cimal parts.

sent to bills that are presented to him by the two Houses whom they released from their subjection, and suffered to of Parliament.

enter into some other order of religion. LE'SCHEWES (Archæol.) trees fallen by chance.

LETTERS, dominical (Chron.) the first seven letters of the LE'SKIA (Bot.) a genus of mosses.

alphabet, which are used to denote the days of the week in LE'SPEGEND (Law) an inferior officer in the forests to the solar cycle, particularly those which mark the Sun

take care of the vert and venison therein. Constitut. Canut. day throughout the year. [vide Chronology) de Forest. Art. 2.

Letters (Her.) the nine first letters in the alphabet, which are LE'SSA (Archæol.) a legacy.

used to mark the points in the escutcheon. [vide Heraldry] LESSEE, Lessor (Law) parties to a lease. [vide Lease] Letters (Mus.) the seven first letters in the alphabet, which LE'SSER Circles (Astron.) those which divide the globes serve to distinguish the notes. [vide Music] into unequal parts. [vide Astronomy]

LETTUCE (Bot.) a well-known garden herb, the Lactuca LE'SSES (Sport.) the dung of a wolf, bear, or wild boar. of Linnæus. LE'SSONS (Ecc.) the several portions of Scripture allotted LEVA'NT and couchant (Law) an epithet applied to cattle to be read in churches every day,

which have been so long in another man's ground that LF'SSOR (Law) he who grants a Lease.

they have lain down, and are risen again to feed. LE'STAGE (Archeol.) the same as Lastage, or Ballast. LEVANTER ( Mar.) the name of an easterly wind up the LESWES (Archæol.) a term used in Domesday book for Mediterranean. pastures.

LEVA'RE Fænum (Archæol.) to make hay. LÉT (Mar.) a word in several phrases, asLet fall,” an|LEVA'RI Facias (Law) a writ directed to the sheriff for

order for putting out a sail when the yards are aloft, and levying a sum of money upon lands on him who has forthe sail is to come down from the yard.—To let in a-reef, feited his recognisance.—Levari Facias damna disseisitoto fix a diminished part of one plank into a cavity formed ribus, a writ directed to the sheriff for levying damages, in another to receive it. To let out a-reef, to increase wherein the disseisor hath formerly been condemned to the the dimensions of a sail by untying the points of a reef disseisee. Reg. Orig. 214.- Levari Facias residuum debiti, in it,

a writ directed to the sheriff for levying the remnant of a LETCH (Mech.) a vessel to put ashes in for making lye. debt upon lands and tenements, or chattels of the debtor, LETECH (Ant.) a Hebrew measure of capacity for dry who hath in part satisfied before. Reg. Orig. 299.-Lethings, containing 16 pecks, 26 solid inches, and 500 de vari Facias quando vice comes retornavit quod non habuit

eniplores, a writ commanding the sheriff to sell the debtor's LETHARGY (Med.) andaprice, from anen, forgetfulness; a goods, which he has already taken, but has not been able

disease caused by cold phlegmatic humours oppressing to sell. Reg. 298. 214. 299, 300. the brain, so that the patient is perpetually oppressed LEVATOR (Anat.) a term applied to several muscles which with sleepiness. Gal. Def. Med. Cels. 1. 3, c. 20; Trallian. serve the office of lifting up the part in which they are in1. 1; Ael. Tetrab. 2, serm. 2, c. 3 ; Paul. Æginet. I. 3, serted; as Levator Ani, Levator Labii, Levator Oculi, c. 9.

Levator Palati, &c. LETTER (Gram.) in the Latin litera, probably changed Levator (Surg.) a surgical instrument, whereby the de

from legitura, to be read, i. e. something legible, or to be pressed parts of the skull are lifted up in cases of fracture. deciphered; one of the primary constituent parts of all lan- LEUCA Archæol.) a league. guages, which, when disposed in a certain order constitute LEUCADENDRON (Bot.) several species of the Protea. what is called an alphabet. (vide Alphabets]

LEUCA'NTHEMUM (Bot.) a name for several species of LETTER of advice (Com.) a letter from one correspondent to the Chrysanthemum.

another, giving him advice, or notice of what bills he has LEU'CAS (Bot.) a kind of herb, a species of the Dryas. drawn

upon him.--Letters of credit, letters given by mer- | LEUCA'TA (Archæol.) a space of ground, as much as a mile chants, or bankers, to a person in whom they confide, to contains.

take up money of their correspondents in foreign parts. LEU'CE (Med.) súra, a cutaneous disease when the hair, Letter of attorney (Law) a writing whereby a person con

skin, and sometimes the Aesh underneath, turns white. stitutes another to do a lawful act in his stead, as to re Gal. de Meth. Med. 1. 2, c. 2; Cel. I. 5, c. 28; Act. de ceive debts, give possession of lands, &c.-Letters clause, Meth. Med. 1. 2, c. 11. literce clausą, i. e. close letters, as distinguished from || LEU'CITE (Min.) a sort of stone of the garnet kind. letters patent, or open letters ; the former of which are LEUCOCHRY'SOS (Min.) a kind of Hyacinth stone of commonly sealed up with the King's Signet, or Privy a gold colour, with white streaks.

