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is remarkable. A variety of white wheat from Missouri, sown more thinly than usual, has yielded 31 bushels to something less than one bushel of seed sown. It headed out a fortnight earlier than the Soule's, but ripened later-probably because thinly sown. Mr. Johnston thinks we have been sowing too thickly for fifteen years past upon rich land, and there can be no question but that he is right. Still, it is better to take a medium course between thick and thin sowing, and thus avoid, on the one hand, rust, overcrowding, and waste of seed, and on the other, placing an entire crop at the mercy of insects which may attack it.
“A too common error with improving farmers is that of using too small tile for main drains, and too large for laterals. Those accustomed to the roomy conduits of ordinary stone drains, suppose that nothing less than a threeinch bore will conduct the drainage from the surface into the mains, and curiously enough the same persons, unmindful of the large area drained by each system of laterals, err in using mains but little larger in the bore than the latter. If any are willing to look into the results of the drainage on our Central Park, the most stupendous work of the kind in this country, and one of the best conducted, they will find that the one and a half-inch and two-inch tiles there used for laterals do not run full even after the most violent and protracted rains, and yet from a single
system' of twelve acres, the discharge, after a recent rain, was at the rate of 3,000 gallons per hour. This error of using too large tile Mr. Johnston fell into, and now that he has learned better, after a twenty years' experience, he cautions his brother farmers against using larger than twoinch tile for laterals. For mains, each farmer must rovide as the quantity of water to be conducted is greater or less. In
many cases Mr. Johnston has used two rows of four-inch, in others six-inch, and in one, semi-circles of eleven inches, one at top and one at bottom; making a pipe nine inches bore to discharge water. At first, he had many to take up and replace with large pipe to secure a complete discharge. Main drains he makes six to eight inches deeper than those emptying into them-not with an abrupt shoulder, but leveled up, so that the descent may take place gradually in the length of two tiles-29 inches-and always giving the laterals a slight sidewise direction at the end, so that their water will be discharged down stream into the mains.
“ Another error he at first fell into was, in having too many drains on lowlands, and not enough on the upland; thus seeking to carry off the effect, while the cause the out-cropping springs on the hill-side-remained untouched. Where the source of the water is most abundant, the means for removing it should most abundantly be furnished. Rainwater falls on hills, sinks to an impervious stratum, along which it runs until it either finds a porous section through which it can fall to a lower level, or not finding such, continues on the hard bottom to the side of the hill, where it crops out in the form of a spring. If this spring-water is suffered to run down hill, it washes - the hill-side more or less, and coming to the lowland, sinks as far as it may into the soil, makes it sodden, and produces bad effects. To drain effectually, then, we must cut off the supply above, and fewer drains will be necessary below. Here is the whole secret of the thing, and here we see why so much money is spent to so little purpose by those who think that they should only drain the wet lowland. Appearances are deceitful, and we should not suppose that a seemingly dry upland is really dry."
Comment on such a character and such a history as this is superfluous. Mr. Johnston's example as a tiledrainer has been of inestimable value to American farmers. As how such a,man feeds his cattle and manufactures manure, must be interesting to many, the following additional extract on that subject is given:
“A word as to this most important subject. On poor lands good crops are got by the use of much manure. This all know. But do they know as well that all manure is not equally good ; that a cord of it that has been leached by drenching rains throughout fall and winter, and that has been shone upon by the sun through a hundred hot days, has lost the greater part of its efficacy? That the rivulets of brown liquor that run from the barn-yard into the public road will make more wheat than the brownwashed straw which remains ? And that, be manure never so well cared for, its value may be increased at will by the food given to the animals that make it? If they don't, Mr. Johnston does; and so, instead of freezing his stock until they are almost in articulo mortis, and starving them on dry stocks and refuse hay until the bones well nigh pierce the skin, he has comfortable sheds and deeply-littered yards for his cattle, and feeds them well at regular intervals with sweet hay, oil-cake, bean-meal, and grain. The resultbut what other could you expect !-is, that in spring they are in store condition; he loses none, has no disease among them, saves a large quantity of such manure that one cord of it will bring more wheat or corn than four of ordinary dung, and he grows rich. Reader, if you desire to be a good farmer, go and do likewise !"
Getting the first thousand dollars-How to save Man wants but little here below--Actual cost of food-Great successes
A dime a day.
ECONOMY is the sheet-anchor of every beginner, no matter what calling he may adopt. Without it, industry and hard work go for almost nothing. As a general rule, men more frequently grow rich from what they save than from what they make. In farming, especially, it may be assumed that this rule has no exceptions. Our actual bodily wants are few, and may be cheaply supplied without converting us into a race of misers. In illustration of these positions I have gathered from various sources some facts sufficiently striking to command general attention, even if they should be found too hard to imitate.
The greatest fortunes have originated in the smallest beginnings. Stephen Girard, the millionaire of Philadelphia, began the world by selling oranges from the head of a barrel in the streets of an obscure country town. His remark in after life was, that when a man had acquired his first thousand dollars, there was no difficulty in becoming rich. John Jacob Astor began his wonderful career
of prosperity by buying the skins of skunks and musk-rats. He is reported to have said that it cost him more severe effort to get the first thousand dollars, than all the others.
Mr. Edwin T. Freedley has written much and well on all these subjects. He says, referring to Astor, that,
“If he had bequeathed to mankind an easy and certain method of overcoming the difficulty, the bequest would have been a far more valuable one than all his fortune; entitling him to the most conspicuous niche in the gallery of the world's benefactors. The task, however, was beyond his powers, as it has proved too vast for abler men. Franklin attempted to teach the true secret of money-catching—the certain way to fill empty pockets—with what success we have
Millionaires have favored the world with their dicta and opinions; but the world has not attached any great importance to their sayings, and certainly not been much benefited by their observations. Mankind generally have probably abandoned the idea of discovering a royal road to wealth, and concluded that an individual, or nation, in order to accumulate capital, must earn something by labor, and then save a portion of the product. Something, however, may be done and a good deal more than has been doneto facilitate this accumulation; to show labor how, without extra exertion, it can increase its rewards; and show economy how, without injury to the physical system, less may be consumed."
Mr. Freedley has gone largely and thoroughly into all the details of the question as to how to get the first thousand dollars. He tells us
“ First, How TO SAVE. The human mind receives its first practical lessons in the realities of life at a very early