Sidebilder
PDF
ePub

of its parts.

luń luteúm, Bulbus, seu Pyrrhochiton, Yellow Star of from the body, strikes them downwards with great force, Bethlehem. - Ornihogalum minimum; Phalangium, seu by which it is elevated a certain height in the air ; and, Hypoxis, Small Star of Bethlehem.--Ornithogalum Py by the repetition of these strokes, which serve as so renaicum, seu Asphodelus, Pyrenian Star of Bethlehem. many leaps, it can carry itself forward or upward. When -Ornithogalum aureum, Golden Star of Bethlehem, &c. it wants to turn to the right or left, it strikes strongly Clus. Hist.; Dod. Pempt.; Bauh. Hist.; Bauh. Pin.; with the opposite wing, so as to impel the body to the

Ger. Herb.; Park. Theat. Bot.; Raii Hist.; Tourn. Inst. proper side; if it wants to rise, it raises its tail; if to fall, ORNITHOLI'THUS (Min.) from opus, a bird, and nibos, a it depresses it : when in a horizontal direction, the tail stone; a petrefaction of a bird, or

any

keeps the body steady: thus acting in all its movements ORNITHOLOGY, from õpris, a bird, and anyos, doctrine ; like a rudder. By simply expanding its wings, a bird can

the science which treats of birds, or that branch of Natural move horizontally in the air for a length of time without History which treats of the structure, form, habits, man striking; but, if it wish to alight, it stretches the ners, and other characteristic properties of birds.

wings and tail full against the air that they may meet with Birds are in general denominated the feathered tribe, to all possible resistance. As the wings are placed in the

distinguish them from other animals; their feathers being middle of the body, most birds, to preserve their equilitheir distinguishing property, which are wonderfully brium, thrust out the head and neck in flying. This is adapted to their mode of life, not only protecting them most observable in the flight of ducks, geese, and aquatic from the injuries of the weather, but also assisting them in fowl in general, in whom the centre of gravity is placed their progress through the air. To this end every part farther back than in land birds. In some, as the heron, of their frame seems equally well adapted; for all the their long legs serve as a counterpoise ; and in all birds bones are light and thin; and all the muscles, except the cells in their abdomen, which they have the power those which are appropriated to the movements of their of filling with air, furnish them with the means of prewings, are extremely light and delicate. The lungs are serving a due equilibrium. placed close to the backbone and ribs. The air, entering As the feathers of birds would inevitably contract both wet into them by a communication from the windpipe, is and dirt so as materially to impede their movements, they conveyed into a number of membranous cells, which lie are provided with two glands on the rump, in which is on the sides of the pericardium, and about the sternum. secreted an oily matter that serves to throw off all needIn some birds these cells are also to be found in the less wet, and contributes also to cleanliness. As dowings, even down to the pinions; both of which are mestic birds are more sheltered from the inclemency of abundantly supplied with air, which is pecularly useful the weather than other fowls, they are not supplied with to these animals to prevent their respiration from being this fluid so abundantly, and consequently suffer constopped or interrupted by their rapid motion through a siderable inconvenience when exposed to wet. Ducks, resisting medium.

however, and other water fowls that frequent the water, In respect to their food, birds are distinguished into carni have the power of protecting their feathers in a peculiar

vorous and granivorous.-Carnivorous birds are provided manner from the action of the water. with wings of great length, the muscles of which are pro For the preservation of their eyes, which are peculiarly portionably large and strong, by which they are enabled exposed to injury, from the power of the sun's rays, to keep very long on the wing in search of their prey; they are provided with a particular membrane, called a besides which they are armed with strong hooked bills, nictitant, or winking membrane, which can be drawn at and formidable claws that are fitted for laying hold on pleasure over the whole eye like a curtain. This memthe objects of their search; their heads are large, their brane is not so opake as to excluded all light, nor so necks short, their thighs strong and brawny, and their pellucid as to admit the light in its full force, or to an sight so acute that they can distinguish their prey at an inconvenient degree. By the help of this membrane, it immense distance. Such of them as feed on carrion is said that the eagle can gaze at the sun. have likewise an acute smell perfectly adapted for the Towards the systematic arrangements of birds, little was detection of their food in places the most remote and done until the time of Linnæus, who formed this part secluded.