the latter being left open, and Sealed with the Broad LEUCO'IUM (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 6 Hexandria, Seal. They are both granted to enable a person to do

Order 1 Monogynia. or enjoy that which he could not otherwise do.—Letter Generic Character, CAL. spathe oblong. — Cor. petals of licence, an instrument, or writing, made by creditors to six.-Stam. filaments six ; anthers oblong.–Pist. germ a man that has failed in trade, allowing him longer time roundish; style obtuse; stigmas sharp. — Per. capsule for the payment of his debts, and protecting him from top-shaped. arrests in the collection of his debts.---Letters of Marque, Species. The species are bulbs, as the-Leucojum vernum, commissions, or letters, under the privy seal, granted to Galanthus, seu Narcissus, Great Spring Snow-drop.the King's subjects for extraordinary reprisals on an enemy, Leucoium æstivum, seu Polyanthemum, Summer Snowparticularly to merchants who have been despoiled of their Drops-Leucoium autumnale, seu Iriohophyllum, Autumproperty.--Letter of respite, a letter issued out by the King nal Snow-Drop. Clus. Hist. ; Dod. Pempt.; Bauh. in favour of honest but unfortunate debtors.- Letter mis Hist.; Bauh. Pin.; Ger. Herb.; Park. Theat. Bot. sive, a letter sent out of Chancery in a process of law | LEUCOIUM (Bot.) a sort of herb, the Alyssum æltridium of against a Peer, [vide Law] This name is also applied Linnæus. Bauhin. Pin. to the letter sent by the King for the election of a bishop. LEUCOMA (Ant.) Zsóka lese, the public register at Athens, -Letters of safe conduct. [vide Safe Conduct]

in which were inserted the names of all the citizens, as Letter (Print.) the type, or character, which is cast for soon as they were of age to enter upon their paternal inprinting. [vide Printing)

heritance, which they called añžis. Pollux. 1. 8, segm. 104; LETTERs of absolution (Ecc.) literæ absolutoriæ, absolvatory Ulp. in Demosthen. l'imocrat.

letters formerly given by abbots to any of their brethren I LEUCO'MA (Med.) the same as Albugo.





LEUCONYMPHÆA (Bot.) the Water-Lily.

cording to the position of

Fig. 1. LEUCOPHLEGMATIAS (Med.) europaeyustias, from the Fulcrum, Weight, and

Asuròs, white, and passport, phlegm ; a dropsy from the Power.- A lever of the first abundance of white and slimy phlegm. Gal. Com. 3, in kind has the fulcrum, or Hippocrat. Epid. I. 3; Aret. de Sign. et caus. diut. 1. 2, prop, between the weight c. 1; Cel. I. 3, c. 21; Paul. Ægin. 1. 3, c. 48.

and the power, as in fig. LEU'COPHRA (Ent.) a genus of animals, in the Linnean 1; suppose A B to be a

Fig. 2. system, Class Vermes, Order Infusoria, which is a sort of rod, or bar ; W, a weight worm invisible to the naked eye.

attached to the end A; P, LEUCOPHTHALMOS (Min.) a precious stone like a a power ‘at the other end white eye. Plin. 1. 37, c. 10.

B; and C, the fulcrum, LEUCO'PSIS (Ent.) a genus of insects, Order Hymenoptera, or prop: then C is the

W having a horny mouth ; a thorax with a long lanceolate centre of motion. Of this

OP scale; wings folded ; and sting reflected and concealed. kind are balances, scales, pincers, scissars, &c.- A Lever LEUCORRÍA (Med.) Aruxappoíce, the whites in women. of the second kind, as in fig. 2, has the weight, W, between LEUCOSTI'CTOS (Min.) a kind of marble with white the power, P, and the fulcrum, C; as oars, rudders, streaks in it.

bellows, cutting knives fixed LEUCO'XYLON (Bot.) the Bignonia Leucoxylon of Lin at one end.-A Lever of the

Fig. 3.

third kind, as in fig. 3, has LEVEE (Polit.) a company of the nobility, gentry, &c. who the power, P, between the

are convened to pay respects to the King. It consists of weight, W, and the fulcrum, ī gentlemen only, in distinction from the drawing-room, C; such as tongs, shears, a where both ladies and gentlemen are admitted.

man raising aladder, the bones LEVEL (Mech.) an instrument used to make a line parallel and muscles of animals, &c.

to the horizon, and to continue it out at pleasure. Levels LEVERET (Sport.) a young hare in the first year of her are of different kinds, according to their materials and

age. constructions; namely, the-Air-Level, which shows the LEVIGATION (Chem.) grinding any hard matter upon a

