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by imprisonment in the county jail of not less than thirty nor more than ninety days, or by both such fine and imprisonment in the discretion of the court.

Act No. 281.-Free public employment offices.

SECTION 1. Free employment bureaus are hereby authorized to What cities be created in cities in this State, having a population of thirty to have. thousand or over, for the purpose of receiving applications of persons seeking employment, and applications of persons seeking to employ labor. Such bureaus shall be designated and known as Michigan free employment bureaus.

SEC. 2. The commissioner of labor shall organize, establish and Number. control the free employment bureaus authorized by section one of this act: Provided, That not more than five such bureaus shall be established, and that no two thereof shall be located within a radius of twenty-five miles. No compensation or fee shall be Fees prohib

ited. charged or received, directly or indirectly, from persons applying for employment or help through any such bureau. It shall be the duty of said commissioner of labor to use all diligence in securing the cooperation of employers of labor with the purpose and objects of said employment bureaus. To this end it shall be competent for said commissioner to advertise in the columns of newspapers Advertise. or to use other mediums, for such situations as he has applicants ments. to fill, and for such Lelp as may be called for by employers. He may also advertise in a general way for the cooperation of large contractors and employers, in such trade journals or special publications as reach such employers, whether such trade journals are published within the State of Michigan or not, and may pursue such other methods as, in his judgment, will best tend to accomplish the purpose of this act: Provided further, That one such bureau, as above provided for, shall be established at the city of Kalamazoo, and one at the city of Saginaw.

Sec. 3. When the commissioner of labor shall establish a free Duty of comemployment bureau under the provisions of this act, the board of missioner

labor. State auditors shall provide a suitable office for the same, with necessary furniture, and all printing, binding, blanks, stationery and supplies shall be done and furnished under any contract which the State now has, or shall hereafter have, for similar work with any party or parties, and the expense thereof shall be, in the discretion of the board of State auditors, audited and paid for in the same manner as other State printing and supplies are paid for.

SEC. 4. Said commissioner of labor is authorized to appoint such Assistants. assistants as may be necessary. All such assistants shall be under the control and direction of the commissioner of labor, and shall receive such compensation as he shall determine. All compensation for services and expenses provided for in this act shall be paid by the State treasurer upon the warrant of the auditorgeneral, in the same manner as other salaries and expenses are paid.

Sec. 5. The sum of fire thousand dollars, or so much thereof as Expenses, etc. may be deemed necessary by the commissioner of labor, is hereby appropriated annually for the fiscal year ending June thirty, nineteen hundred eight, and for each fiscal year thereafter, out of which shall be paid all salaries, advertising and contingent expenses authorized by sections two and four of this act.

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(i) The said (railroad] commission may appoint a mechan- Inspector. ical engineer at a salary of not to exceed twenty-five hundred

Duties. dollars per year, whose duty it shall be, under the instructions of the commission, to make technical inspections and reports of the condition and working of all air and power brakes and fix

tures, automatic and safety couplers, heating apparatus, train signals and other appliances connected with the construction and running of locomotive engines, and steam and electric cars, also of the condition, character and workings of yard and switch lamps, semaphores, safety signals, switches, common and interlocking frogs and guard rails, whether the same are blocked or otherwise treated, as required by law; also of the condition and sufficiency of bridges and other structures connected with the permanent way and of the condition and sufficiency of all equipments, electric dynamos, power houses, trolley lines, so-called third rails, freight and passenger houses, as regards the public safety, health and convenience, and of such other matters and things as the commission may deem essential to full and thorough information as to the physical condition of the several railroad properties of the State and the proper enforcement of the police regulations enacted for the control and management of the same. Such mechanical engineer shall have had at least ten years' experience in mechanical engineering with such general knowledge of the requirements of railroad operation as shall fit him to skillfully perform the duties imposed upon him by the provisions of this act. He shall receive an annual salary of twentyfive hundred dollars, payable monthly on a warrant of the auditor

general upon the certificate of the commission. Accidents to Sec. 33. Every railroad shall, whenever an accident, attended be reported.

with the loss of human life, occurs within this State upon its lines or road, or on its depot grounds or yards, give immediate notice thereof to the commission. In the event of any accident, the commission, if it deem the public interests require it, shall cause an investigation to be made forthwith, which investigation shall be held within the locality of the accident, unless for greater convenience of those concerned it shall order the investigation to be held at some other place and said investigation may be adjourned from place to place, as may be found necessary and convenient. The commission shall seasonably notify an officer of the company of the time and place of the investigation. The cost of such investigation shall be certified by the chairman of the commission, and the same shall be audited and paid by the State in the same manner as other expenses are audited and paid, and record or file of said proceedings and evidence shall be kept by said commission.

MINNESOTA.

CONSTITUTION.

ARTICLE 1.--Suits for wages-No property erempt.