of the Animal Kingdom into a Class under the name of The stomachs of granivorous birds are furnished with Aves, which he divided into six Orders ; namely, Ac

larger intestines than those of the carnivorous tribe. cipitres, Pice, Anseres, Gralle, Gallince, and Passeres; The first stomach which receives the grain is called the these he subdivided into genera and species. [vide Anicraw, or crop, wherein it is diluted by a liquor secreted mal Kingdom). The characters, which he made the from the glands spread over its surface. In this state it basis of his distinctions, are mostly taken from the expasses into a second stomach, where it becomes still ternal form, and are as follow; namely.-Rostrum, the more diluted; and, finally, it passes into the gizzard, or Bill, which is composed of two parts, upper and lower, true stomach, composed of two strong muscles, by the called mandibles; this is uncinatum, hooked, as in the help of which the food becomes macerated sufficiently to Eagle and Hawk; fig. 1, 2, Plate 53 ; cultratum, culafford nutriment. To facilitate this process of digestion, trated, when the edges of the bill are very sharp, as in animals swallow stones, which powerfully contribute to that of the crow; subulatum, awl-shaped, i. e. straight the comminution of the grain. Between granivorous and slender ; unguiculatum, a bill with a nail at the end, birds and herbivorous quadrupeds, there is a manifest as in those of the Ducks and Goosanders; emarginalun, analogy, both in their structure and habits, as also be emarginated, when there is a small notch near the tween carnivorous animals of every kind.

end of the bill, as in that of the Thrushes. The mandiAs the muscles in the wings of birds contribute most to bles are said to be compressed when they are vertically

their flight, they are the largest parts of the whole body, flattened at the sides, and depressed when horizontally being, in some instances, not less in weight than the flattened.-Caruncula, the Caruncle, or fleshy excressixth of the whole bird. The wings, in striking down cence on the head. At the base of the bill in some wards, expand very considerably; and, except that they birds, there is a naked skin, with which it is covered, are somewhat hollow on the under side, they form, in this called the cere, as in fig. 2. In some there are stiff hairs act, almost two planes. When a bird that is on the ground at the base of the bill called vibrisse, which are either intends to rise, it takes a leap, and, stretching its wings simple, as in the Fly-Catcher; or pectinated, as in the