TION line of level by means of a bubble of air enclosed with marble to a very fine and impalpable powder. some Auid in a glass tube of an indeterminate length and LE VINER (Sport.) a kind of hound of a very singular scent, thickness.- Artillery-Foot Level, in the form of a square, and incomparable swiftness. having its two legs or branches of an equal length.- LEVISA'NUS (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 5 Pentandria, Carpenter's Level, consisting of a long ruler, in the middle Order 1 Monogynia. of which is fitted at right angles another broader piece, Generic Character. Cal. perianth common.–Cor. petals at the top of which is fastened a plummet.—Mason's Level five.-STAM. filaments five; anthers oblong.--Pist. germ is composed of three rules forming an isosceles triangle, inferior; styles two; stigmas simple.-Per. berry cortifrom the vertex of which is suspended the plummet. cated; seeds five or six. Plum, or Pendulum Level, that which shows the horizontal

Species. The species are shrubs, and natives of the Cape line by means of another line perpendicular to that described of Good Hope, as the-Levisanus nodiflorus, Brunia, by a plummet, or pendulum. -Water Level, that which seu Erica.-Levisanus abrotanoides, seu Lewisanus.shows the horizontal line by means of a surfice of water, Levisanus radiatus, Phylia stavia. or other fluid, founded on the principle, that water always LEVISANUS is also the Ligusticum levisticum of Linnæus. places itself level, or horizontal. This answers to the Ger. Herb.; Park. Theat. ; Raii Hist.; Mor. Hist. Chorobates described by Vitruvius. One sort of water- LEVITE (Theol.) one of the tribe of Levi, or belonging to level is called the Reflecting-Level, which is made by means the priestly office. of a pretty long surface of water, representing the object LEURE (Falcon.) or Lure, a piece of red leather made up inverted. This level may likewise be formed by means of in the form of a bird, and hung out on a crook by the a mirror.

falconer to reclaim his birds. LEVEL-COI'L (Sport.) is when he, who has lost the game, LEVY (Law) signifies commonly to collect or exact, as to sits out, and gives another his place.

levy taxes, &c.; sometimes to erect, or cast up, as to levy LEVEL-RANGE (Gun.) the distance that a piece of ord. a ditch, &c. “ To levy a fine of land” signifies to comnance carries a ball in a direct line.

plete that conveyance. LE'VELLED out (Math.) an epithet signifying any line con- | LEX (Ant.) the Athenians are said to have first made use of

tinued out from a given spot in a level, or horizontal laws, having Theseus, Draco, and Solon for their principal direction.

law-givers ; but in addition to the laws which were framed LEVELLERS (Polit.) a sort of people who aim at levelling by them, and others who took a lead in the government, all property and distinctions.

there were many other laws which were enacted upon parLEVELLING (Math.) the art of finding a line parallel to ticular emergencies, by the suffrages of the people, in the

the horizon at one or more stations, in order to determine following manner. The proposer of the law communicated

the height or depth of one place with respect to another. it to the Prytanes, who calling a meeting of the senate, the LEVELLING (Fori.) the reducing an uneven surface to matter was, after mature deliberation, either rejected al

that of a plane, so that the works may be of a corre together, or it was admitted for the purpose of being prospondent height and figure throughout.

posed to the assembly of the people. In this stage it was LEVELLING Staves (Mech.) instruments used in levelling, called προβάλευμα. It was then written upon a white tablet

for carrying the marks to be observed, and at the same for some days previous to the meeting, when it was called time to measure the height of those marks from the Tapés par pepece, which, after it had been approved by the people, ground.

passed into a ψήφισμα, Or νόμος. LÉVER (Mech.) à levando, i. e. from raising or lifting up; The Roman laws consisted of three kinds, namely,- First,

any instrument, as a straight bar of iron, or wood, which those which were made by their kings. Secondly, the is used for raising ponderous weights. It is supported on laws of the twelve tables, brought from Athens by the a fulcrum, or prop, by a single point, and is the simplest of Decemviri, &c.; and, thirdly, such as were proposed by the six mechanical powers. The lever is of three kinds, ac the superior magistrates in the times of the republic.

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The magistrates to whom belonged the right of proposing

laws were, the Prætor, the Consuls, the Dictator, the Interrex, the Decemviri, the Military Tribunes, Triumviri, and Tribunes of the people. When a law was proposed, it was hung up publicly for three market-days, for the inspection of the people, which was called legis promulgatio. The proposing and recommending this to the Comitia, which followed the promulgation, was called rogatio, for the address was always prefaced with this petitionary form of words, velitis jubeatisne Quirites, i. e. will you, Romans, consent, and order this law to pass. The assent of the people was signified by throwing into an urn a tablet inscribed with the letters U. R. signifying uti rogas, i. e. be it as you desire; and their dissent by throwing in a tablet inscribed with the letter A. signifying antiquo, i. e. I prefer the old. An entire stop might

