the discharge of my official ate power in their hands, through Martin conduct. I stand on very different ground. I Van Buren, must we follow Gen. Jackson in embrace the opportunity which your letter of his warfare upon Mr. Calhoun's character? fers, not for the purpose of making excuses,
Was not Mr. Calhoun a leading member of but as a suitablc occasion to place my conduct the party before General Jackson assailed his in relation to an interesting public transaction, character? He was. What right has General in its proper light; and I am gratified that Mr. Jackson, more than any other individual, to as Crawford, though far from intending me a kind. sail a leading member of the party? None, ness, has afforded me such an opportunity. Mr. Calhoun did not seck a quarrel with Gen. “In undertaking to place my conduct in its Jackson. It was General Jackson who quar- proper light, 1 deem it proper to premise that relled with Mr. Calhoun. Mr. Calhoun brought it is very far from my intention to defend mine no charge against General Jackson. It was by impeaching yours. Where we have differGeneral Jackson who charged Mr. Calhoun ed, I have no doubt that we differed honestly; with duplicity. It becomes then a matter of and in claiming to act on honorable and patriimportance to ascertain whether that charge otic motives myself, I cheerfully accord the was truly made.
same to you. V'e will now proceed to show, by the most “I know not that I correctly understood your indubitable proof, that the responsibility for a meaning, but, after a careful perusal, I would dissolution of the party rests on General Jack. infer from your letter that you had learned for son; and that neither Mr. Calhoun, nor one of the first time, by Mr.Crawford's letter, that you his friends, can vote for his re election, or the and I placed different constructions on the orelevation of Mr. Van Buren, without dishonor der under which you acted in the Seminole We have already proved, by the testimony of war; and that you had been led to believe preMajor Eaton, that the charge exhibited in Mr. viously, by my letters to yourself and Governor Crawford's letter to Mr. Balch, was untrue." Bibb, that I concurred with you in thinking Indeed that was abandoned when, in the fulness that your orders were intended to authorize of time, the conspiracy by which Gen. Jack your attack upon the Spanish posts in Florida. son's popularity was brought to bear on Mr. Under these impressions, you would seem to Calhoun, was matured. A new charge was then impute to me some degree of duplicity, or at embodied in the letters of Mr. Forsyth to Mr. least concealment, which required, on my part, Hamilton, and of Mr. Crawford to Mr. Forsyth, explanation. I hope that my conception of the origin and progress of which we have here- your meaning is erroneous, but if it be not, and tofore explained. In communicating Mr. your meaning be such as I suppose, I must be Crawford's letter to Mr. Calhoun, General permitted to express my surprise at the misap. Jackson says:
prehension, which, I feel confident, it will be “ My object in making this communication in my power to correct by the most decisive is to announce to you the great surprise which proof, drawn from the public documents, * and is feit, and to learn of you whether it be possi- the correspondere between Mr. Monroe and ble that the information given is correct; whe- yourself, growing out of the decision of the ther it can be, under all the circumstances of cabinet on the Seminole affair, which passed which you and I are both informed, that any at- through my hands at the time, and which I now tempt seriously to affect me was moved and have his permission to use, as explanatory of sustained by you in the cabinet council, when, my opinion as well as his, and the other memas is known to you, I was but executing the bers of his administration. To save you the wishes of the Government, and clothed with trouble of turning to the file of your corresponthe authority to conduct the war in the man- dence, I have enclosed extracts from the letner I might judge best.' "
ters, which clearly prove that the decision of We cannot better explain this question be the cabinet on the point that your orders did tween them, than by copying part of Mr. Cal- not authorize the occupation of St. Mrrks and houn's reply, duted
Pensacola, was early and fully made known to “ WASIIINGTON, 29th May, 1830. you, and that I, in particular, concurred in the “Sir: In answering your letter of the 13th decision. inst., I wish to be distinctiy understood, that Mr. Monroe's letter of the 19th July, 1818, however high my respect is for your personal the first of the series, and written immediately character, and the exalted station which you after the decision of the cabinet, and from occupy, 1 cannot recognize the right on your which I have given a copious extract, enters part to call in question my conduct on the in- fully into the views taken by the Executive of teresting occasion to which your letter refers. the whole subject. In your reply of the 19th I acted, on that occasion, in the discharge of a of August, 1818, you object to the construction high oficial duty, and under responsibility to which the administration had placed on your my conscience and my country only: In replying then to your letter, I do not place myself * See appendix from A to F inclusive, being in the attitude of apologizing for the part I may an extract from a private correspondence be. have acted, or of palliating my conduct on the tween Mir. Monroe and General Jackson in the accusation of Mr. Crawford. My course, 1 Seminole campaign.