No exemption
SECTION 12. *

A reasonable amount of property shall be from judgments for

exempt from seizure or sale for the payment of any debt or liawages.

bility. The amount of such exemption shall be determined by law: Provided, however, That all property so exempted shall be liable to seizure and sale for any debts incurred to any person for work done or materials furnished in the construction, repair, or improvement of the same: And provided further, That such liability to seizure and sale shall also extend to all real property for any debt incurred to any laborer or servant for labor or service performed.

REVISED LAWS-1905.

Protection of employees as voters.

Time to vote. SECTION 283. Every employee entitled to vote at a general or

city election shall be permitted to absent himself from his work for that purpose during the forenoon of each election day, without a penalty or deduction from salary or wages on account of such absence.

Sec. 371. Every person who, as principal or as an official or Preventing agent of any other person, shall directly or indirectly refuse, voting. abridge, or in any manner interfere with any of the privileges or immunities of any employee of himself or his principal granted by this chapter, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.

Eramination, etc., of operators of elevators.

SECTION 761. No person shall operate a passenger elevator in any License re. city of the first class without being licensed so to do by the build- quired. ing inspector. The inspector shall examine the applicant as to his knowledge of the construction of elevators, and his experience and ability in their operation, and, if he be found qualified, shall license him to run elevators in such city for one year. The licensing officer shall receive twenty-five cents for each license issued. No person shall employ or permit a person not the holder of a license to operate any passenger elevator under his control. Every violation of this section shall be a misdemeanor.

Employment of children--School attendance.

SECTION 1445 (as amended by chapter 265, Acts of 1905). Every Attendance pa rent, guardian or other person who resides in any school dis. required. trict or city, and who has control of any child or children of or between the ages of eight and eighteen years, shall send such child or children to a public, parochial or private school in each year during the entire time the public schools of such district or city are in session.

Provided, however, that such child or children may be excused Proviso. from such attendance for the whole or any part of such period by the school board or board of education of the school district or city in which such parent, guardian or person having control resides, upon its being shown to the satisfaction of such board

(1) That such parent, guardian or other person having control is not able by reason of poverty to clothe such child properly; or (2) that such child's bodily or mental condition is such as to prevent his attendance at school or application to study for the period required; or (3) that such child is taught at home in such branches of study as are usually taught in public schools, subject to the same examination as other pupils of such district or city; or (4) that such child has already acquired the ordinary branches required by law; or (5) that such child is actually engaged in some useful occupation, employment or service permitted by law.

SEC. 1451. Any person who shall fail or refuse to send to or keep Violation. in school any child of whom he has legal charge or control, and who is required by law to attend school, when notified by a truant officer so to do, and any person who induces or attempts to induce any such child unlawfully to absent himself from school, or who Wrongful emknowingly harbors or employs, while school is in session, any ployment. child unlawfully absent from school, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be punished by a fine of not to exceed fifty dollars, or by imprisonment in the county jail for not more than thirty days. All such fines, when collected, shall be paid into the county treasury for the benefit of the school district in which such offence is committed.

Sale of liquor to employees, etc.

SECTION 1534. The sale of such [intoxicating] liquor at any time or place, except by a licensed pharmacist as aforesaid, is illegal :

5. To a spendthrift or an improvident person, within one year Sale after after written notice by any

master, employer,

* notice. forbidding the sale of liquor to him.

Hours of labor.

Ten-hour day. SECTION 1798. Unless a shorter time be agreed upon, the stand

ard day's work for hire shall be ten hours. Every employer and other person having control who shall compel any person, or who shall permit any minor under the age of fourteen, to labor more than ten hours in any one day, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, but persons over fourteen may labor extra hours for extra pay; and this section shall not apply to farm laborers, to domestic servants employed by the week or month, or to persons engaged in

the care of live stock. Eight hours SEC. 1799. No person employed in manual labor upon any work on public work. for the State, whether such work be done by contract or otherwise,

shall be required or permitted to labor more than eight hours in any calendar day except in cases of extraordinary emergency caused by fire, flood, or danger to life and property, military or

naval employment in time of war, and agricultural work. Public con. SEC. 1800. Every contract made by or in behalf of the State tracts.

which may involve the employment of labor shall provide in terms for compliance with section 1799, and for the forfeiture by the contractor to the State of ten doilars for each and every violation thereof. Every inspector or other person whose duty it is to see that such contract is duly performed shall report all such violations to the proper disbursing officer, who shall withhold the amounts so forfeited from the contract price. No sum so withheld shall ever be paid unless the disbursing officer shall first certify to the governor, in writing, that the forfeiture was imposed through an error as to the facts. Every State officer, and every person acting for or in behalf of the State, who shall violate any provision of this section or section 1799, shall be guilty of a gross

misdemeanor. Railroad la- SEC. 1801. Locomotive engineers and firemen shall not be rebor.

quired to serve as such for more than fourteen consecutive hours. At least nine hours, or as many hours less as is asked for by said engineers or firemen, shall be allowed for rest before being again required to go on duty. But nothing herein shall permit any such engineer or fireman to desert his locomotive when, by reason of accident or of delay caused by the elements, another can not immediately be procured to take his place, nor prohibit him, in any case, from serving longer than fourteen hours if he so desires. Every superintendent or other officer or employer of a railway company who shall order or require any service in violation of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and such company shall be liable to any engineer or fireman for injuries sustained by him in consequence of such violation.