Goatsucker.- Nares, the Nostrils, are lincares, linear, Female Woodgrous.-Order VI. Passeres, having the
i. e. very narrow, as in Sea-Gulls; marginata, with a bill conic and sharp-pointed, as fig. 14, Loria curvi-
rim round the nostrils, as in the Stare.-- Lorum, the rostra, the Common Cross-bill; fig. 15, Loxia cucullata,
Lore, i. e. the space between the bill and the eye, which Crested Grosbeak.
is generally covered with feathers; but, in some birds, ORNITHOMA'NCY (Ant.) ógrilovartalé, from ópos, a hird,
as in the Black and White Grebe, it is naked.— Capis and pastika, divination; a species of divination practised
trum, the short feathers on the forehead, just above the by the Greeks very similar to what was called augurium
bill, which fall forward over the nostrils, they quite cover by the Romans.
those of the crow.Orbita, the Orbit, or skin that sur ORNITHOPO'DIO affinis (Bot.) the Ornithopus compressus
rounds the eye, which is generally bare, particularly in of Linnæus.
the Heron. -- Iris, that part which surrounds the pupil | ORNITHOPO'DIUM (But.) the Ornithopus perpusillus of
of the eye.— Nucha, the hind part of the head.-Lingua, Linnæus.
the Tongue, which is integra, entire, i. e. not cloven; ORNITHO'PUS (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 17 Diadel-
ciliata, edged with fine bristles, as in Ducks; lumbrici phia, Order 4 Decandria.
formis, i. e. long and slender like a worm, as in the Generic Character. Cal. perianth one-leaved.--Cor. papi-
Woodpecker, Wryneck, &c. fig. 5. Penna, Feathers lionaceous.—Stam. filaments simple; anthers simple.-
which are scapulares, scapular, when they rise from the Pisr. germ linear; style bristle-shaped ; stigma a termi-
shoulders and cover the sides of the back; tectrices nating dot.- Per. legume awl-shaped; seeds roundish.
primæ, lesser wing-coverts, the small feathers that lie Species. The species are annuals, as the-Ornithopus per-
in several rows on the bones of the wings; the under pusillus, seu Ornithopodium, Common Bird's-foot. -
coverts are those that lie inside of the wing; tectrices Ornithopus compressus, seu Scorpoides, Hairy Bird's-foot.
secundæ, greater wing-coverts, or feathers that lie im But the Ornithopus tetraphyllus is a perennnial. Bauh.
mediately over the quill-feathers and secondary feathers; Hist.; Bauh. Pin.; Ger. Herb.; Park. Theat. Bot.;
remiges primores, the greater quill-feathers, or largest Raii Hist. ; Tourn. Inst.
feathers of the wings, or those that rise from the first | ORNUS (Bot.) the Fraxinus ornus of Linnæus.
bone; remiges secundaria, lesser quill-feathers, those | OROBA'NCHÉ (Bot.) époßáyxn, a plant so called because,
that rise from the second bone; uropygium, Coverts of according to Theophrastus, cogor cyxri, it strangles the
the Tail, or those that cover the base of the tail; orobus, or any flowers on which it fixes. Theophrast. Hist.
crissum, Vent-feathers, or those which cover the region Plant. I. 8, č. 8; Dioscor. 1. 2, c. 172; Plin. I. 22, c. ult.;
of the vent; rectrices, the feathers of the tail; ulula Geopon. I. 2, c. 40.
spuria, a Bastard Wing, a small joint rising at the end | Orobanche, in the Linnean system, a genus of plants,
of the middle part of the wing, or the cubitus ; on Class 14 Didynamia, Order 1 Angiosperma.
which are three or four feathers.- Pedes, the Feet, which Generic Character. Cal. perianth one-leaved. - Cor.
are ambulatorii, with four toes, the three foretoes almost petal one.-STAM. filaments four; anthers erect.-Pist.
separated to their origin; gressorii, when the outward germ oblong; style simple; stigma blunt.-Per, capsule
toe is closely united almost its whole length with the ovate; seeds many.
middle toe, as in the Kingfisher, fig. 4 ; cursorii, such Species. The species are the Orobanche major, seu Rapum,
as want the back toe ; scansorii, formed for climbing, Common Broom-Rape.- Orobanche elatior, Tall Broom-
as the foot of the Woodpecker, Wryneck, &c. fig. 5; Rape. - Orobanche cernua, Drooping Broom-Rape.-
lobati, fin-footed, as those of the Grebe, fig. 6; pinnali, Orobanche purpurea, Purple Broom. Pape.- Orobanche
scallop-toed, as that of the Coot and the Phalarope, as cerulæa, Blue Broom-Rape, &c. Bauh. Hist.; Bauh.
in fig. 11; palmati, webbed, formed for swimming, as in Pin.; Ger. Herb.; Park. Theat. Bot.; Raii Hist.;
figs. 6, 7, 8; semipalmati, half-webbed, when the webs Tourn. Inst.
reach only half way, as fig. 9, Plate No. II. (54); com OROBOI'DES Hypostasis (Med.) a settlement in urine like
pedes, when the legs are placed so far behind as to make vetches.
the bird walk with difficulty, or as if in fetters, as is the O'ROBUS (Bot.) Opo Bos, a plant so called, rufa 75 épéntsolus
case with Auks, Grebes, &c. as fig. 6, 7.

cao tão Bewr, i. e. from its being the food of oxen, because

it was much used in the fatting of oxen. It was employed Explanation of the Plate No. I. (53)

in expiatory sacrifices, according to Plutarch, and served Linnean Orders. I. Accipitres, having the bill generally many medicinal purposes, which are mentioned by Dios.

hooked, and a cere at the base, as fig. 1, Falco ossi corides. Aristot. Hist. Animal. I. 3, c. 21; Theophrast.
fragrus, the Osprey, or Sea-Eagle; fig. 2, Falco pa Hist. Plant. I. 8, c. 3; Dioscor. I. 2, c. 131; Gal. de Alim.
lumbarius, the Goshawk; fig. 3, Lanius excubitor, the Fac. 1. 1.
Shrike, or Butcher Bird. — 11. Picæ, having the bill Orobus, a genus of plants, Class 17 Diadelphia, Order 4
compressed and convex, as fig. 4, Alcedo hispida, the Decandria.
Kingfisher; fig. 5, Yynx torquilla, the Wryneck. - Generic Character. Cal. perianth one-leaved.—Cor. papi-
III. Anseres, having the bill covered with a membrane, lionaceous. Stam. díadelphous ; anthers roundish.-
and broad at the top, as fig. 6, Colymbus urinator, the Pist. germ compressed; style filiform ; stigma linear.
Tippet Grebe; fig. 7, Alca impennis, the Razorbill, or - Per. legume round; seeds very many,
Great Auk; fig. 8, Pelecanus bassanus, the Gannet Species. The species are perennials, as the Orobus lathy-
Corvorant.