put to the proceedings at any time by the veto, or negative voice of the Tribunes, which was called intercessio; or their progress might be interrupted by the Consul commanding any of the holidays called feriæ inperitive to be observed, or by any one being seized with the morbus comitialis, the falling sickness, or by any other bad omen. When the law was passed it was entered on record in the treasury, which was called legem ferre ; and afterwards being engraved on brass, it was hung up in the most public places, which was termed legem figere, whence to repeal a law was legem refigere. If a law passed in the comitia curiata it was called lex curiata; if in the comitia centuriata, it had the name of the lex centuriata ; but if it passed in the comitia tributa, it was denominated a plebiscitum. The decrees of the Senate were entitled senatus-consulta ; those of the Prætors, edicta ; and those of other magistrates were in one word entitled jus honorarium. The following are the principal laws, distinguished mostly by the names of their proposers, which occur in Latin authors.—Lex Acilia, two laws of the Acilii, de pecuniis repetundis, i.e. against oppression or extortion in the provinces, and de ambitu, i. e. against bribery and corruption. The authors of this ast law were Acilius Glabrio and C. Calpurnius Piso, Consuls A. U. 686. Cic. Proem. in Verr. c. 17; Ascon. in Cic. ; Liv. 1. 33, c. 29.-Lex Æbutia, by the Tribune Æbutius, which prohibited the proposer of any law concerning any charge or power, from conferring such office on himself or his colleagues, &c. Cic. in Rull. 2, c. 8. ---Lex Elia de Comitiis, U. C. 586, which ordained that the augurs, in all assemblies of the people, should make observations on the heavens, and that the magistrates should have the power of stopping the proceedings. Cic. pro Sext. c. 15, &C.-Lex Ælia Sentia, by the Consuls Ælius and Sentius, U. C. 756, about the manumission of slaves. Sueton. in Aug. c. 40.-Lex Æmilia, by the Dictator Mamercus Æmilius, U. C. 319, to make the censorship annual. Another law, so named from M. Æmilius Lepidus, the Consul, or, according to Pliny, M. Æmil. Scaurus, U. C. 675, was a sumptuary law for the regulation of dress and diet, particularly at public entertainments. Plin. l. 8, c. 57; Aurel. Vict. de vir Illust. c. 72; Macrob. Sat. 1. 20, c. 13.-Lex Agraria. (vide Agraria]-Lex Annalis. (vide Annalis]-Lex Antia, a sumptuary law by Antius Restio. Macrob. Sat. 1. 2, c. 13.-Lex Antonia, two laws so named from M. Antony, one for restoring the privileges of the priests to the college of priests, and the other for abolishing the dictatorship; both of which passed after the death of Julius Cæsar. Cic. Phil. 1, &c.; Appian. de Bell. civ. 1.3; Dio. I. 44, &c. - Ler Apuleia, by L. Apuleius Saturninus, a Tribune of the people, about dividing the public lands among the veteran soldiers. Cic.


Ball. c. 21; Plut. in Marcell.; Appian. de Bell. Civ. 1. 1.Ler Atia, by Atius, a Tribune, for transferring the right

of electing priests from the colleges of priests to the people.-Lex Atilia gave to the Prætor and the Tribunes the right of appointing guardians. Another law, by L. Atilius and C. Marcius, for the creation of military tribunes. Liv. I, 26, c. 33.—Ler Atinia. [vide Atinia] -Ler Aufidia de ambitu ordained that if a candidate promised money to a tribe, and did not pay it, he should be excused; but if he did pay it he should be obliged to pay every tribe a yearly fine of 3,000 sestertii as long as he lived. Cic. ad Attic. l. 1, ep. 16.-Lex Aurelia, by L. Aurelius Cotta, Prætor, U. C. 683, that the judices, or jurymen, should be chosen from among thesenators. Ascon. in Cic.-Lex Bæbia, for the election of four prætors every other

year, U. C. 574.-Lex Cæcilia Didia, that the laws should be promulgated on three market days, U. C. 655. Another against bribery, and a third about exempting the city, &c. from taxes. Cic. ad Attic. 1. 2, ep. 9, &c.; Dio. 1.37.-Lex Calpurnia de ambitu, by L. Calpurnius Piso with M. Acilius. [vide Ler Acilia] Anather, by the same, concerning the reward of the soldiers, and also de repetundis, or bribery.-Lex Canulein, about the intermarriage of the patricians with the plebeians. Liv. I. 4, c. 6.- Ler Cassia, for excluding condemned persons from the senate. Ascon. in Cic. pro Corn. Another about supplying the senate, and a third about voting by ballot, &c. Tacit. Annal. 1. 11, c. 25.-Lex Cincia de donis et muneribus, by Cincius, a Tribune, against taking money for pleading a cause.

