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year, where I saw with a great deal of pleasure archbishop Tillotson, bishop Saunderson, Dr. Barrow, Dr. Calamy, with several living authors who have published discourses of practical divinity n. I no sooner saw this venerable man in the pulpit, but I very

much approved of my friend's insisting upon the qualifications of a good aspect and a clear voice; for I was so charmed with the gracefulness of his figure and delivery, as well as with the discourses he pronounced, that I think I never passed any time more to my

satisfaction. A sermon repeated after this manner, is like the 10 composition of a poet in the mouth of a graceful actor.

I could heartily wish that more of our country clergy would follow this example; and instead of wasting their spirits in laborious compositions of their own, would endeavour after a handsome elocution, and all those other talents that are proper to enforce what has been penned by greater masters. This would not only be more easy to themselves, but more edifying to the people.-L.

[Steele seems to have had a strong liking for the character of Sir Roger, and not to have been willing to resign it to the sole handling of 20 Addison. At this part of the Spectator there are three papers from his

pen on this attractive subject. In No. 107, the kindness which marked the knight's intercourse with his servants and tenants is described; he is painted as a sort of elderly Sir Charles Grandison. In No. 109, he takes the Spectator along the line of his family pictures, and descants upon them ; this paper is a little dull. In No. 113, he confides to his guest his hopeless passion for a certain beautiful Widow, whom he had first seen some three and thirty years before, and who, without absolutely rejecting his suit, had tantalized and led him captive ever since, a willing thrall to her incomparable charms.]

No. 108. Sir Roger in the country; Will Wimble.

Gratis anhelans multa agendo nihil agens.

PHÆDR. Fab. 5. 1. 2.

30 As I was yesterday morning walking with Sir Roger before his

house, a country fellow brought him a huge fish, which, he told him Mr. Will Wimblen had caught that morning; and that he presented it with his service to him, and intended to come and dine with him. At the same time he delivered a letter, which my friend read to me as soon as the messenger left him.


'I desire you to accept of a jack, which is the best I have caught this season. I intend to come and stay with you a week, and see how the perch bite in the Black River. I observed with some concern, the last time I saw you upon the bowling-green, that your whip wanted a lash to it; I will bring half a dozen with me that I twisted last week, which I hope will serve you all the time you are in the country. I have not been out of the

saddle for six days past, having been at Eaton with Sir John's 10 eldest son. He takes to his learning hugely.

I am, Sir,
Your humble servant,


This extraordinary letter, and message that accompanied it, made me very curious to know the character and quality of the gentleman who sent them; which I found to be as follows. Will Wimble is younger brother to a baronet, and descended of the ancient family of the Wimbles. He is now between forty and

fifty: but being bred to no business, and born to no estate, he 20 generally lives with his elder brother as superintendent of his

game. He hunts a pack of dogs better than any man in the country, and is very famous for finding out a hare. He is extremely well versed in all the little handicrafts of an idle man: he makes a May-fly to a miracle; and furnishes the whole country with angle rods. As he is a good-natured officious fellow, and very much esteemed upon account of his family, he is a welcome guest at every house, and keeps up a good correspondence among all the gentlemen about him. He carries a tulip-root in his

pocket from one to another, or exchanges a puppy between a 30 couple of friends that live perhaps in the opposite sides of the county. Will is a

particular favourite of all the young heirs, whom he frequently obliges with a net that he has weaved, or a setting dog that he has made himself. He now and then presents a pair of garters of his own knitting to their mothers or sisters; and raises a great deal of mirth among them, by as often as he meets them, how they wear ?

These manufactures and obliging little humours make darling

of the country.
proceeding in the character of him, when we

inquiring gentleman-like Will the

Sir Roger


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saw him make up to us with two or three hazel twigs in his hand that he had cut in Sir Roger's woods, as he came through them in his way to the house. I was very much pleased to observe, on one side the hearty and sincere welcome with which Sir Roger received him, and on the other the secret joy which his guest discovered at sight of the good old knight. After the first salutes were over, Will desired Sir Roger to lend him one of his servants to carry a set of shuttle-cocks he had with him in

a little box to a lady that lived about a mile off, to whom it 10 seems he had promised such a present for above this half year.

Sir Roger's back was no sooner turned but honest Will began to tell me of a large cock-pheasant that he had sprung in one of the neighbouring woods, with two or three other adventures of the same nature. Odd and uncommon characters are the game that I look for, and most delight in; for which reason I was as much pleased with the novelty of the person that talked with me, as he could be for his life with the springing of a pheasant, and therefore listened to him with more than ordinary attention.