roides, Upright Bitter Vetch.-Orobus luteus, seu Ga-
Plate No. II. (5+)

lega, Yellow Bitter Vetch.-Orobus vernus, Spring Bitter

but the-Orobus cocaneus, Scarlet Bitter Vetch, Order IV. Gralle, having the bill roundish and tongue is an annual. Clus. Hist.; Dod. Pempt.; Bauh. Hist.;

fleshy, as fig. 9, Platalea leucorodia, the Spoon-bill; Bauh. Pin.; Ger. Herb.; Park. Theat. Bot. ; Raiï
fig. 10, Recurvirostra avosetta, the Avoset, or Scooper; Hist.; Tourn. Inst.
fig. 11, Phalaropus lobatus, the Phalarope. - Order V. ORONTIUM (Bot.) a genus of plants, Cless 6 Hexandria,
Gallina, having the bill convex and upper mandible Order 1 Monogynia.
arched, as fig. 12, Tetrao tetrir, Black Grous, Heath Gencric Character. Cal. perianth none. - Cor. petals
Cock, or Black Game; fig. 13, Tetrao urogallus, the six.-Sram. filaments six ; anthers twin. - Pist. germ

[ocr errors][merged small]
[ocr errors]

Vetch;

VOL. II.

[ocr errors]

lum luteum, Bulbus, seu Pyrrhochiton, Yellow Star of from the body, strikes them downwards with great force, Bethlehem. - Orniihogalum minimum; Phalangium, seu by which it is elevated a certain height in the air ; and, Hypoxis, Small Star of Bethlehem.-Ornithogalum Py. by the repetition of these strokes, which serve as so renaicum, seu Asphodelus, Pyrenian Star of Bethlehem.

many leaps, it can carry itself forward or upward. When -Ornithogalum aureum, Golden Star of Bethlehem, &c. it wants to turn to the right or left, it strikes strongly Clus. Hist.; Dod. Pempt.; Bauh. Hist.; Bauh. Pin.; with the opposite wing, so as to impel the body to the

Ger. Herb.; Park. Theat. Bot.; Raii Hist.; Tourn. Inst. proper side; if it wants to rise, it raises its tail; if to fall, ORNITHOLI'THUS (Min.) from ogrec, a bird, and nobos, a it depresses it: when in a horizontal direction, the tail stone; a petrefaction of a bird, or any of its parts.

keeps the body steady: thus acting in all its movements ORNITHO'LOGY, from õpris, a bird, and anos, doctrine ; like a rudder. By simply expanding its wings, a bird can

the science which treats of birds, or that branch of Natural move horizontally in the air for a length of time without History which treats of the structure, form, habits, man striking ; but, if it wish to alight, it stretches the ners, and other characteristic properties of birds.

wings and tail full against the air that they may meet with Birds are in general denominated the feathered tribe, to all possible resistance. As the wings are placed in the

distinguish them from other animals; their feathers being middle of the body, most birds, to preserve their equili. their distinguishing property, which are wonderfully brium, thrust out the head and neck in flying. This is adapted to their mode of life, not only protecting them most observable in the flight of ducks, geese, and aquatic from the injuries of the weather, but also assisting them in fowl in general, in whom the centre of gravity is placed their progress through the air.

To this end every part

farther back than in land birds. In some, as the heron, of their frame seems equally well adapted; for all the their long legs serve as a counterpoise; and in all birds bones are light and thin; and all the muscles, except the cells in their abdomen, which they have the power those which are appropriated to the movements of their of filling with air, furnish them with the means of prewings, are extremely light and delicate. The lungs are serving a due equilibrium. placed close to the backbone and ribs. The air, entering As the feathers of birds would inevitably contract both wet into them by a communication from the windpipe, is and dirt so as materially to impede their movements, they conveyed into a number of membranous cells, which lie are provided with two glands on the rump, in which is on the sides of the pericardium, and about the sternum. secreted an oily matter that serves to throw off all needIn some birds these cells are also to be found in the less wet, and contributes also to cleanliness. As dowings, even down to the pinions; both of which are mestic birds are more sheltered from the inclemency of abundantly supplied with air, which is pecularly useful the weather than other fowls, they are not supplied with to these animals to prevent their respiration from being this fluid so abundantly, and consequently suffer constopped or interrupted by their rapid motion through a siderable inconvenience when exposed to wet. Ducks, resisting medium.

