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CHAPTER I.

DIGESTS AND SUMMARIES OF CERTAIN CLASSES OF LAWS AFFECT.

ING LABOR. Laws relating to the following subjects, which are not included in the compilation given in Chapter II, are treated in the form of digests and summaries:

Apprentices.
Mechanics' liens.
Protection of wages of employees, etc., of contractors.
Earnings of married women.

Exemption of mechanics from the requirement of procuring a peddler's license.

Liability of stockholders of corporations for wage debts due emplovees.

Trade-marks of trade unions.
Right of action for injuries causing death.
Hours of labor on public roads.
Public printing to be done within the State.
Cooperative associations.
Legal holidays in the States and Territories.
Convict labor.
Seamen.

APPRENTICES.

In the following digest, the apprentice laws are considered by States, the statutory provisions in all States being considered as nearly as possible in uniform order and not in the order in which they appear in the statute books.

ALABAMA.

Who may indenture. A minor may be bound out by the parents; or when parents are unable to provide for his support, by the probate judge of a county.

Term.-A male may be bound out until he is 21, and a female until she is 18 years of age.

Duty of master. The master is required to see that the apprentice is tanght his trade and to read and write, to provide him with good and wholesome food, necessary clothing, washing, lodging, and medical attendance, and at the expiration of the term of service, to furnish him with two new suits of clothes. He may enforce obedience and good beba vior by such moderate corporal punishment as at common law a father or guardian is allowed to inflict.

Interference.--It is unlawful to entice, decoy, or persuade an apprentice to leave the service of his master, to employ him, to furnish him food or clothing, or to give or sell him ardent spirits, without the written consent of the master. Source: Code of 1907, sections 2896 to 2907, 6849, 6852, 6853.

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ARKANSAS.

Who may indenture.-A minor may be bound out by the father with the written consent of the mother; by the guardian if an orphan without sufficient estate for its maintenance, or by the mother if the father is dead and no guardian has been appointed. In any case the indentures must be approved by the judge of the county court. A minor may also be bound out by the judge of the county court in case the parents have not the means, or neglect to maintain said minor.

Term.-A male may be bound until 21 and a female until 18 years of age.

Duty of master.—The master is required to teach the apprentice a trade and to send the apprentice to school at least one-fourth of his time after he is 7 years old, and the apprentice must be taught reading, writing, and arithmetic to the rule of three, inclusive.

Interference. It is unlawful to entice, persuade, or induce an apprentice to leave the service of the master or to conceal him after leaving such service.

Source: Digest of 1904, sections 266 to 275, 1574, 5218.

CALIFORNIA.

Who may indenture.-A minor of 14 years of age or over may be bound by his father, or by his mother or guardian in case of the father's death or incompetency, or where the father has willfully abandoned his family for one year without making suitable provision for their support, or is habitually intemperate or is a vagrant; by an executor who by the will of the father is directed to bring up the child to a trade or calling; by the mother alone if the child is illegitimate; or by the judge of the superior court if the minor is poor, homeless, chargeable to the county or State, or an outcast who has no visible means of obtaining an honest livelihood. If a minor has no parent or guardian competent to act he, may, with the approval of the superior court, bind himself. The minor's consent must be expressed in the indenture and testified to by his signing the same.

Term.-A male may be bound until 21 and a female until 18 years of age.

Duty of master.-The master must in the case of an orphan or homeless minor cause the apprentice to be taught reading, writing, and the ground rules of arithmetic, including ratio and proportion, must give him the requisite instruction in the different branches of his trade, and, at the expiration of his term of service, must give him $50 in gold and two new suits of clothes to be worth in the aggregate at least $60. In all cases the master must pay and deliver to the apprentice the money, clothes, and other property to which he is entitled under the indenture.

Interference.-It is unlawful to aid, entice, counsel, or persuade an apprentice to run away, or to employ, harbor, or conceal him, knowing him to be a runaway.

