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PHOTO'PSIA (Med.) an affection of the eye, in which the slaves. Plaut. Capt. aci 3. scen. 5, v. 93; 'Turneb. Adv.

patient perceives luminous rays, ignited corruscations, 1. 14, c. 5.
&c. &c.

PHYLACTERY (Ant.) Quraxtúpia, from Quadrow, to keep,
PHO'XINOS squamosus (Ich.) a river-fish mentioned by i. e. things to be kept with care; scrolls of parchment in
Linnæus.

which the Ten Commandments, or other passages of ScripPHRAGMI'TES (Bot.) the common reed.

ture, were written; these were worn by the Pharisees on PHRAGMOS (Med.) from opéron, to enclose; the rows of their foreheads, arnis, and hem of their garments, and were teeth.

looked upon as amulets, or charms, by which diseases PHRASIUM (Min.) Flos ris.

could be removed. PHRA’TRIARCH (Ant.) Operpixpxos, an Athenian officer || PHY'LARCH (Ant.) Dózapxos, an Athenian officer who had who presided over a Ofc7fíc, or third part of a tribe.

the government of a tribe. Poll. Onom. 1. 1, segm. 128. PHRENES (Anat.) the diaphragm.

PHY'LICA (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 5 Pentandria,
PHRENESIS (Med.) vide Phrenitis.

Order 1 Monogynia.
PHRE’NIC (Anat.) an epithet for what belongs to the dia Generic Character. CAL. common.-Cor, none.-STAM.

phragm, as the phrenic arteries, phrenic nerve, and phrenic filaments five; anthers simple.- Pist. germ at the bot-
vein.

tom of the corolla; styles simple; stigmas obtuse. PHRENI'SMUS (Med.) vide Phrenitis.

Per. capsule roundish; seeds solitary.
PHRENI'TIC (Anat.) vide Phrenic.

Species. The species are shrubs, as the-Phylica ericoides,
PHRENITIS (Med.) Opsvitos, phrensy, or inflammation of seu Alternoides, Heath-leaved Phylica.-Phylica imber-

the brain; so called because it was supposed to arise from bis, Sanamunda, seu Erica, Beardless Phylica.— Phylica
an inflammation of the phrenes, or diaphragm. Hippocrat. stipularis, seu Chamalaa, Stipuled Phylica, &c. Bauh.
de Morb. I. 1; Aret. de Sign. Acut. Morb. 1.1; Trallian. Pin.; Ger. Herb.; Park. I'heat. Bot.; Raii Hist, ;
1.1, c. 13; Cae!. Aurel. 1. 1, c. 2.

Tourn. Inst.
Phoenitis is a genus of diseases, Class Pyrexia, Order PHYLLA'CHNE (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 22 Dioe-
Phlegmasiæ, in Cullen's Nosology.

cia, Order 1 Monandria.
PHRE'NSY (Med.) vide Phrenitis.

Generic Character. CAL. perianth three-leaved.-Cor. petal
PHRICO'DES (Med.) Operading; an epithet for a fever at one.-Stam. filaments single; anthers globular.–Pist.

tended with shivering, much after the manner of the semi germ.-PER. berry inferior; seeds many.
tertian. Gal. de Diff. Feb. 1. 2, c. 9, and Def. Med.

Species. The species is the-Phyllanche uliginosa, native
PHRO'NTIS (Med.) Oportis; intense cogitation, or a painful

of Terra del Fuego. exercise of the mind.

PHYLLA'NDRION (Bot.) a kind of herb growing in
PHRYGA'NEA (Ent.) a genus of insects of the Neurop marshes.

terous Order, having the mouth with a horny short man PHYLLA'NTHUS (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 21 Mo-
dible; feelers four; stemmata three; antenna setaceous ; noecia, Order 3 Triandria.
wings equal, incumbent.

Generic Character. CAL. perianth one-leaved.—Cor. none.
PHRYGIAN Mood (Mus.) a lively kind of music which - STAM. filaments three; anthers twin. - Pist. germ

was adapted to martial instruments, as trumpets, haut roundish; styles three; stigma blunt. - Per. capsule boys, &c.

roundish; seeds solitary. PHRYGIUS Lapis (Min.) Operyios ribos; a sort of pumice Species. The species are annuals, as the Phyllanthus

stone, which was used formerly as an astringent. Dioscor. Niruri, seu Urinaria, Annual Phyllanthus. — Phyllan1. 5, c. 141.

thus Urinaria, seu Tsieru.-Phyllanthus emblica, MyroPHRYMA (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 14 Didynamia, balanus, Emblica, seu Nellika. Order 1 Gymnospermia.