however, and other water fowls that frequent the water, In respect to their food, birds are distinguished into carni have the power of protecting their feathers in a peculiar

vorous and granivorous.-Carnivorous birds are provided manner from the action of the water. with wings of great length, the muscles of which are pro For the preservation of their eyes, which are peculiarly portionably large and strong, by which they are enabled exposed to injury, from the power of the sun's rays, to keep very long on the wing in search of their prey; they are provided with a particular membrane, called a besides which they are armed with strong hooked bills, nictitant, or winking membrane, which can be drawn at and formidable claws that are fitted for laying hold on pleasure over the whole eye like a curtain. This memthe objects of their search; their heads are large, their brane is not so opake as to excluded all light, nor so necks short, their thighs strong and brawny, and their pellucid as to admit the light in its full force, or to an sight so acute that they can distinguish their prey at an inconvenient degree. By the help of this membrane, it immense distance. Such of them as feed on carrion is said that the eagle can gaze at the sun. have likewise an acute smell perfectly adapted for the Towards the systematic arrangements of birds, little was detection of their food in places the most remote and done until the time of Linnæus, who formed this part secluded.

of the Animal Kingdom into a Class under the name of The stomachs, of granivorous birds are furnished with Aves, which he divided into six Orders ; namely, Ac

larger intestines than those of the carnivorous tribe. cipitres, Pice, Anseres, Grallæ, Gallina, and Passeres ; The first stomach which receives the grain is called the these he subdivided into genera and species. [vide Anicraw, or crop, wherein it is diluted by a liquor secreted mal Kingdom). The characters, which he made the from the glands spread over its surface. In this state it basis of his distinctions, are mostly taken from the espasses into a second stoniach, where it becomes still ternal form, and are as follow; namely.-Rostrum, the more diluted; and, finally, it passes into the gizzard, or Bill, which is composed of two parts, upper and lower, true stomach, composed of two strong muscles, by the called mandibles ; this is uncinatum, hooked, as in the help of which the food becomes macerated sufficiently to Eagle and Hawk; fig. 1, 2, Plate 53; cultratum, culafford nutriment. To facilitate this process of digestion, trated, when the edges of the bill are very sharp, as in animals swallow stones, which powerfully contribute to that of the crow; subulatum, awl-shaped, i.e. straight the comminution of the grain. Between granivorous and slender ; unguiculatum, a bill with a nail at the end, birds and herbivorous quadrupeds, there is a manifest as in those of the Ducks and Goosanders; emarginatum, analogy, both in their structure and habits, as also be emarginated, when there is a small notch near the tween carnivorous animals of every kind.

end of the bill, as in that of the Thrushes. The mandi. As the muscles in the wings of birds contribute most to bles are said to be compressed when they are vertically

their flight, they are the largest parts of the whole body, flattened at the sides, and depressed when horizontally being, in some instances, not less in weight than the flattened.-Caruncula, the Caruncle, or fleshy excressixth of the whole bird. The wings, in striking down cence on the head. At the base of the bill in some wards, expand very considerably; and, except that they birds, there is a naked skin, with which it is covered, are somewhat hollow on the under side, they form, in this called the cere, as in fig. 2. In some there are stiff hairs act, almost two planes. When a bird that is on the ground at the base of the bill called vibrissæ, which are either intends to rise, it takes a leap, and, stretching its wings simple, as in the Fly-Catcher; or pectinated, as in the

Goatsucker.— Nares, the Nostrils, are lincares, linear, Female Woodgrous.-Order VI. Passeres, having the i. e. very narrow, as in Sea-Gulls; marginatæ, with a bill conic and sharp-pointed, as fig. 14, Loria curvirim round the nostrils, as in the Stare.-Lorum, the rostra, the Common Cross-bill; fig. 15, Loxia cucullata, Lore, i. e. the space between the bill and the eye,

which Crested Grosbeak. is generally covered with feathers; but, in some birds, ORNITHOMA'NCY (Ant.) ofrelowaytax, from opis, a bird, as in the Black and White Grebe, it is naked.- Capis and pastaid, divination; a species of divination practised trum, the short feathers on the forehead, just above the by the Greeks very similar to what was called augurium bill, which fall forward over the nostrils, they quite cover by the Romans. those of the crow.Orbita, the Orbit, or skin that sur