Sources: Civil Code, sections 264 to 276; Penal Code, section 646.

COLORADO.

Who may indenture.-il minor may be bound out by his father, or by his mother or guardian if the father is dead, incompetent, has willfully abandoned his family for six months without making suitable provision for its support, or has become an habitual drunkard ; by the mother alone if the child is illegitimate, but subsequent marriage defeats her power to bind a child during marriage, whether illegitimate or not. In the above cases the consent of the minor, who is over 14 years of age, is necessary, and must be expressed in the irdentures and testified to by his signing the same. A minor may also be bound out by a superintendent of the poor of the county if either the minor or his parents are, or may be, chargeable to the county or shall beg for alms; if the parents are poor and the father an habitual drunkard, and if the father is dead and the mother is of a bad character or suffers the minor to grow up in idleness, etc. A minor may bind himself if he has no parents competent to act and no guardian.

Term.-A male may be bound until 21 years, and a female until 18 years of age or until marriage within said age.

Duty of master.-An apprentive must be taught his trade and must be instructed in the common English branches of education, in some public or other school, at least three months in every year until he shall have arrived at the age of 14 years, and until he shall have received a common school education,

He must be furnished with suitable clothing, food, and attention in sickness and health. L'pon the expiration of his term of service, the master must furnish him two new suits of clothes, to be worth, respectively, $15 and $25, and a new Bible.

Source: Mills' Annotated Statutes, chapters 6 and 26.

CONNECTICUT.

Who may indenture.-A minor may be bound out by the father or guardian, in which case the consent of a minor who is over 14 years of age is necessary; this must be expressed in the indentures and testified to by his signing the same. The selectmen of a town may, with the consent of a justice of the peace, bied out the children of any person who, having had relief from said town, allows his children to misspend their time and neglects to employ them in some honest calling, and of any person who does not provide competently for his children, whereby they are exposed to want; also any poor children who live idly or are exposed to want and bare no one to take care of them. The trustees of the State Reform School may, with the consent of the boy or his parents or guardian, bind out a!iy boy who is committed to said school during his minority. The directors of the industrial School for Girls may bind out any girl committed to said school. The overseers of an Indian tribe may, with the consent of two justices of the peace, bind out children of said tribe who are poor, idle, and unprovided for. A minor, when of the age of 14, may, with the consent of the selectmen of his town, bind himself if he has no father or guardian within the State.

Term.-Males may be indentured as apprentices until 21, and females until 19 years of age, or until their marriage within that age. In the case of Indian children, males may be indentured until 18, and females until 16 years of age, or until married within that age. Inmates of the Connecticut Industrial School for Girls may be indentured only for the terms of their commitment.

Interference.-It is unlawful to eloign or entice any lawfully bound minor from the service or custody of his master.

SO rce: General Statutes 1902, sections 1250, 2828, 2829, 2811, 4427, 1654 to 4690.

DELAWARE.

Who may indenture.-A minor may be bound out by the father; by the guardian if there is no father residing in the State; by the mother if there is no father residing in the State and there is no guardian; by any two trustees of the poor if the minor is living in the almshouse, and by any two justices of the peace acting together if the minor has no parents residing in the State and has not sufficient property for his maintenance, or if his parents are not able to maintain and bring him up to industry and suitable employment. A minor when of the age of 14 may also bind himself if he has no parents and no guardian residing in the State, and in this case the consent of a justice of the peace is necessary.

Term.— The term for which apprentices may be bound is until 21 years of age in the case of males, and until 18 years of age in the case of females. Immigrants of full age may be bound out for a period of not more than five years.

Duty of master.--Apprentices must be given a reasonable education in reading and writing, and must be furnished with proper support and clothing. Upon the expiration of the term of service the master must provide his apprentice with two new suits of clothing. The master has power to enforce obedience and good behavior by moderate correction and by suitable and sufficient means.