In the midst of his discourse the bell rung to dinner, where 20 the gentleman I have been speaking of had the pleasure of seeing

the huge jack he had caught, served up for the first dish in a most sumptuous manner. Upon our sitting down to it, he gave us a long account how he had hooked it, played with it, foiled it n, and at length drew it out upon the bank, with several other particulars that lasted all the first course. A dish of wild fowl that came afterwards furnished conversation for the rest of the dinner, which concluded with a late invention of Wills for improving the quail-pipe.

Upon withdrawing into my room after dinner, I was secretly 30 touched with compassion towards the honest gentleman that had

dined with us; and could not but consider with a great deal of concern, how so good an heart and such busy hands were

wholly employed in trifles; that so much humanity should be so little beneficial to others, and so much industry so little advantageous to himself. The same temper of mind and application to affairs might have recommended him to the public esteem, and might have raised his fortune in another station of life.

What good to his country or himseif might not a trader or a merchant have done with such useful though ordinary qualifications!

Will Wimble's is the case of many a younger brother of a


great family, who had rather see their children starve like gentlemen, than thrive in a trade or profession that is beneath their quality. This humour fills several parts of Europe with pride and beggary. It is the happiness of a trading nation like ours, that the younger sons, though incapable of any liberal art or profession, may be placed in such a way of life as may perhaps enable them to vie with the best of their family: accordingly we find several citizens that were launched into the world with

narrow fortunes, rising by honest industry to greater estates than 10 those of their elder brothers. It is not improbable but Will was

formerly tried at divinity, law, or physic; and that, finding his genius did not lie that way, his parents at length gave him


to his own inventions. But certainly, however improper he might have been for studies of a higher nature, he was perfectly well turned for the occupations of trade and commerce. As I think this is a point which cannot be too much inculcated, I shall desire my reader to compare what I have here written with what I have said in my twenty-first * speculation.-L.

No. 110. Sir Roger in the country; the Abbey Walk; a discussion
on apparitions.
Horror ubique animos, simul ipsa silentia terrent.

VIRG. Æn, ii. 755.
All things are full of horror and affright,

And dreadful ev'n the silence of the night. DRYDEN. At a little distance from Sir Roger's house, among the ruins 20 of an old abbey, there is a long walk of aged elms; which are

shot up so very high, that when one passes under them, the rooks and crows that rest upon the tops of them, seem to be cawing in another region. I am very much delighted with this sort of noise, which I consider as a kind of natural prayer to that Being who supplies the wants of his whole creation, and who, in the beautiful language of the Psalms, feedeth the young ravens that call upon him. I like this retirement the better, because of an ill report it lies under of being haunted; for which reason, as I have

been told in the family, no living creature ever walks in it besides 30 the chaplain. My good friend the butler desired me, with a very

* See below, § On Manners.

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grave face, not to venture myself in it after sunset, for that one of the footmen had been almost frighted out of his wits by a spirit that appeared to him in the shape of a black horse without an head; to which he added, that about a month ago, one of the maids coming home late that way, with a pail of milk upon her head, heard such a rustling among the bushes, that she let it fall.

I was taking a walk in this place last night between the hours of nine and ten, and could not but fancy it one of the most 10 proper scenes in the world for a ghost to appear in. The ruins

of the abbey are scattered up and down on every side, and half covered with ivy and elder bushes, the harbours of several solitary birds, which seldom make their appearance till the dusk of the evening. The place was formerly a churchyard, and has still several marks in it of graves and burying-places. There is such an echo among the old ruins and vaults, that if you stamp but a little louder than ordinary, you hear the sound repeated. At the same time the walk of elms, with the croaking of the

ravens, which from time to time are heard from the tops of them, 20 looks exceeding solemn and venerable. These objects naturally

raise seriousness and attention; and when night heightens the awfulness of the place, and pours out her supernumerary horrors upon every thing in it, I do not at all wonder that weak minds fill it with spectres and apparitions.

Mr. Locke, in his chapter of the association of ideas », has very curious remarks, to shew how, by the prejudice of education, one idea often introduces into the mind a whole set that bear no resemblance to one another in the nature of things. Among

several examples of this kind, he produces the following instance. 30 The ideas of goblins and sprights have really no more to do with

darkness than light; yet let but a foolish maid inculcate these often on the mind of a child, and raise them there together, possibly he shall never be able to separate them again so long as he lives; but darkness shall ever afterwards bring with it those frightful ideas, and they shall be so joined, that he can no more bear the one than the other.

As I was walking in this solitude, where the dusk of the evening conspired with so many other occasions of terror, I

observed a cow grazing not far from me, which an imagination 40 that was apt to startle might easily have construed into a

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