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SOUTH DAKOTA.

Control.The State board of charities and corrections, appointed by the governor, has direction, government, and inspection of the penitentiary, and appoints a warden who is charged with the employment of convicts, the leasing of their labor, etc.

County jails are in the care of the sheriffs, who are charged with the duty of providing tools, etc., for the employment of the prisoners.

Systems of employment.-The contract and public-works-and-ways systems are authorized; also, apparently, the public-account and State-use systems.

Regulations.--Contracts are limited to terms of five years. Stone quarrying and farming may be carried on under the direction of the warden.

Punishment may be inflicted by solitary confinement on a diet of bread and water.

The manufacture of shirts, overalls, and twine is mentioned.

Discharged convicts receive clothing, transportation to their homes, and a sum of money not exceeding $5.

(County convicts may be employed on streets and highways and may be restrained by the use of the ball and chain. Those held for unpaid fines are allowed $2 for each day's work.

Goods.-The price of twine is fixed annually by the warden and board of charities and corrections, the governor, and State auditor. The twine is to be sold only to consumers actually resident in the State. Special provision is made for the disposal of the surplus stock each year.

Sources: Code of Criminal Procedure of 1903, sections 645 to 694, 745, 749; Acts of 1905, chapter 172.

TENNESSEE.

Control.A board of three directors appointed by the governor has control of the penitentiary, makes rules for the government and employment of convicts, and must visit the penitentiary at least monthly.

Sheriffs have charge of the county jails, which may be declared workhouses.

Systems of employment.--The lease, contract, public-account, State-use, and public-works-and-ways systems are authorized.

Regulations.-No contract may extend beyond March 1, 1909, and not more than ninety-nine convicts may be let to any one contractor or employed in any one industry.

Competition with free labor is to be the least possible, but efforts must be made to procure a diversity of industries.

Convicts must be at all times under the control and supervision of the State. No female may be let or hired out for any service outside the penitentiary.

The hours of labor are ten per day, Sundays excepted.

Discharged State convicts receive from $1 to $5 in the discretion of the prison commissioners.

County convicts employed on highways work eight hours per day. Those held for nonpayment of fines are allowed $1 each for such labor.

Goods.-Coal and coke from the State mines must be supplied to all institutions of the State at cost. Except such supplies, the entire output of the mines may be sold under contract for a term not exceeding six years, on such terms as will procure fair and just returns to the State; or a contract may be made for coking the same. In general, the sale of goods is at the discretion of the board of prison commissioners.

Sources: Code of 1896, sections 1612, 7375, 7159, 7469, 7472, 7474, 7512; Supplement of 1904, pages 2:01, S6, S7+, 870; Acts of 1.905, chapter 486.

TEXAS.

Control.-- Three commissioners appointed by the governor form a board which has general control of the penitentiary and of the land, buildings, machinery, etr., in connection therewith. Separate inspectors are appointed to visit places of detention outside the penitentiary.

('ounty farms and workhouses are under the control of county commissioners.

Systems of employment.-The lease, contract, public-account, and publicworks-and-ways systems are authorized.

Regulations.-State convicts are to be bired out under contracts only when they can not be profitably employed on public account, and must never pass from under the control of the State officials.

The State maintains cotton and jute factories, iron smelting works, and one or more farms.

There must be no labor on Sunday, except such as is absolutely necessary.

Punishment may be by confinement in a dark cell, restriction of diet to bread and water, fetters, and, in extreme cases, whipping.

Discharged convicts receive each a suit of clothing, $5 in money, and transportation to the county of conviction or a place not more distant.

County convicts committed for nonpayment of fines and costs may be employed on the public highways, or they may be leased for employment within the county, no lease to be for a longer term than one year.

Those working on the highways are allowed a credit of 50 cents for each day's labor, and those leased are allowed 25 cents for each day of the lease, Sunday's included. Not less than eight nor more than ten hours' labor may be required daily except on Sundays.

No female may be required to render any manual service outside the workhouse.

Sources: Constitution; Revised Civil Statutes of 1895, articles 3653 to 3677, 3711 to 3749, 1777 ; Acts of 1903, chapter 34.

UTAH.

Control.-The governor appoints four members of a board of corrections, of which he is ex officio a member, which has charge of the penitentiary and prorides for the employment of its inmates.

Boards of county commissioners are charged with the employment of county convicts.

Systems of employment.-All contracts for the labor of convicts are prohibited. The public-account, State-use, and public-works-and-ways systems are directed.

Regulations.—Competition with free labor is to be avoided as much as possible. Employment in manufacturing, the construction and repair of buildings and walls on the prison premises, and the construction of irrigation works on State lands are mentioned; also the manufacture of clothing and equipage for the State National Guard.

Prisoners are to be classified and employments graded accordingly. Every sentence is to hard labor whether so stated or not.