Seats for female employees.

Seats to be SECTION 1802. Every employer of females in any mercantile, provided.

manufacturing, hotel, or restaurant business, and every agent in charge of any such business, shall provide and maintain suitable seats in the room where they work, and permit such use thereof

by them as may be necessary for the preservation of their health. Evidence of SEC. 1803. The certificate or testimony of any licensed and pracviolation.

ticing physician to the effect that, in his opinion, any person is not complying with the provisions of section 1802 in respect to a specified employee, shall be prima facie evidence of a violation thereof. The labor commissioner, upon information of any such violation, shall forthwith cause the matter to be brought to the attention of the proper authorities, and assist in procuring evidence thereof; but this shall not prevent anyone else from making complaint and furnishing evidence, nor interfere with any State or county officer in the performance of his duty.

Earnings of minors-Payment.

SECTION 1812. Any parent or guardian claiming the wages of a Payment to

minor. minor in service shall so notify his employer, and, if he fail so to do, payment to the minor of wages so earned shall be valid.

Inspection of factories and workshops.
SECTION 1813. All saws, planers, wood shapers, jointers, sand-

Guards for

dangerous masa pering machines, and ironing mangles; all set screws, drums, chinery. and machinery, including belts, shafting, cables, and fly wheels; all electrical dyna mos and other dangerous electrical apparatus and appliances; and all vats, pans, or other receptacles containing molten metal or boiling liquid, in any factory, mill, or workshop, shall be so located as not to be dangerous to workmen, or, as far as practicable, shall be fenced or otherwise protected. Every dangerous place in or about factories, mills, workshops, and engineering work, near to which any employee is obliged to pass or to be employed, shall be securely fenced, inclosed, or otherwise protected. No grindstone, emery wheel, or machine in any factory, mill, or workshop shall be used when the same is known to be cracked or otherwise defective.

The object of the statute is to protect workmen, whether operating the machinery or working about it. it is to be construed so as to carry out this object, and it is immaterial that owner could not reasonably have anticipated the injury in the precise way in which it occurred. 70 Minn. 161, 83 Minn. 25.

It does not change the common law rule as to contributory negligence or assumption of risk. 67 Minn. 79.

Expert workmen neglecting to use safety devices furnished by employer assume the risks. Guards must not only be furnished; they must be maintained. 93 Minn. 242.

Duty to guard can not be shifted by leasing premises. 70 Minn. 161.
The statute is declaratory of the common law. 91 Minn. 317.
It is limited to the protection of employees. 78 Minn. 3.

Sec. 1814. Every owner of a factory, mill, or workshop where Belt shifters. machinery is in use shall furnish or cause to be furnished, wherever practicable, belt shifters or other safe mechanical contrivances for the purpose of throwing on or off belts or pulleys; and, whenever practicable, machinery shall be provided with loose pulleys. Exhaust fans shall be provided for carrying off dust from Fans. emery wheels and grindstones. SEC. 1815. Every hoisting apparatus used in the construction of

Hois tways,

etc. any building, every hoist way, hatchway, elevator well, and wheel hole in any factory, mill, workshop, storehouse, wareroom, or store, shall be securely protected on each floor by a barrier at least four feet high, which shall be kept closed except when necessarily opened for use. Every elevator car used for either freight or passengers shall be provided with some suitable mechanical device by which it can be securely held in the event of accident to the rope or hoisting machinery; but an elevator whose owner is insured against loss from personal injuries caused thereby, by any authorized insurance company, shall not be subject to supervision by the bureau of labor. SEC. 1816. Every factory, mill, and workshop or other buildings

Fire escapes. in which laborers are employed shall be provided with sufficient means of escape in case of fire, by more than one way of egress, each of which shall be at all times free from obstruction and ready for immediate use. Every door leading in or to any such Doors. factory, mill, or workshop shall be so constructed as to open outward, when possible, and shall not be so fastened during working hours as to prevent free egress. Substantial hand rails shall be provided on all stairways in every factory, mill, or workshop; and, where females are employed, the stairs regularly used by them shall be properly screened at the sides and bottom. SEC. 1817. If any such factory, mill, or workshop be more than

Fire escapes. two stories high, it shall be provided with at least one fire escape, and as many more as the labor commissioner may require. Every such fire escape shall be on the outside of the building, connecting

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