PHYLLIS (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 5 Pentandria, Generic Character. CAL. perianth one-leaved.-Cor. petal Order 2 Digynia.

one. - STAM. filaments four; anthers roundish. - Pist. Generic Character. Cal. perianth small.-Cor. petals five. germ oblong; style filiform; stigma blunt.-Per. none; -STAM. filaments five; anthers simple.—Pist. germ inseeds single.

ferior; style none; stigmas two.-PER. none; seeds two. Species. The species are the-Phryma Leptostachia, seu Species. The single species is the Phyllis Nobla, Valeria

Verbena, native of North America.- Phryma dehiscens, nella, seu Bupleuroides, Bastard Hare's ear.
native of the Cape of Good Hope.

PHYLLI'TIS (Bot.) the Asplenium Aristophyllum of Linnæus.
PHRY'NIUM (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 1 Monandria, PHY'LLON (Bot.) the Mercurialis tomentosa of Linnæus.
Order 1 Monogynia.

PHYLOBA'SILES (Ant.) Qudofaciatis; Athenian officers who Generic Character. CAL. spathes many.-Cor. tubular. had the same office, with respect to particular tribes, that

Stam. filament one; anthers oblong.–Pist. germ ovate; the basiles had over the whole commonwealth.

style filiform; stigma blunt.--Per. none; sceds single. PHY'MATA (Med.) Qupceta, signifies generally any preterSpecies. The single species is the Phrynium capitatum, seu natural tumours in any part of the body; but Galen and Naru-kila.

Paulus Æginates take them sometimes for tumours in the
PHTHA'RTICS (Med.) çoceptinde ; corrupting medicines. glands. Hippocrat. 1. 2, aphor. 15; Gal. Com. in Epid. 1.6;
PHTHIRI'ASIS (Med.) vide Pediculosus Morbus.

Cels. 1. 5, c. 18; Paul. Æginet. 1. 3, c. 22.
PHTHIRO'CTONON (Bot.) the Stavisagria.

PHYMA'TODES (Med.) the same as Phymata.
PHTHI'SIS (Med.) Pulmonary consumption.

PHYMO’SICA Ischuria (Med.) an ischuria from the phi-
PHTHORIA (Med.) medicines which produce abortion. mosis.
PHU (Bot.) Valerian, the Valeriana Phu of Linnaeus. PHYMO'SIS (Med.) vide Phimosis.
PHY'CIS (Ich.) a sea-fish resembling perch.

PHYRA'RNA (Bot.) a species of gum ammoniac. PHYCITES (Min.) a stone having the colour of the fucus, PHY'SALIS (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 5 Pentandria, or sea-weed. Plin. 1. 37, c. 10.

Order 1 Monogynia.
PHY'COS (Bot.) Fucus, sea-weed.

Generic Character. CAL. perianth one-leaved.-Cor. petal PHYGETÀLOŃ (Med.) a red and painful tubercle in the one.-Stam. filaments five; anthers erect.-Pist. germ armpits, neck, and groin.

roundish; style filiform ; stigma blunt.-Per, berry small; PHYLACI'STÆ (Ant.) officers who had charge of the

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seeds many.

Species. The species are perennials, as the-Physalis som Species. Birds of this genus inhabit Chili.

nifera, seu Solanum, Clustered Winter Cherry.- Phy- || PIA'CHE (Archit.) the same as Piazza. salis Viscosa, seu Alkekingi, Clammy Winter Cherry PIAFFEU'R (Man.) French for a spirited restless horse that Physalis angulata, seu Halicacabum, Tooth-leaved Win is not to be made to stand still. ter Cherry. Bauh. Hist.; Bauh. Pin. ; Ger. Herb.; PIA MATER (Anat.) the interior membrane which encloses Park. Theat. Bot.; Raii Hist.; Tourn. Inst.

the brain. PHYSCO'NIA (Med.) an enlargement of the abdomen AL PIACE'RE (Mus.) Italian for at pleasure.

caused by a hard tumour, Cullen places this disease under | PIANGEVOLMENTE (Mus.) an Italian term signifying the Class Cachexie, Order Intumescentiæ.

soft, or plaintive. PHYSEMA (Nat.) Mock-pearl, or a hollow globule re PIANI'SSIMO (Mus.) abbreviated; Pianiss. or P. P. P. Itasembling pearl. Plin. l. 9, c. 35.

lian for very soft. PHYSETER (Zool.) a genus of animals, Class Mammalia, PIA'NNET (Orn.) the Woodpecker. Order Cete.

PIANO (Mus.) Italian for soft, in opposition to forte, loud Generic Character. Teeth in the lower jaw, none in the or strong.- Piano-Forte, a well-known keyed instrument upper.

of German invention, so called from its combined softness Species. Animals of this tribe, distinguished in English and strength. by the name of the Cachelot, inhabit the Northern PIA'STRE (Com.) an Italian coin equal in value to about an Seas; the principal species are the-Physeter macroce English crown. phalus, Blunt-headed Cachelot.-Physeter catodon, Lesser | PIAZZA (Archit.) a spacious place, like a market-place, en

Cachelot.-Physeter microps, Sharp-nosed Cachelot, &c. closed with columns; also the walk enclosed by the columns. PHYSICAL (Phy.) an epithet for whatever belongs to na PIAZZI (Astron.) a new planet discovered by the astronomer ; ture, as a physical point, substance, &c. in distinction from Piazzi in 1800, otherwise called Ceres.

a mathematical or spiritual one. The physical Horizon is PIB-CORN (Mus.) the Hornpipe. the same as the sensible Horizon.