orders, and you assign your reasons at large, you long since knew that the administration, why you conceived that the orders under which and myself in particular, were of the opinica you acted authorized your operations in Flori- that the orders under which you acted, did na da. Mr. Monroe replied on the 20th of Octo-authorize you to occupy the Spanish posts
; but bre, 1818, and, after expressing his regret that I now infer, from your letter to which this is in you had placed a construction on your orders answer, that such conclusion was erroneous, different from what was intended, he invited and that you were of the impression till you yru to open a correspondence with me, that received Mr. Crawford's letter, that I concur your conception of the meaning of your orders, red in the opposite construction, which you Sad that of the administration, might be placed, gave to your orders
, that they were intended with the reasons on both sides, on the files of to authorize you to occupy the posts. You rethe War Department. Your letter of the 15th ly for this impression, as I understand you, an of November, in answer, agrees to the corres-certain general expressions in my letter to pondence as proposed, but declines commenc- Governor Bibb, of Alabama, of the 13th of May, ing it, to which Mr. Monroe replied by a letter 1818, in which I state that "General Jackson of the 21st of December, stating his reasons for is vested with full powers to conduct the war suggesting the correspondence, and why he in the manner he shall judge best," and also thought it ought to commence with you. To in my letter of the 8th February
, in althese, I have added an extract from your letter swer to yours of the 20th of January of the of the 7th December, approving Mr. Monroe's same year, in which I acquainted you with message at the opening of Congress, which the entire approbation of the President of all though not constituting a part of the correspon- the measures you had adopted to terminate the dence from which I have extracted so copious- rupture with the Seminole Indians." ly, is intimately connected with the subject un "I will not reason the point
, that the letter der consideration.
to Gov. Bibb, which was not communicated to “But it was not by private correspondence, you, which bears date long after you had occuonly, that the view which the Executive took of pied St. Marks, and subsequent to the time your orders was made kňown. In his message you had determined to occupy Pensacola
, (see to the House of Representatives of the 25th of your letter of June 20, 1818
, to me, published March, 1818, long before information of the re- with the Seminole document,) could give you sult of your operation in Florida was received, authority to occupy those posts
. I know that, Mr. Monroe states, that orders had been in quoting the letters, you could not intend given to the General in command not to enter such absurdity to authorize such an inference: Florida, unless it be in pursuit of the enemy, and I must therefore conclude that it was your and, in that case, to respect the Spanish authori- intention by the extract to show that, at the ty, wherever it may be maintained; and he will time of writing the letter
, it was my opinion be instructed to withdraw his forces from the that the orders under which you did act, were Province, and as soon as he has reduced that intended to authorize the accupation of the tribe (the Seminoles) to order, and secured our Spanish posts. Nothing could have been more fellow citizens in that quarter, by satisfactory remote from my intention in writing the letter. arrangements against its utprovoked and sa- It would have been in opposition to the view vage hostilities in future.' In his annual mes- which I have always taken of your orders, and sage at the opening of Congress in November of in direct contradiction to the President's mes the same year, the President, speaking of your sage of the 25th March, 1818, communicated entering Florida, says, 'on authorizing Major but a few weeks before to the House of Re General Jackson to enter Florida in pursuit of presentatives, (already referred to, and which the Seminoles, care was taken not to encroach gives a directly opposite construction to your on the rights of Spain.' Again: 'In entering orders. In fact, the letter, on its face, prores Florida to suppress this combination, no idea that it was not the intention of the Gorem was entertained of hostility to Spain, and, how- ment to occupy the Spanish posts. By refer ever justifiable the commanding General was, ring to it, you will see that I enclosed to the in consequence of the misconduct of the Spa- Governor a copy of my orders to freterai nish officers, in entering St. Marks and Pensa- Gaines, of the 16th December, 1817, arthoriz. cola to terminate it, by proving to the savages, ing him to cross the Spanish line, and to stack and their associates , that they could not be pro- the Indians within the limits of Florida
, uniess tected, even there, yet the amicable rclations they should take shelter under a Spanish post
, between the United States and Spain could not in which event, he was directed to report imbe altered by that act alone. By ordering the mediately to the Departinent
, which order Corestitution of those posts, those relations were vernor Bibb was directed to consider as his *** preserved. To a change of them the power of thority for carrying the war into Fiorica, thus the Executive is deemed incompetent. It is clearly establishing the fact that the order way vested in Congress alone. The view taken of considered still in force, and not supersede! this subject met your entire approbation, as ap- by that to you, directing you to assime the pears from the extract of your letter, of 7th De, command in the Seminole war. cember, 1818, above referred to.