Cic. de Senect. c. 4, &c.; Liv. 1. 34, c. 4; Tacit. Annal. 1. 11, &c.—Lex Claudia, U. C. 535, against senators having vessels above a certain burden. Suet. in Dom. c. 9. Another law by the Consul Claudius, U. C. 573, in favour of the allies who wished to return to their own cities. A third by the Consul Marcellus, U. C. 703, that no one should be al. lowed to stand candidate for an office while he was ab. sent. Cic. Fam. I. 13, epist. 35; Suet. Jul. c. 28. A fourth, by the Emperor Claudius, against usurers who lent money to minors. Suet. in Claud. c. 11.-Leges Clodiæ, several laws by the Tribune Clodius, which were of a revolutionary tendency, and for the repeal of old laws, as that corn should be distributed to the people gratis ; that the censors should not expel any one from the senate without the concurrence of the whole senare, &c. Cic. in Pis. &c.—Leges Cornelia, by L. Cornelius Sylla, the Dictator, U. C. 672, for the purpose of forwarding his own views, as de proscriptione et proscriptis

, &c. Cic. in Pis.; Sall. Cat. c. 51; Vell. Pat. 1.2, c. 28; Appian. de Bell. Cic. &c.—Lex Curia, by Curius Dentatus, the Tribune, for the election of plebeian magistrates.-Lex Decia, U. C. 443, for the appointment of duumviri navales to equip or fit out a fleet.-Lex Didia, a sumptuary law, U. C. 610. Macrob. Sat. 1. 2, c. 13.Lex Domitia de Sncerdotiis, by the Tribune Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, for the election of priests by the people. Cic. in Rull. 2, c. 7; Liv. I. 25; Suet. in Ner. c. 2.- Les Duilia, by Duilius, a Tribune, in favour of the tribunes. Liv. 1. 3, c. 35.--Lex Fabia de Plagis, &c. against kidnapping. Cic. pro Rabir. &c.-Lex Fannia, a sumptuary law, U. C.588; Plin. I. 10, c. 50; Aul. Gell. I. 2, c. 24; Macrob. Sat. 1. 2, c. 13.—Let Flaminia, U. C. 521, for dividing the land of Picenum among the soldiers. Polyb. 1. 2, c. 21 ; Cic. de Sen. c. 4.-Lex Flavia, an agrarian law in favour of Pompey's soldiers by L. Flavius, a Tribune.-Lex Frumentaria, any law for the distribution of corn.-Lex Furia, by Camillus, the Dictator, for the creation of the curule ædiles, U. C. 385. Liv. l. 6, c. 42. Another law of this name limited inheritances to 1,000

Liv. 1. 3, c. 4.-Lex Fusia de comitiis, U. C. 691, by a prætor, for regulating the mode of voting.-Lex Gabinia, by A. Gabinius, a Tribune, U. C. 685, that the people should give their votes by ballots, and not