ORNITHOPOʻDIO affinis (Bot.) the Ornithopus compressus rounds the eye, which is generally bare, particularly in of Linnæus. the Heron. –Iris, that part which surrounds the pupil ORNITHOPO'DIUM (But.) the Ornithopus perpusillus of of the eye.— Nucha, the hind part of the head.-Lingua, Linnæus. the Tongue, which is integra, entire, i. e. not cloven; ORNITHO'PUS (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 17 Diadelciliata, edged with fine bristles, as in Ducks; lumbrici phia, Order 4. Decandria. formis, i. e. long and slender like a worm, as in the Generic Character. Cal. perianth one-leaved.—Cor. papiWoodpecker, Wryneck, &c. fig. 5. Penna, Feathers lionaceous.—Stam. filaments simple ; anthers simple. which are scapulares, scapular, when they rise from the Pist. germ linear; style bristle-shaped ; stigma a termishoulders and cover the sides of the back; tectrices nating dot.- Per. legume awl-shaped; seeds roundish. primæ, lesser winy.coverts, the small feathers that lie Species. The species are annuals, as the-Ornithopus perin several rows on the bones of the wings; the under pusillus, seu Ornithopodium, Common Bird's-foot. coverts are those that lie inside of the wing; tectrices Ornithopus compressus, seu Scorpoides, Hairy Bird's-foot. secunde, greater wing-coverts, or feathers that lie im But the Ornithopus tetraphyllus is a perennnial. Bauh. mediately over the quill-feathers and secondary feathers; Hist.; Bauh. Pin.; Ger. Herb.; Park. Theat. Bot.; remiges primores, the greater quill-feathers, or largest Raii Hist.; Tourn. Inst. feathers of the wings, or those that rise from the first | ORNUS (Bot.) the Fraxinus ornus of Linnæus. bone; remiges secundariæ, lesser quill-feathers, those OROBA'NCHÉ (Bot.) ófobáoxen, a plant so called because, that rise from the second bone; uropygium, Coverts of according to Theophrastus, ofoßor byxsi, it strangles the the Tail, or those that cover the base of the tail; orobus, or any flowers on which it fixes. Theophrast. Hist. crissum, Vent-feathers, or those which cover the region Plant. I. 8, č. 8; Dioscor. 1. 2, c. 172; Plin. I. 22, c. ult.; of the vent; rectrices, the feathers of the tail ; ulula Geopon. 1. 2, c. 40. spuria, a Bastard Wing, a small joint rising at the end | OROBANCHE, in the Linnean system, a genus of plants, of the middle part of the wing, or the cubitus ; on Class 14 Didynamia, Order 1 Angiosperma. which are three or four feathers.- Pedes, the Feet, which Generic Character. Cal. perianth one-leaved. - CoR. are ambulatorii, with four toes, the three foretoes almost petal one.-Stam. filaments four ; anthers erect.—Pist. separated to their origin; gressorii, when the outward germ oblong; style simple; stigma blunt.-Per. capsule toe is closely united almost its whole length with the ovate; seeds many. middle toe, as in the Kingfisher, fig. 4 ; cursorii, such Species. The species are the Orobanche major, seu Rapum, as want the back toe; scansorii, formed for climbing, Common Broom-Rape.- Orobanche elatior, Tall Broomas the foot of the Woodpecker, Wryneck, &c. fig. 5; Rape. - Orobanche cernua, Drooping Broom-Rape.lobati, fin-footed, as those of the Grebe, fig. 6; pinnali, Orobanche purpurea, Purple Broom. Pape.- Orobanche scallop-toed, as that of the Coot and the Phalarope, as cerulæa, Blue Broom-Rape, &c. Bauh. Hist.; Bauh. in fig. 11; palmali, webbed, formed for swimming, as in Pin.; Ger. Herb. ; Park. Theat. Bot.; Raii Hist.; figs. 6, 7, 8; semipalmati, half-webbed, when the webs Tourn. Inst. reach only half way, as fig. 9, Plate No. II. (54); com OROBOIDES Hypostasis (Med.) a settlement in urine like pedes, when the legs are placed so far behind as to make vetches. the bird walk with difficulty, or as if in fetters, as is the O'ROBUS (Bot.) opoßos, a plant so called, supe ošépéntsolus case with Auks, Grebes, &c. as fig. 6, 7.

kao Beão, i. e. from its being the food of oxen, because

it was much used in the fatting of oxen. It was employed Explanation of the Plate No. I. (53)

in expiatory sacrifices, according to Plutarch, and served Linnean Orders. I. Accipitres, having the bill generally many medicinal purposes, which are mentioned by Dios

hooked, and a cere at the base, as fig. 1, Falco ossi corides. Aristot. Hist. Animal. l. 3, c. 21; Theophrast. fragrus, the Osprey, or Sea-Eagle; fig. 2, Falco pa Hist. Plant. I. 8, c. 3; Dioscor. I. 2, c. 131; Gal. de Alim. lumbarius, the Goshawk; fig. 3, Lanius excubitor, the Fac. I. 1. Shrike, or Butcher Bird. — II. Picæ, having the bill Orobus, a genus of plants, Class 17 Diadelphia, Order 4 compressed and convex, as fig. 4, Alcedo hispida, the Decandria. Kingfisher; fig. 5, Yynx torquilla, the Wryneck. – Generic Character. Cal. perianth one-leaved.--CoR. papiIll. Anseres, having the bill covered with a membrane, lionaceous. - Stam. díadelphous ; anthers roundish. and broad at the top, as fig: 6, Cołymbus urinator, the Pist. germ compressed; style filiform ; stigma linear. Tippet Grebe ; fig. 7, Alca impennis, the Razorbill, or -Per. legume round ; seeds very many. Great Auk; fig. 8, Pelecanus bassanus, the Gannet Species. The species are perennials, as the Orobus lathyCorvorant.