They may receive 10 per cent of their net earnings, if single, which must be paid them on discharge; if married and having dependent families within the State, they receive 25 per cent, to be delivered to such families.

Eight hours' labor is required daily except Sundays and holidays.
Punishment by the use of the cold shower or lash is prohibited.

Discharged convicts may receive clothing not exceeding $10 in value, and $10 in money.

County convicts may be employed under suitable superintendence on the streets and highways.

Goods.The warden sells the products not required for State use for the benefit of the State.

Source: Compiled Laws of 1907, sections 511, 1477, 2219 to 2289, 4930.

VERMONT.

Control.- A board of three persons appointed by the governor constitutes the board of penal institutions and has charge of the State prison, house of correction, and the industrial school and makes contracts or otherwise provides for the employment of persons sentenced thereto. The employment of county convicts is in the hands of prison boards consisting of the assistant judges, the sheriff, and the supervisor of highways of each county.

No provisions appear relative to the employment of county convicts.

Systems of employment.The contract, public-account, and public-works-andways systems are authorized.

Regulations.-No contract may be made for a longer term than five years. Every sentence to the State prison is for hard labor.

No more than ten State prisoners may be employed outside the walls of each institution at one time.

Convicts sentenced to the house of correction receive, on discharge therefrom, transportation to their homes.

County convicts may be employed within or without the walls of the jail.

Source: Public Statutes of 1906, sections 2364, 5988, 5995 to 5998, 6015, 6104, 6105.

VIRGINIA.

Control.--A board of five directors appointed by the governor makes rules for the government of the penitentiary and the employment of convicts, and must inspect. the penitentiary quarterly.

City councils or county boards of supervisors or judges of circuit or corporation courts may establish chain gangs for working on streets, roads, and public property.

Systems of cmployment.-The lease, contract, public-account, and publicworks-and-ways systems may be used.

Regulations.-Convicts whose terms do not exceed five years may be furnished on the requisition of boards of county supervisors for work on county roads; or they may be employed by contractors engaged in macadamizing any turnpike or other road. Railroad companies to which counties are subscribers may also lea se convicts for labor on such railroads. But contractors are in general to employ the labor of convicts as far as possible in manufacturing.

Convicts not otherwise employed may be put at labor on a farm owned or leased by the State. A number may also be employed on the public buildings and grounds and on State Confederate cemeteries.

City and county convicts may also be assigned to work on the State convict road force.

The tasking system is provided for, and convicts are to be allowed pay for overtime labor. Instruction in the mechanic arts is directed.

Prescribed punishments are whipping, the gag, solitary confinement, and restricted diet.

Discharged convicts receive each a suit of clothing and $10.

Sources: Code of 1904, sections 232, 944a, 3932, 4125 to 4147, 4154, 4172, 4173; Acts of 1906, chapters 58, 74.

WASHINGTON.

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Control.-The governor appoints a State board of audit and control, of which he is ex officio chairman, which makes rules for the government of the penitentiary, authorizes the employment of the convicts, and makes monthly inspections.

The sheriff has the custody of county convicts, their employment being within the direction of the county commissioners.

Systems of employment.--The labor of convicts must not be let out by contract. The public-account, State-use, and public-works-and-ways systems are authorized.

Regulations.—Yo article may be manufactured for sale at the State penitentiary except jute fabrics and bricks, but convicts may be employed at any point in the State at preparing stone for use on streets and highways.

Discharged convicts receive $5 if needed, a suit of clothing, and transportation to the place of sentence or other place not more remote.

County convicts may be employed on roads, streets, or about public buildings. They may be confined by a ball and chain while at work. Eight hours constitute a day's labor.

Goods.-Sales of jute fabrics and bricks must be to consumers, residents of the State, at private sale and for cash only, the price to be not less than the actual cost of production. Grain sacks may be sold only to farmers of the State who are actually engaged in growing grain, at a price fixed by the board of control.

Prepa red rock must be disposed of in such manner and for such price as will be most advantageous to the State.

Sources: Constitution ; Codes and Statutes of 1897, sections 348, 2622 to 2624, 2734 to 2787; Acts of 1903, chapter 139 ; Acts of 1907, chapters 39, 93, 135.

WEST VIRGINIA.

Control.-The governor appoints a board of five commissioners which has general control of the penitentiary and of the manufacturing operations carried on therein.

The county and city authorities may jointly erect workbouses to be managed and controlled by joint boards of directors.

The sheriff is keeper of the county jail, but the employment of misdemeanants held for unpaid fines rests with the county court.

Systems of employment.-As many convicts as possible are to be employed on contracts. Those not so employed may be employed under the piece-price, public-account, or State-use systems; or they may be temporarily hired out.

County misdemeanants may be employed on public works and ways.

Regulations.-Nine hours are to be a day's labor, to be performed daily except on Sundays and national holidays.