viva voce, &c.-Lex Genucia, U. C. 411, for the election de ambitu, U. C. 397; Liv. 1. 7, c. 15. De neris, by the of both the consuls from the plebeians. Liv. I. 7, c. 42. consuls, U. C. 429. Liv. I. 8, c. 28. De peculatu, by a Another, against usury.-Lex Hieronica, the law of tribune, U. C. 566. Liv. I. 38, c. 54.-Lex Plautia, or Hiero in regard to the manner of holding lands by the Plotia, by a tribune, U. C. 664, that the judices should Sicilian tenants, which was adopted by the Prætor Ru be chosen from the equites, the senators, and the plepilius when Sicily was reduced to a province. Cic. in beians. Ascon. in Cic. pro Cornel.-Lex Pompeia, by Verr. 3, c. 8, &c. -Ler Hortensia, for changing the nun Pompey, the Consul, to inquire into the death of Clodince, or market-days, which used to be ferice, or holidays, dius. Ascon. in Cic. pro Mil. There were other laws into fasti. Macrob. Sat. 1. 1, c. 16. Another, de plebis proposed by Pompey, namely, against bribery and corrupcitis. Liv. Epii. I. 11; Gell. I. 15, c. 27.-Lex Icilia de tion, for regulating the election of the judices, &c. Cic. tribunis, U. C. 261, that no one should interrupt a tribune in Pis. &c. ; Dio. I. 39, &c.; Appian. de Bell. Civ.-Lex while speaking. Dionys. 1. 7, c. 17. Another, de Aven Porcia, that no one should scourge or put to death a tino publicando, &c. Liv. I. 3, c. 32.-Leges Juliæ, laws Roman citizen. Cic. in Verr. 5, c. 63; Sall. Cat. c. 51; made by Jul. Cæsar, as ile civitate sociis et Latinis danda, Liv. 1. 10, c. 9.Ler Pupia, by a tribune, that the seAgraria, &c. Cic. pro Balb. c. 8; Aul. Gell. 1. 4, c. 4, nate should not be held on comitial days. Cic. ad Frat. &c.; Vell. Pat. 1. 2, c. 14; Dio. c. 38, &c.; Sueton. in 1. 2, ep. 2.-Lex Quinctia, U. C. 745, for the punishment Jul.; Tacit. Annal. &c.—Lex Labiena, U. C. 691, for of those who hurt the aqueducts. Frontin. de Aqueduct. abrogating the law of Sylla.—Lex Licinia, a name for -Lex Regia, the decrees of the senate which conferred several laws, namely, by C. Licinius Stolo, U. C. 377, to the supreme power on Augustus and his successors.limit the possessions of any one to 500 acres of land, Leges Sacratæ, laws which chiefly concerned the tri&c.; by P. Licinius Varus, U. C. 545, for fixing the time bunes, and were so called because those who violated of celebrating the ludi Apollinares ; by P. Licinius Cras them were consecrated to some god. Cic. de Ofic. I. 3, sus, a sumptuary law, U. C. 656, &c. Cic. de Amic. c. 31; Fest. de Verb. Signif:- Lèx Satura, a law conc. 25; Liv. 1. 6, c. 35, &c.—Leges Liviæ, the laws of M. sisting of several distinct particulars, which ought to have Livius Drusus, a Tribune, the principal of which was been enacted separately. Fest, de Verb. Signif.-Lex that for granting the freedom of the city to the allied Scatinea, by a tribune, against illicit amours. Cic. Fam. states of Italy, U. C. 602. Cic. pro Rabir. c. 7, &c.; 1, 8, ep. 14, &c.—Lex Scribonia, by a tribune, U. C. 601, Liv. Epit. 1. 71 ; Appian. de Bell. Civ. I. 1, c. 373 ; Plin. about restoring the Lusitani their freedom.- Leges Sem1. 32, c. 33, &c.-Lex Lutatia de vi, by Q. Lutatius proniæ, laws proposed by Sempronius Gracchus, of Catulus, U.C. 675. Cic. pro Cel. 1, c. 29.-Lex Moenia, which the principal was the Lex Agraria and the Lez by a tribune, U. C. 467, that the senate should ratify Frumentaria. Cic. Phil. 1, c. 7, &c.; Liv. Epit. l. 58, whatever was done by the people. Cic. in Brut. c. 14. &c.—Ler Servilia, an agrarian law by P. Servilius -Lex Majestatis, for punishing any crime against the Rullus, U. C. 690. Another, De Civitate, by C. Serpeople, and afterwards against the emperors. Cic. in vilius Glaucia, a prætor, U. C. 653. Cic. pro Balb, Pis. c. 21; Tacit. Annal. I. 4, c. 84.-Lex Mamilia, for c. 24. De Repetundis, by the same person. Cic. in regulating the bounds of farms, by C. Mamilius, a Tri Verr. 1, c. 9.-Lex Siciniu, by Sicinius, a Tribune, U.C. bune, U. C. 612. Cic. de Leg. 1, 1, c. 21.-Lex Ma 662, to prohibit any one from interrupting a tribune. nilia, by C. Manilius, a Tribune, that freedmen might Dionys. 1. 7, c. 17.-Lex Sulpicia Sempronia, by the vote in all the tribes, &c. Cic. pro Mun. C. 23.-Lex consuls, U. C. 449, that no one should dedicate a temple, Manlia, for creating Triumviri Epulones. Orat. &c. without the order of the senate. Several laws were 1. 3, c. 19.-Lex Marcia, by Marcius Censorinus, that also proposed by the Tribune Serv. Sulpicius, U.C.665, no one should be made a censor a second time. Plut. which were afterwards abrogated by Sylla.-- Leges Sumpin Coriol.-Ler Maria Porcia, by two tribunes, U.C. tuariæ, sumptuary laws to restrain expense in dress, 691, for the punishment of commanders who gave a equipages, entertainments, and the like. -Lex Titia, by false account of their victory in order to obtain a tri a tribune, as is supposed, for doubling the number of umph. Val. Mar. 1. 9, c. 8.-Ler Memmia, in favour quæstors. Cic. pro Muren. c. 8.-Lex Trebɔnia, by a of absent persons who were accused, and also against tribune, U. C. 698, assigning provinces to the consuls calumniators. Val. Mar. 1. 3, c. 7, &c.; Suet. in Jul. for five years.-Lex Tribunitia, either a law proposed by c. 23.-Ler Menenia, U. C. 302, that, in imposing fines, a tribune, or a law restoring their power. Cic. in Rull. a sheep should be estimated at ten asses.

