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Burlington county. As surveyor, he necessarily travelled on foot over the land he describes, and therefore had the fullest opportunity of seeing it, while his lifelong occupation of growing trees an plants of all descriptions, qualifies him as a competent witness as to their capabilities. Thus qualified as an impartial judge, Mr. Parry further said :

Having spent some time during the past summer surveying in that vicinity, I witnessed what would otherwise have seemed almost incredible; one tract of 30,000 acres was purchased a little before the location of said road, at $1 per acre, and sold shortly after at $5 per acre; $30,000 given and $150,000 received by that transaction, which land is now being divided into small farms, and a large portion of it already sold to actual settlers, at $10 per

Another tract of between 20,000 and 30,000 acres has, since the opening of said railroad, been divided into Jots and farms, and all sold at $10 per acre to over one thousand purchasers.

“ This land has not yet reached one-half its real value, for by this railroad it is brought within one hour's ride of Philadelphia, and it is fertile land, of a sandy loam on the surface, underlaid with clay and gravel, so very essential to retain manures and moisture, and promote the growth of fruit trees, plants and flowers, which flourish remarkably. It is well adapted to raising all kinds of vegetables and grain, which can be taken to market as quick and cheap by railroad as similar articles can in wagons from farms which, owing to their proximity to the city, will bring from $100 to $200 per acre.

“ Peaches, which seem to have degenerated in older sections, where the soil has been highly stimulated with artificial manures, there I beheld in a flourishing condition;

trees over fifteen years of age were laden with luscious fruit, bending their slender branches nearly or quite to the ground. There is scarcely an enterprise offering such rich rewards for capital and labor as the extensive cultivation of peaches along the Camden and Atlantic Railroad. Orchards there would rival those so recently celebrated in Delaware.

“Grapes were abundant, and plums without plantingnatives of the soil-offered their fruit gratuitously. This is only a part, several other tracts, varying in size from 17,000 to 70,000 acres each, and many of smaller dimensions, are now offered at the low sum of from $5 to $10 per acre, and purchasers and settlers are actually pouring in by thousands, like pigeons to their roost. It seems almost incredible that land of this quality and price should so long remain unnoticed by enterprising men, within thirty or forty miles of Philadelphia, and it is altogether owing to the Camden and Atlantic Railroad that it is now brought before the public.

“Great as these developments are, they dwindle away when compared with what the Air Line will unfold. We who have lived along the Delaware river, and been bound as with a spell to the Camden and Amboy road, cannot appreciate the hidden treasures through the interior of our State. Through this great Peninsula, a large part of which is naturally good land, and all valuable for some purposes, penetrated by lively streams, some of them navigable, many above the limit of navigation would furnish strong power for mills and factories, and all of them, in addition to numerous springs, afford an abundant supply of soft water.

“ After the fires, which frequently pass through the woods, destroying large quantities of timber, have abated, Nature, ever active in good works, pushes forth a spontaneous growth of rich, sweet grass, equally nutritious either in the green or dry state, and so protected by dead bushes and trees as to defy the skill of man to gather it; but it is well adapted for feeding stock, and herds of young cattle are marked and driven there from the surrounding country to graze on the pasture, shielded from the sun, and supplied with brooks of pure water, from which they are drawn in the fall or at the approach of winter, fat and ready for the knife.

“I have examined these lands of which I speak, have spent much time in surveying and tracing out the boundaries of hundreds and thousands of acres, and have yet to find the first acre that is not valuable for some purpose that does not possess intrinsic worth within itself. Some swamps which are termed worthless by the casual observer from a stage en route for the fashionable watering places on the coast, when examined through the aid of science, unfold large deposits of iron ore, more than enough for home consumption. Others are well adapted to, and periodically furnish a spontaneous growth of tall, stately white cedars, unequaled for fencing material. Some of the land on which there is no growth of timber or grass, has been called barren, but upon a closer view it is found to consist of a superior quality of glass-sand, and would furnish large quantities for exportation. Other portions are underlaid with large deposits of marl, so very fertilizing to the soil when brought to its surface. The amount of this valuable article is deemed inexhaustible--at least, there is a plenty to enrich the whole State of New Jersey, if we had railroads to distribute it. On other portions, on which there is but a small growth of timber and scanty supply of grass, sand is found to predominate, intermixed with a fine loam. , This quality of land is admirably adapted to the cultivation of early vegetables; heavy rains leaving the surface and filtering through the soil, when followed by a hot sun, act like gentle, refreshing showers to hot-house plants; the

ground still remains free and mellow to imbibe the atmospheric influence, and does not bake in drying so as to exclude the air, like our heavy, loamy land. This is the reason why sweet potatoes grown on light, sandy soil, are dry and mealy when cooked, light colored and of excellent quality, while those grown on rich, heavy land, worth from $100 to $200 per acre, according to the location, are watery, heavy, dark colored and unpalatable. This is the reason why our light Jersey soil is so very certain for a crop of round potatoes."

Here are some two millions of acres of uncultivated land, shut out from all ready approach, until the year 1854, for want of railroads. In that year the Camden and Atlantic road was opened. It begins at Camden, opposite to Philadelphia, and extends to the ocean at Atlantic City, once a mere barren sand-heap, but now a populous town, with gravelled streets lighted with gas, and built up with great hotels on the beach, and private summer residences of wealthy Philadelphians. At that time Atlantic county contained 315,000 acres, of which only 15,000 were improved; Cumberland contained 335,450 acres, with only 48,460 improved. The railroad traversed an almost desolate wilderness. The land had only a nominal price, and was constantly accumulating in large tracts in the hands of wealthy owners. But no sooner had the railroad been opened than the whole condition of things was changed. Its track is becoming lined with farms and villages. The old growth of pine and scrub oak is being cleared off, buildings erected, lands enclosed, and crops produced. On every side the traveller sees tokens of rapid and substantial improvement, for a market has been opened for whatever the land can be made to yield.

Large tracts have been bought by companies and individuals, and divided into small farms for the accommodation of settlers. It is the West over again, only on a smaller scale. One of the first of these enterprises was at Hammonton, where 5,000 acres were speedily sold in small farms, many of the settlers coming from New England. They find a cash market at Philadelphia for all that they can produce. Yet this was a barren tract, producing nothing salable but wild berries. Another settlement on the railroad is called Egg Harbor City, founded by Germans, who bought a large tract at a low price immediately after the road was opened, and divided it up into town lots and farms. The excellence of the location has attracted to it many families from the West. Nearly all the dwellings are of brick, made on the spot. They have several brickyards, numerous stores, a printing office, piano factories, saw-mills, and other industrial establishments. The streets are lined with shade trees, and the whole settlement is a model of enterprise, ingenuity and thrift. As seen from the railroad, it will strike every observer as an eminently flourishing place. A great area of wild land has been cleared and farmed, and is producing crops quite satisfactory to the owners. Some are establishing vineyards, others growing tobacco, and others sending great quantities of fruit and vegetables to Philadelphia. All the land thus taken up and improved has quintupled

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