Overtime pay is mentioned, without stating how it may be earned. County misdemeanants held for unpaid fines are allowed $1 for each day's labor on streets or highways.

Source: Code of 1899, chapters 36, 41; chapter 163, as amended by chapter 45, Acts of 1903.

WISCONSIN.

Control.—The governor appoints a board of control of five members, one of whom must be a woman, which has charge of penal, reformatory, and charitable institutions within the State. This board provides for the government of the penitentiary, has charge of the employment of the convicts, and makes monthly visits of inspection.

County jails and workhouses are under the inspection of the board of control, but their maintenance and the employment of their inmates is charged upon the county boards.

Systems of employment.—Employment may be under the contract, publicaccount, or State-use systems,

Regulations.—Contracts are limited to terms not exceeding five years.

The officers of State institutions are directed to procure from the penitentiary, furniture and such other supplies for use in their respective institutions as are obtainable, and the prison officials are directed to cause the same to be made on requisition therefor. Employment at farming and quarrying stone and the manufacture of binding twine are also mentioned.

No labor is to be performed on any legal holiday.

No corporal or other painful and unusual punishment may be inflicted for violation of prison rules.

Convicts receive on discharge an allowance of $5 each and a suit of clothes. Deserving convicts may also have part of their earnings.

County convicts are employed for the benefit of the county, either within or without the county jail or workhouse, and labor ten hours per day, Sundays excepted.

Goods.-All convict-made goods brought into the State for sale must be distinctly marked or branded as such. The binding twine must be sold to actual consumers at a price fixed annually by the board of control. Special provision is made for the disposal of the surplus stock on hand each year.

Sources: Statutes of 1898, sections 561a to 564, 608, 6976, 6970, 6979, 4726, 4727, 4918 to 4942, 4960a ; Supplement, 1906, section 561a ; Acts of 1907, sections 1918-1 to 4918–10.

WYOMING.

Control.—The governor, secretary of state, treasurer, auditor, and superintendent of public instruction constitute a board of charities and reform which has the general superintendence of all penal and reformatory institutions in the State, including county jails, and provides for the employment of convicts in the State penitentiary.

County convicts labor under the direction of the sheriff as provided for by the chairman of the county board.

Systems of employment.--The contract and piece-price systems are prohibited; also employment of State convicts on any public work outside the place of confinement. The public-account system may be used, and convicts may be employed to complete or repair the premises in which they are confined.

County convicts may be employed on public works and ways, or otherwise for the benefit of the county.

Regulations.--Employment of convicts in coal mines, or where the products of their labor will come in conflict with those of free labor, is prohibited.

Discharged convicts receive each a suit of clothing and $5 in money.

County convicts are to be employed for the benefit of the county during working hours on weekdays. Unless the county commissioners direct otherwise, such employment shall be on the roads, streets, or other public works.

Source: Revised Statutes of 1899, sections 632 to 636, 671, 5536 to 5539.

UNITED STATES.

Control.-The Attorney-General of the United States has control and management of United States prisons, and appoints superintendents and other officials in charge thereof.

Systems of employment.—The State-use system is prescribed.

Regulations.-Designated employments are the manufacture of articles and the production of supplies for use within the prisons, the manufacture of such Government supplies as can be produced without the use of machinery, the construction and repair of the buildings and inclosures of the prison and the making of the necessary materials therefor, and the cultivation and care of the prison grounds and farm.

Goods.The importation of any article, the product in whole or in part of convict labor, is prohibited.

Source : Compiled Statutes of 1901, pages 1626, 3726, 3731.

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SEAMEN.
The following is a list of the laws relating to the employment of
seamen. These laws are omitted for the reasons given in the intro-
duction :

Alabama.—Code of 1907, sections 4951 to 4957.
California.—Civil Code, sections 2049 to 2064; Penal Code, sections 644, 615.
Georgia.-Penal Code of 1895, sections 649 to 656.
Louisiana.-Revised Laws of 1897, sections 945, 3475, 3478.
Maine.-Revised Statutes of 1903, chapter 127, section 17.
Maryland.-Public General Laws of 1903, article 81, sections 1 to 7.
Missouri.-Revised Statutes of 1899, sections 5071 to 5091.
North Carolina.-Revisal of 1905, sections 3555, 3556.
North Dakota.-Revised Codes of 1905, sections 5598 to 5616.
Oregon.-Annotated Codes and Statutes of 1902, sections 2070, 2071.
Philippine Islands.-Acts of the Philippine Commission, No. 1751.
South Carolina.-Criminal Code of 1902, sections 133, 612, 613, 617.
South Dakota.-Civil Code of 1903, sections 1492 to 1520.
Virginia.-Code of 1904, sections 2004 to 2006.
Washington.-Codes and Statutes of 1897, sections 7319, 7320.

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