2, c. 8; Cic. in Verr. 1, c. 16; Liv. I. 3, č. 56.-Ler culatus.-Lex Mensin, that a child should be held as a Tullia de ambitu, by Cicero, when consul. Cic. in Vat. foreigner if either of the parents were so.Leges mili c. 15; Pro Sext. c. 64, &c.; Dio. 1. 37.-Lex Valeria, by tares, regulations for the army. Cic. pro Flacc. c. 32. L. Valerius Flaccus, interrex. U. C. 671, creating Sylla Lex Minucia, U. C. 537, about appointing bankers to Dictator, and ratifying all his acts. Cic. pro S. Rosc. receive the public money. Liv. 1. 33, c. 31.—Lex Oc c. 43, &c.—Lex Vatinia, by the tribune, de alternis contaviæ, a corn law, by a tribune, U. C. 633. Cic. in siliis rejiciendis, that is, that both the defendant and acBrut. c. 62.--Ler Ogulnia, by two tribunes, U. C. 453, cuser might at once reject all the judices, or jury.-Lex for 'increasing the number of the pontifices to eight. voconia de hereditatibus mulierum, by a tribune, U. C. Liv. I. 10, c. 6.—Lex Oppin, a sumptuary law to restrain 384, that no one should make a woman his heir, &c. the dress, &c. of women, by a tribune, U. C. 510; Liv. Cic. in Verr. 1, c. 42; Ascon. in Cic. ; Aul. Gell. I. 20; 1. 34, c. 1; Tacit. Annal. I. 3, c. 33.—Lex Papia, a Antiq. Jur. Ital.; Manut. de Leg. apud Græv. name for several laws, but particularly one proposed by Thes. Antiq. Rom. tom. 1, &c. the Consuls Papius and Poppæus for enforcing and en Lex amissa (Law) or legem amittere, to be an outlawed inlarging the 'Julian law respecting marriage. Tacit. famous person.-Lex apostata, or legem apostatare, to do a Annal. l. 3, c. 25.Ler Papiria, the name of several thing contrary to law.-Lex Brehonia, the Brehon, or Irish laws, particularly one by a prætor, for granting the Law, which was abolished by King John.-Lex Bretoni, the freedom of the people of Acerna, and one by a tribune, law of the ancient Britons.—Lerderausnia, the proof of a U. C. 563, for diminishing the weight of the as one half. thing which one denies to be done by him, where another Liv. ). 8, c. 17; Plin. l. 33, c. 3.-Ler Pedia, by Pe affirms it, defeating the assertion of his adversary, and dius, the Consul, decreeing banishment against the mur showing it to be against reason and probability.-Ler juderers of Cæsar. Vell. Patn. I. 2, c. 69.-Lex Pætelia dicialis, the ordeal.-Ler sacramentalis, purgation by oath.

Fest. in pe

forked process.

-Lex talionis, the law of retaliation.-Lex terræ, the law confession of their faith, consented to pay a fine, that they
and custom of the land, so called in distinction from the might not be compelled to sacrifice to idols. St. Cyprian,
Civil Law.--Ler Wallensica, the British Law, or Law of de Laps. p. 244, epist. 31; Baron. Annal. Ann. 250.

LIBELLULA (Ent.) Dragon-Fly, a genus of Insects, Order LE'XIARCHS (Ant.) anticepxou, Athenian officers, whose bu Neuroptera.

siness it was to fine such as did not attend public assemblies, Generic Character. Mouth armed with jaws; antenne very and to take a scrutiny of those that were present. They thin; wings expanded; tail of the male furnished with a also kept a register of all who had attained their full age, &c. They were six in number, and were assisted by thirty Species. This tribe of insects is extremely ravenous, and inferior officers. (vide Leucoma

generally seek their food near stagnant lakes; the larte LEXICOGRAPHY (Lit) from heğixò, a dictionary, and are six-footed, active inhabitants of the water, and prey cype@w, to write ; the art of writing dictionaries.

with the most rapacious ferocity upon aquatic insects: LEYDEN Phial (Elect.) vide Electricity.


resembles the larva, except that it has the rudiLEYSERA (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 19 Syngenesia, ments of wings. Order 2 Polygamia Superflua.

LIBE'LLUS (Ant.) 1. Libellus delatorius, an information laid Generic Character. Cal. common.-Cor. compound. against any one to a magistrate. Plin. 1. 8, ep. 27; Tac.

Stam. filaments five ; anthers tubular. - Pist. germ Annal. 1. 3, c. 44 ; Suet, in Jul. c. 81; Pollet. For. Rom. small; style filiform; stigma bifid.— Per. none; seeds 1. 4, c. 7. 2. Libellus suppler, a petition. Mart. I. 8, oblong.

epig. 31. 3. Libellus famosus, a defamatory libel, called Species. The species are shrubs, as the--Leysera gnapha by Seneca Libellus contumeliosus, infamous verses, which lides, Asteropeterus, seu Aster.-Leysera callicornia, by a Roman law were punishable with death. Tacit.