roides, Upright Bitter Vetch.- Orobus luteus, seu GaPlate No. II. (54)

lega, Yellow Bitter Vetch.—Orobus vernus, Spring Bitter

Vetch; but the-Orobus cocaneus, Scarlet Bitter Vetch, Order IV. Grallee, having the bill roundish and tongue is an annual. Clus. Hist.; Dod. Pempt.; Bauh. Hist.;

fleshy, as fig. 9, Platalea leucorodia, the Spoon-bill; Bauh. Pin.; Ger. Herb.; Park. Theat. Bot. ; Raiï fig. 10, Recurvirostra avosetta, the Avoset, or Scooper; Hist.; Tourn. Inst. fig. 11, Phalaropus lobatus, the Phalarope. — Order V. | ORONTIUM (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 6 Hexandria, Gallinæ, having the bill convex and upper mandible Order 1 Monogynia. arched, as fig. 12, Tetrao tetrix, Black Grous, Heath Generic Character. Cal. perianth none. — Cor, pelabs Cock, or Black Game; fig. 13, Tetrao urogallus, the six.-Stam. filaments six ; anthers twin. - Pist. germ

2Q

VOL. II.

roundish; style none; stigma bifid.-Per. follicle slender; || ORTHOGRAPHY (Perspect.) the true delineation of the fore-
seeds single.

right plane of any object.
Species. The species is the Orontium aquaticum, seu Arum. ORTHOGRAPHY (Archit.) the representation of the front of
ORONTIUM is also the Antirrhinum orontium of Linnæus. a building according to the rules of geometry, or geome-
ORPHEOTELE'STÆ (Ant.) oppsotedesain those who ini trically drawn. This is either external or internal.- The

tiated persons into the mysteries of Orpheus, whom they external orthography is the delineation of the outer face or
assured, on their admission, of certain felicity after death. front of a building. The internal orthography, called also
Cæl. Rhodig. Antiq. Lect. 1. 15, c. 9.

a section, is a delineation or draught of a building, such as OR'PHEUS (Ich.) a name given to a fish caught in the it would appear if the external wall were removed.

Archipelago. It is a species of the Sparus of Linnæus. ORTHOPNOI'A (Med.) opborroic, from opdès, erect, and criw, O'RPHUS (Ant.) a sea-fish mentioned by Pliny. Plin. l. 9, to breathe ; an ill respiration, when the person affected c. 13.

cannot breathe but with his neck erect.
O'RPIMENT (Min.) auripigmentum, a yellow kind of ar- ORTHOSTATÆ (Archit.) pilasters, buttresses, or supporters

senic, or more properly a mineral composed of sulphur of a building. Vitruv. 1. 2, c. 8.
and arsenic, found native in the earth, and constituting one ORTHOʻTRICUM (Bot.) another name for the Weissia of
of the ores of arsenic. It is the arsenicum auripigmentum Linnæus.
of Linnæus.

O'RTIGA (Bot.) another name for the Loosa of Linnæus.
O'RPINE (Bot.) the Sedum telephium of Linnæus.

O'RTIVE (Astron.) or eastern ; an epithet for that amplitude O'RRERY (Mech.) a machine for exhibiting the various mo which is reckoned on the eastern point of the horizon.

tions and appearances of the sun and planets. [vide Astro- || O'RTOLAN (Orn.) a delicate bird, the Emberiza hortulana nomy, and Plate No. VIII.] It was so called in honour of Linnæus, which is of the Bunting tribe. It inhabits the of the Earl of Orrery, by whom the invention was first northern climates during summer, and migrates to those patronized.

which are warmer during the winter. The Ortolans visit ORRHAGO'GON (Med.) an epithet for purging medicines England before the setting in of frost and snow, build in the which evacuate serum.

holes of trees, and lay five white eggs spotted with brown. ORRHOPI'SSA (Chem.) the serous or most fluid part of O'RVALA (Bot.) the same as the Lamium of Linnæus. tar.