Interfcrence.-It is unlawful knowingly to harbor, conceal, or employ an apprentice who has run away from service; to deal with an apprentice without the consent of his master, or knowingly to encourage him to disobey his master's lawful orders or to neglect his business.

Source: Revised Code, edition of 1893, chapter 79.

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

Who may indenture.--A minor child may be bound as an apprentice by his guardian; or, if he has none, hy his father; or if he has neither father nor guardian, by his mother, with the consent, entered of record, of the probate court, or without such consent if the minor, being 14 years of age, agrees in writing to be so bound. The probate court may bind out an orphan child or any child abandoned by its parents or guardian; any child of habitually drunken, vicious, or

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unfit parents, when such child is not in the custody of a person who is providing for its maintenance and education; also any child habitually begging or kept in vicious or immoral associations.

Term.The utmost term of apprenticeship is until the apprentice attains the age of 21 if a boy, and 18 if a girl. The term of a child bound out by the probate court is in the discretion of the court.

Duty of master.--The master is required to teach the apprentice a trade, and also reading, writing, and common arithmetic; to supply him with suitable clothing and maintenance, and to pay such amount, if any, as may be agreed upon in the contract.

Interference. It is unlawful for any person to conceal, harbor, or facilitate the running away of an apprentice, or for a master, except in the case of mariners, to send or carry his apprentice out of the District. The contract of apprenticeship may, with the approbation of the court, be assigned by the master, or after his death by his personal representatives on such terms as the court may prescribe.

Source : Code of 1901, sections 173, 402 to 411.

FLORIDA,

Who may indenture.-A minor may be bound out by any court or by a guia rdian. If the minor is under 16 years of age the approval of the judge of the county court of the county of which his parent or guardian is a resident is necessary, and if said minor is of the age of 16 or over, his own assent, evidenced by his signature to the indentures, is required. Poor orphans, without estate sufficient for their maintenance out of the profits, shall be bound out by order of the judge of the county court. When a person having control of a child under 16 years of age is adjudged a vagrant, said child shall be bound out by the court rendering the judgment. When a person applies to be placed on the pauper list of a county, the board of county commissioners, in granting said application, may in their discretion require that the children of such applicant under the age of 16 be bound out. When a child under the age of 16 is abandoned by the father, who fails to provide it with support and maintenance, it may be bound out by the judge of the county court, but not without the assent of the mother, unless she is unable or neglects to provide for its support and maintenance.

Term.--Male apprentices may be bound until they arrive at the age of 21 and females at the age of 18 years.

Duty of master.- The master is required to teach the apprentice, in addition to his trade, the elements of reading, writing, and arithmetic. He must give the apprentice a new suit of clothes, shoes, and a blanket immediately upon the expiration of the term.

Interference.--It is unlawful for any parent, guardian, or other person to entice, take, carry away, or harbor a child duly apprenticed another, or cause the same to be done.

Source: General Statutes of 1906, sections 2636 to 2640, 3231.

GEORGIA.

Who may indenture.- Minors may be bound out by their parents, and those whose parents are dead or residing out of the county and whose estates yield profits insufficient for support and maintenance, or those whose parents, from age, infirmity, or poverty, are unable to support them, shall be bound out by the judge of the county court or the ordinary. A person of full age may bind himself for a valuable consideration for a limited number of years, not exceeding five.

Term.--Minors may be bound out until they are 21 years of age, or for a stated period.

Duty of master.-It is the duty of the master, in addition to teaching the apprentice a trade, to teach him to read English, to furnish him with protection, wholesome food, suitable clothing, necessary medicine and medical attendance, and to teach him habits of industry, honesty, and morality. The master is permitted to use any such degree of force to compel obedience as a father may use with a minor child. At the expiration of the term of service the master must give the apprentice a small allowance with which to begin life, the amount to be left to the master's generosity. If he offers less than $100, the apprentice

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