“Nor can my letter of the 6th February be, After such full and decisive proof, as it by any sound rule of construction, interpreted seems to me, of the views of the Executive, I into an authority to occupy the Spanish posts
, had a right, as I supposed, to conclude that for as countenancing, on my part, such as IB
terpretation of the orders previously given to gave to the orders be not stated with sufficient
shall be prepared on my part to maintain the ty to you; and if you were not afraid to place truth of the one, and frankness, honor, and pa- your construction on your orders, why should I triotism of the other, throughout this whole be afraid to place mine? It was an affair o transaction.
mere offcial duty, involving no question of pri" That you honestly thought that your or vate enmity or friendship, and I so treated it
. ders authorized you to do what you did, I have " In conclusion, I must remark, that I had never questioned; but that you can show by supposed that the want of sincerity and frank
. any document, public or private, that they ness would be the last charge that would be were intended to give you the authority which brought against me. Coming from a quarter you assumed, or that any such construction from which I had reason to expect far diferent was placed on then, at any time, by the ad- treatment, and destitute, as I know it to be, ef ministration, or myself in particular, I believe the slightest foundation, it could not fail to esto be impossible.
cite feelings too warm to be expressed with a “ You remark that my letter of the 29th inst. due regard to the official relation which I bear is the first intimation you had that I had taken to you." a different view from yourself of your orders. It will be seen by Mr. Calhoun's reply, that That you should conceive that you had no inti- Major Lee, who was at that time at the Her mation before, is to me unaccountable. I had mitage, and had possession of Mr. Maroe's supposed that the invitation of Mr. Monroe in letter of the 8th of September, 1818, tot. his letter to you of the 20th October, 1818, Calhoun, and which had been stolen from the with the intention that the different views tak- latter, addressed a letter to Mr Calhoun, wish. en by you and myself of the orders should be ing to draw from him, at that cme, the views placed on the files of the Department, and my entertained by Mr. Calhoun relative to these letter to you of the 13th April, 1828, covering orders, and that Mr. Calhoun enclosed his rea copy of my letter to Major Lee, in which i ply to Gen. Jackson. Now this letter brought refer to the public documents, and private cor- the question of the construction of his orderi
, respondence between you and Mr. Monroe, as so directly before him, and the letter of Mr. containing the views taken of your orders, and Monroe to Mr. Calhoun, and the private core the offer which I made to present my views respondence between Mr. Mourse and Gen. more fully, if not given sufficiently explicit in Jackson, is so explicit in declaring that Mr. Cal
. the documents referred to, were at least an in-houn concurred with Mr. Morroe in the opintimation that we differed in the construction of ion that Gen. Jackson had transcended his or the orders; and I feel assured that neither "omy ders, that it is impossible to believe that conduct, words, actions, or letters,” afford the Mr. Calhoun's letter, of the 29th of May, wag slightest proof to the contrary.
the first intimation that Gen. Jackson erer * The charge which you have made against had of Mr. Calhoun's construction of his orders
. me, of secret hostility and opposition, which, Yet upon this basis does Gen. Jackson rest if true, would so vitally affect my character for his change of DECEPTION against Mr. Cal sincerity and honor, and which has caused a houn, and upon such premises does he place rupture in our long continued friendship, has his warfare upon Mr. Calhoun! for says, he, no other foundation but that of a difference be understanding you now,no further communicatween us in the construction of your orders-- tion with you on this subject is necessary."
. orders issued by myself, the intention of which We have given in an appendix the pricate 1, of course, could not mistake, whatever may correspondence between Gen. Jackson and be their true construction in a military point of Mr. Monroe on this subject, which puts this view, and the right and duty of interpreting question beyond controversy And it is which belonged especially to me, as the head strange indeed to suppose that he could be so of the War Department. The mere statement infatuated as to believe that he could wage of these facts must give rise to a train of re-la successful warfare on Mr. Calhoun under Aections, the expression of which I cannot sup- such circumstances. press.
