“At $50 per ton, which is a full estimate, the whole pecuniary value of the 5,358,808 tons, embracing all our commercial fleets on the oceans, and the lakes, and the rivers, numbering nearly thirty thousand vessels, would be but $267,940,000; whereas the increase in the pecuniary value of the States under consideration, in each year of the last decade, was $281,000,000. Five years' increase would purchase every commercial vessel in the Christian world.

“But the census discloses another very important feature, in respect to these interior States, of far higher interest to the statisticians, and especially to the statesmen of Europe, than any which has yet been noticed, in their vast and rapidly increasing capacity to supply food, both vegetable and animal, cheaply and abundantly, to the increasing millions of the Old World. In the last decade their cereal products increased from 309,950,295 bushels, to 558,160,323 bushels, considerably exceeding the whole cereal product of England, and nearly if not quite. equal to that of France. In the same period the swine, who play a very important part in consuming the large surplus of Indian corn, increased in number from 8,536,182 to 11,039,352, and the cattle from 4,373,712, to 7,204,810. Thanks to steam and the railway, the herds of cattle who feed on the meadows of the Upper Mississippi are now carried in four days, through eighteen degrees of longitude, to the slaughterhouses on the Atlantic.

“ It is difficult to furnish any visible or adequate measure for a mass of cereals so enormous as 558,000,000 of bushels. About one-fifth of the whole descends the chain of lakes, on which 1,300 vessels are constantly employed in the season of navigation. About one-seventh of the whole finds its way to the ocean through the Erie canal, which has already been once enlarged for the purpose of passing vessels of two hundred tons, and is now under survey by the State of New York for a second enlargement, to pass vessels of five hundred tons. The vessels called canal boats, now navigating the canal, exceed five thousand in number, and if placed in a line, would be more than eighty miles in length.

“The barrels of wheat and flour alone, carried by the canal to the Hudson river, were, in 1842, 1,146,292; in 1852, 3,937,366; in 1862, 7,516,397.

“ A similar enlargement is also proposed for the canal connecting Lake Michigan with the Mississippi river. When both the works are completed, a barrel of flour can be carried from St. Louis to New York, nearly half across the continent, for fifty cents; or a ton, from the Iron Mountain of Missouri, for $5. The moderate portion of the cereals that descends the lakes, if placed in barrels of five bushels each, and side by side, would form a line of five thousand miles long. The whole crop, if placed in barrels, would encircle the globe. Such is its present magnitude. We leave it to statistical science to discern and fully estimate the future, One result is, at all events, apparent. A general famine is now impossible; for America, if necessary, can feed Europe for centuries to come. Let the statesman and philanthropist ponder well the magnitude of the fact, and all its far-reaching consequences-political, social, and moral—in the increased industry, the increased happiness, and the assured peace of the world.

“ The great metalliferous region of the American Union is found between the Missouri river and the Pacific Ocean. This grand division of the Republic embraces little more than half of its whole continental breadth. Portland, in Maine, is the meridian 70° west from Greenwich ; Leavenworth, on the Missouri river, in 95°; and San Francisco, on the Pacific, in 123° By these continental landmarks, the western or metalliferous section is found to embrace 28°, and the eastern division between the Missouri and the Atlantic, at Portland, 25° of our total territorial breadth of 53° of longitude.

“It has been the principal work and office of the American people, since the foundation of their government, to carry the machinery of civilization westward from the Atlantic to the Missouri, the great confluent of the Mississippi. So far as the means of rapid intercommunication are concerned, the work may be said to be accomplished, for a locomotive engine can now run without interruption from Portland to the Missouri, striking it at St. Joseph, just below the fortieth parallel of latitude. In the twenty years preceding 1860, a network of railways 31,196 miles in length was constructed, having the terminus of the most western link on the Missouri river. The total cost was $1,151,560,829, of which $850,900,681 was expended in the decade between 1850 and 1860. The American Government and people had become aware of the great pecuniary, commercial, and political results of connecting the ocean with the food-producing interior by adequate steam communications. But the higher and more difficult problem was then presented of repeating the effort on a scale still more grand and continental; of winning victories still more arduous over nature; of encountering and subduing the massive mountain ranges interposed by the prolongation of the Cordilleras of our sister continent through the centre of North America, rising, even at their lowest points of depression, far above the highest peaks of the Atlantic States.

"The Government, feeling the vital, national importance of closely connecting the States of the Atlantic and of the Mississippi with the Pacific with all practicable dispatch, has vigorously exerted its power. On the 1st of July, 1862, nearly fifteen months after the outbreak of the existing insurrection, and notwithstanding the necessity of calling into the field more than half a million of men to enforce the national authority, Congress passed an act for incorporating • The Union Pacific Railway Company,' and appropriated $66,000,000 in the bonds of the United States, with large grants of land, to aid the work, directing it to be commenced at the 100th meridian of longitude, but with four branches extending to the Missouri river. The necessary surveys across the mountain ranges are now in active progress, and the construction of the eastern division, leading westward from the mouth of the Kansas river, or the Missouri, has actually commenced. The whole of that division, including that part of the line west of the 100th meridian to the foot of the Rocky Mountains, is on a nearly level plain, and is singularly easy of construction. Its western end will strike the most prominent point of the auriferous regions in the Territory of Colorado, where the annual product of gold, as stated in the official message of the Territorial governor, is from $5,000,000 to $10,000,000. The gold is there extracted by crushing-machines from the quartz, in which it is found extensively distributed, needing only the railway from Missouri to cheaply carry the necessary miners, with their machinery and supplies. The distance to that point will be about six hundred and fifty miles, which will be passed in twenty-eight hours. When completed, as it easily may be, within the next three years, it will open the way for such an exodus of miners as the country has not seen since the first discoveries in California, to which the American people rushed with such avidity, many of them circumnavigating Cape Horn to reach the scene of attraction.

“Meanwhile a corresponding movement has commenced on the Pacific, in vigorously prosecuting the construction of the railway eastward from the coast at or near San Francisco, which will cross the Sierra Nevada at an elevation of about 7,000 feet, on the eastern line of California, in the


120th parallel of longitude, and there descend into the territory of Nevada, at the rich silver mines of Washoe.

“ It is not yet possible to estimate with any accuracy the extent of these deposits of gold and silver, but they are already known to exist at very numerous localities in and between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, not to mention the rich quartz-mining regions in California itself, which continue to pour out their volumes of gold to affect, whether for good or ill, the financial condition of the civilized world. During the last six months gold has been obtained in such quantities, from the sands of the Snake river and other confluents of the Columbia river, as to attract more than 20,000 persons to that remote portion of our metalliferous interior. The products of those streams alone for the present year are estimated at $20,000,000.

“ The Commissioner of the General Land-office, in his official report of the 29th December, 1862, states as follows:

“The great auriferous region of the United States, in the western portion of the Continent, stretches from the 49th degree of north latitude and Puget Sound, to the 30° 30' parallel, and from the 102d degree of longitude west of Greenwich, to the Pacific Ocean, embracing portions of Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, all of New Mexico, with Arizona, Utah, Nevada, California, Oregon, and Washington Territories. It may be designated as comprising 17 degrees of latitude, or a breadth of 1,100 miles from north to south, and of nearly equal longitudinal extension, making an area of more than a million

miles. “This vast region is traversed from north to south, first, on the Pacific side, by the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mountains, then by the Blue and Humboldt; on the east, by the double ranges of the Rocky Mountains, embracing the Wahsatch and Wind River chain, and the Sierra Madre, stretching longitudinally and in lateral spurs, crossed and


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