Callicornia, &c. natives of the Cape of Good Hope. Annal. I. 1, c. 72; Dio. 1. 56; August. de Civ. Dei, 1. 2, LIA'RD (Com.) a small French coin, four of which are equal c. 9; Arnob. 1. 4. 4. A libel, or declaration, in the sense to a sou.

as it is now used in the civil law. Ulpian. de Leg. Jul. de LIATRIS (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 19 Syngenesia, Adult. 5. A bill giving notice when a show of gladiators Order 1 Polygamia æqualis.

would be exhibited. Pollio in Claud. Generic Character. Cal, common, oblong.–Cor. com LI'BER Niger (Law) vide Black Book.

pound.—Stam. filaments five; anthers tubular.–Pist. LIBER (Bot.) the inner bark of a plant, the third integument, germ ovate ; style filiform; stigma sharp.-Per, none; which is membranaceous, juicy, and flexible; from this is seeds solitary.

gradually formed the wood, and, according to Linnæus, the Species. The species are perennials, as the-Liatris proe corolla is a continuation of it. alta, seu Eupatoria, Tall Liatris.-Liatris glauca, Su- LIBERA Legatus (Ant.) vide Legatio. prago, seu Centaureum, &c.

LIBERA (Law) a livery or delivery of a certain quantity of LIBAMINA (Ant.) a part of the offering in the Roman sa grass, by way of gratuity, to him who cut it down.- Libera

crifices which immediately followed the libation ; it con batella, a free-boat, or right of fishing.-Libera chacea hasisted of the roughest hairs betwixt the horns of the victim, benda, a judicial writ granted to a man for a chase belongwhich the priest plucked off and threw into the fire. Ovid. ing to his manor. Reg. Orig. 36. Fast. 1. 3, v. 732; Plin. I. 37, c. 10.

LIBERAL Arts (Lit.) such as are fit for gentlemen and LIBANOMA'NCY (Ant.) arbarousertei; a sort of divination scholars, in distinction from mechanic trades, which are

by means of assávos, frankincense, which was reckoned to followed by mechanics and workmen. afford a good or bad omen, according to the smell which it LIBER A’LIA (Ant.) feasts celebrated by the Romans in yielded when it was burnt.

honour of Bacchus, on the 16th of the Calends of April, LIBANO'CHRUS (Min.) a precious stone, of the colour of otherwise called Bacchanalia. According to Varro they frankincense. Plin. I. 37, c. 10.

were so called because the priests were liberi, i. e. exempt LIBANO'TIS (Bot.) 268&ratis, Rosemary; a herb that smells from their functions on that day, which were performed by Like frankincense, the root of which acted as a purgative

old women. Varr. de Lat. Lin. 1. 5, c. 3; Fest, de Verb. and an emetic. Theophrast. Hist. Plant. l. 9, c. 13; Dios Signif. ; Tertull. Apolog. c. 42. cor. I. 3, c. 87; Plin. 1. 24, c. 12.

LIBERAM legem amittere (Law) is to be accounted infamous, LIBANOTIS, in the Linnean system, is the name of several in opposition to the liber et legalis homo. species of the Athamanta.

LIBERA'TA terra (Law) a certain portion of land. [vide LIBANUS (Nat.) außávos, frankincense.

Librata) LIBA'TION (Ant.) rodi, one of the essential parts of the LI'BERATE (Law) a warrant issued out of chancery for

pay sacrifices among the Greeks and Romans, which consisted ment of a yearly pension granted under the great seal ; in offering up any liquid to the gods, in order to conciliate also to a gaoler for delivery of lands or goods taken upon their favour and protection. At first libations were made forfeit of recognisance. of water, honey, milk, oil, &c. but afterwards mostly of LIBERA'TIO ( Archæol.) money, meat, drink, clothes, &c. wine. Gyrald. Syntag. Deor. l. 17, &c.

given yearly by the lord to his tenant. LI'BEL (Law) from libellus, a little book; a contumely or LIBE'RTAS ecclesiastica (Law) church liberty, or ecclesias

reproach published to the defamation of the government, tical immunities. a magistrate, or a private person.

LIBERTA'TE probanda (Law) a writ for such as were chalLibel is also the original declaration of any action in the lenged for villeins, and offered to prove themselves free.

civil law; and in the Scotch law it is the subject of com F. N. B. 77. plaint, or the ground of the charge on which any action, | LIBERTA'TIBUS allocandis (Law) a writ for a citizen imcivil or criminal, takes place.

pleaded contrary to his liberty to have his privilege allowed. LIBE'LLA (Ant.) a small Roman coin, the tenth part of a -Libertatibus exigendis in itinere, a writ whereby the King

sesterce or denier, about three farthings of our money. willed the Justices in Eyre to admit of an attorney for the Cic. in Verr. 2, c.,10; Varr. de Lat. Ling. 1. 4, c. 36; Bud. defence of another man's liberty. Reg. Orig. c. 19, L. 262; de Ass. p. 104 ; Gronov. de Pecun. Vet. I. 3, c. 12.

New Nat. Brev. 509, &c. LIBELLATICI (Ecc.) christians in the primitive times, who, LIBERTIES (Law) or franchis, royal privileges, or branches

through fear of punishment, made a libel, or declaration, of the king's prerogative subsisting in the hands of a before the magistrate that they were not christians, or, on subject.

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