It is apparent that the reason assigned by * Your course, as I understand it, assumes Gen. Jackson is not the true reason for his cofor its basis that I, who, as Secretary of War, duct. He had been persuaded by Mr. Fan issued the orders, have some motive to conceal Buren, and Lewis & Co. that Mr. Calhoun my construction of them, as if I had no right to would be an opposing candidate for the Preform an opinion whether the officers to whom sidency, and the extraordinary they were given had transcended them or not, had attended the intrigues by which he came while the officer was at perfect liberty to ex-into office, induced bim to believe that any press and maintain his construction. My right, charge made upon the authority of his name as Secretary of War, was at least as perfect as would be sustained by his party, yours, as commanding officer, to judge of the Gen. Jackson is of a peculiar temperament. true intent and limits of your orders, and I had No man is more emphatic in pruse of truth, no more motive to conceal my construction of frankness, and honor; no one has been so sicthem than you had to conceal yours. The idea cessful in use of the terms, and his succes, we of concealment never entered my conception, are induced to believe, has made him credulow. and to suppose it, is to suppose that I was utter. It was necessary for Mr. Van Buren, Lewis, & ly unworthy of the office which I occupied. Co. to renew his power to perpetuate their's Why should I conceal? I owed no responsibili- and having convinced him that the destruction
of Mr. Calhoun was a prerequisite, they fixed the purpose of driving Mr. Calhoun into oppoupon the charge of deception and duplicity, sition? General Jackson was now in power; he as the excuse for a predetermined rupture; we was surrounded with flatterers, and armed with say predetermined, because, unless General the patronage of the Government. He could Jackson had been most strangely predisposed now, as he believed, do without Mr. Calhoun's to quarrel with Mr. Calhoun, the conciliatory, aid, and, therefore, lent a willing ear to the slanbut firm and dignified response of that gentle- ders which dug an impassable gulf between man, would have removed all suspicion from him! Why so? Mr. Calhoun stood in the way of his mind.
his favorite!! But we have now conclusive proof that the If that assigned had been the real, and not a correspondence with Mr. Calhoun, was but a pretended cause of difference, would not Gen. mere pretence for a predetermined rupture in Jackson, upon the receipt of General Lacock's the subsequent conduct of Gen. Jackson hiin- letter, have addressed Mr. Calhoun, saying, “I self. So far from his being satisfied with the supposed that you were my enemy on one of facts brought out in the correspondence, he has the most important occurrences of my life. I been secretly engaged in preparing materials to find you were my friend. I have done you inbe hereafier used to destroy the characters of justice in supposing that you acted with dupliMr. Monroe and of Mr. Calhoun, his greatest plicity towards me, and I hasten to withdraw benefactors; and although every effort has whatever I have said that was offensive to youk" produced new and unqualified proofs that Such would have been the course of an elehis suspicions of Mr. Calhoun's insincerity vated, honorable mind, left free to act; but were unfounded, and his charge of “deception" such was not General Jackson's condition. He undeserved, he yet permits the injustice which had resolved to appoint Martin Van Buren his he has done that distinguished patriot to remain successor, and he had been taught to believe unrecalled and unatoned for.
that the ruin of John C. Calhoun's character And, we again assert, that the reasons set was a necessary prerequisite. He was under forth in the correspondence was but the pre- the control of William B. Lewis, Amos Kentext for the quarrel with Mr. Callioun, and we dall, & Co. and they saw in a reconciliation benow proceed to put that matter beyond dis- tween General Jackson and Mr. Calhoun a pute.
death blow to all their intrigues. Lewis's
FREEDOM, Beaver County, Penn.,
June 25th, 1832.
President United States:
SIR: Some days since, through the medium of boun, who, after hearing the views presented a number of interrogatories, that I am requested
a mutual friend, I received your letter enclosing by Mr. Monroe in the cabinet, had agreed to sustain General Jackson in what he had done, the course pursued by John C. Calhoun, Vice
to answer, in relation to the knowledge I have of had been guilty of duplicity in stimulating President United States, and his conduct towards General Lacock and others to assail him in Congress
. We are enabled to lay a copy of you in regard to your conduct in the Seminole General Lacock's reply before our readers. It Mr. Calhoun, in which he states that you had
war. By the same mail I received a line from not only vindicates Mr. Calhoun from the charge furnished bim with a copy of the interrogatories, of hostility to General Jackson, but proves and that he had declined putting any questions to that he was what he appeared to be, the warm and zealous friend; it also proves that it was
me, or what he terms "joining issue,” but had Mr. Forsyth, and not Mr. Calhoun, who was tions you should put, requesting, however, as &
no objection I should answer whatever questhe active assailant. Mr. Forsyth was then, as he is now, the bitter enemy of Mr. Calhoun,
matter of justice, to be furnished with a copy of and the warm personal friend of William H. my answers; to a compliance with this request, Crawford. Yet General Jackson, with these
I could see no valid objection, and have furnished proofs of Mr. Calhoun's friendship, and of their him with a copy accordingly. hostility, hugs them to his bosom as his confi- Interrogatories put by Andrew Jackson, President dential advisers, and denounces him. What of the United Stales, to Abner Lacock, of Pennstronger proof could be adduced to show that sylvania: the charge of duplicity was made expressly for 1st. “Did Mr. John C. Calhoun