ORVIE'TAN (Med.) an electuary good against poisons. ORRHOPY'GION (Anat.) opporúylor, the extremity of the O'RYAL (Archæol.) a cloister, or arched room in a mospine which is terminated by the Os coccygis.

nastery. O'RRIS (Bot.) another name for the Iris.

ORYGIA (Bot.) the Portulaca of Linnæus. ORT (Con.) a money of account in Denmark, the fourth ORYGMA (Ant.) vide Barathron.

part of a rix-dollar, equal to about 11d. sterling; also a O'RYX (Zool.) a sort of wild goat.
small weight, the 32d part of an ounce.

ORYZA (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 6 Hexandria,
ORTE'GIA (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 3 Triandria, Order 2 Digynia.
Order 1 Monogynia.

Generic Character. CAL. glume small.-Cor. two-valved.
Generic Character. CAL. perianth five-leaved.-Cor. none. --Stam. filaments six ; anthers bifid.-Pist. germ tur-

-Stam. filaments three ; anthers linear.–Pist: germ binate; styles two; stigmas feathered.-PER. Lone; seed ovate; style filiform; stigma blunt.—Per. capsules ovate; single.

Species. The single species is the Oryza sativa, seu Pady.
Species. The species are the-Ortegia dichotoma, Forked Oryza is also the Paspalum of Linnæus.

Ortegia, a perennial ; and the-Ortegia hispanica, Rubia, | OSBECKIA (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 8 Octandria,
seu Juncaria, Spanish Ortegia, an annual. Clus. Hist.; Order 1 Monogynia.
Bauh. Pin.; Park. Theat. Bot. ; Raii Hist.

Generic Character. Cal. perianth one-leaved.-Cor. petals
O'RTEIL (Fort.) vide Berme.

four.–Stam. filaments eight; anthers oblong.–Pist. ORTE'LLİ (Law) the claws of a dog's foot. Cart. de Forest. germ ovate; style awl-shaped; stigma simple.- Per.cap

sule four-celled; seeds many. O'RTHITE (Min.) an ore of Uranium which is in the state Species. The species are perennials, as the-Osbeckia chiof an oxide.

nensis et zeylanica. Raii Hist. O'RTHIUS pes (Poet.) a foot consisting of five short syl- OSCE'DO (Med.) vide Oscitation. lables.

OSCHEA'LIS hernia (Med.) a scrotal rupture.
ORTHOCO’LON (Med.) igbémwner, a species of stiff joint OSCHEOCE'LE (Med.) a term signifying either a scrotal

when it cannot be bended, but remains straighit. It is par rupture, or a tumour of the scrotum from an accumulation
ticularly applied to cattle by the ancients. Veget. I. 2, of water.
c. 54.

O'SCHEON ( Anat.) oxfor, the scrotum.
ORTHODO'RON (Ant.) ozbódraper, a Greek measure of about OSCEOPHY'MA (Med.) from őrzter, the scrotum, and diwa,
84 inches long.

a swelling; a tumour of the scrotum. ORTHODO'XỶ (Theol.) éplodoide, from éçéos, right, and dita, OSCHOP#O'RIA (Ant.) orxopópse, an Athenian festival so opinion; the true faith.

called από το φέρειν τας όσχας, i. e. from carrying boughs ORTHODROMICS (Mar.) the art of sailing on the arc of hung with grapes, because the votaries carried such boughs a great circle.

in the procession of the Panathenea. This festival was in. ORTHOGONAL (Geom.) from ópos, strait, and yoría, an stituted in commemoration of the delivery of the Athe

angle, right-angled; an epithet of any figure that has one nians by Theseus from the oppression of the Minotaur. or more right angles.

OSCI'LLA (Ant.) small images of wax or clay, made in the
ORTHOGRAPHICAL projection of the sphere (Perspec.) shape of men or women, and consecrated to Saturn. Ma-

a delineation of the sphere upon a plane that cuts it in the crob. Saturn. I. 1, c. 7.
middle, the eye being supposed to be vertically placed at | OSCILLA'TION (Med.) vibration like the pendulum of a
an infinite distance from it.

clock.
ORTHOʻGRAPHY (Gram.) oberspe@c, from épcòsupright, O'SCINES (Ant.) an epithet among the Romans for those

and ypáow, to write; the right way of spelling and writing birds whose chattering and notes were regarded as omens the letters and words of a language.

and predictions. Plin. l. 10, c. 19; Fest. de Verb. Signif.

secds many.

c. 6.

[ocr errors]
« ForrigeFortsett »