PICA (Print.) a printing type, of which there are three PHY'SICO-MATHEMATICS (Math.) the same as Mixed sorts, namely, the small, great, and double. [vide Printing] Mathematics. [vide Mathematics]

Pica (Med.) a vitiated appetite, which consists in craving PHY'SIC Nut (Bot.) the latropha of Linnæus.

for things unfit for food; a disorder which accompanies the PHYSIOGNOMICS (Med.) physiognomica; such signs as chlorosis, and sometimes pregnancy in women.

are taken from the countenance of a sick person, by which PICÆ (Orn.) the name of the second order of the Class a judgment is formed of the distemper.

Aves, comprehending those birds which have their bill PHYSIO'GNOMY (Lit.) Quo iwwwíc, from Purus, nature, somewhat compressed and convex. It includes the follow

and yvápen, opinion; the art of judging the natures, tempers, ing genera, namely - Psittacus, the Parrot, Parrakeet,

&c. of persons by their features, bodies, movements, &c. Cockatoo, and Lory.-Ramphastos, the Toucan.-MomoPHYSIOLOGY (Med.) Qurbonovia, from duris, nature, and tus, the Motmot.-Scythrops.-Buceros, the Hornbill.

aágos, the doctrine; that branch of medicine which treats Buphaga, the Beef-Eater.-Crotophaga, the Ani.-Corous, of the constitution and structure of the human body and the Crow, Raven, Magpie, Jay, Nutcracker, and Rook. its several parts.

Coracias, the Roller.-Oriolus, the Oriolo.-Gracula, the PHYSOCELE (Med.) from Qura, wind, and xnat, a rupture; Grakle.- Paradisea, the Bird of Paradise.--Trogon, the a hernia, or rupture, arising from wind.

Cumcui.-Bucco,. the Barbet.-Cuculus, the Cuckoo. PHYSOCEPHALUS (Med.) an emphysema of the head. Yunt, the Wryneck.-Picus, the Woodpecker.-Sitta, the PHYSOMETRA (Med.) from oura, wind, and pýtpeen the

Nuthatch.- Todus, the Tody.--Alcedo, the Kingsfisher.womb; a windy swelling of the uterus.

Galbula, the Jacamar.- Merops, the Bee-Eater.- Upupa, PHYSSOPHORA (Ent.) a genus of animals, Class Vermes, the Hoop, or Hoopoe.--Certhia, the Creeper.--Trochilus,

Order Mollusca, having a gelatinous pendant from an the Humming-Bird. aerial vesicle with numerous tentacula beneath.

PICA'RD (Archæol.) a sort of boat, of about fifteen ton, PHYTA'LIA (Ant.) Autuhia ; a place where vines are used on the river Severn. planted.

PICA'RIUM (Archæol.) a bowl or cup with two ears or PHYTEU'MA (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 5 Pentandria, handles. Order 1 Monogynia.

PI'CCAGE (Archæol.) vide Pickage. Generic Character. Cal. perianth one-leaved.-Cor. petal || PICCIO'LO (Com.) a small money of account in Sicily,

one. - STAM. filaments five; anthers oblong. - Pist. worth about the seventh part of an English farthing. germ inferior; styles filiform; stigma bifid.-Per. capsule PI'CEA (Bot.) the Pinus picea of Linnæus. roundish; seeds many.

PICK (Mech.) a sharp-pointed tool used by carvers.—PickSpecies. The species are perennials, as the-Phyteuma axe, a mason's tool for picking up the hard earth. passiflora, seu Rapunculus.-Phyteuma comosa Prache | Pick (Print.) a blot in the printed page, occasioned by dirt lium, seu Campanula, &c.

in the letter. PHYTOLA'CCA (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 10 Decan- PICKAGE (Law) money paid in a fair for breaking up the dria, Order 5 Decagynia.

ground in order to set up booths, stands, &c. Generic Character. Cal, none.-Cor. petals five.—Stam. || PICKER (Vet.) or horsepicker, an instrument for clearing a filaments ten; anthers roundish.--Pist. germ orbiculate, horse's foot of any stones, dirt, &c. that adheres. ending in eight styles.-PER. berry orbiculate; seeds so PICKEREL (Ich.) a young pike-fish. litary.

PICKEROO'N (Mar.) a sort of pirate ship. Species. The species are perennials, as the-Phytolacca TO PICKEROON (Mil.) to skirmish, as light horsemen do, be

octandra, seu Famma-Phytolacca decandra, seu Solanum, fore the main battle begins. Branching Phytolacca, or Virginian Poke, &c.

PI'CKERY (Law) petty theft, in the Scotch, or stealing PHYTOLITHUS (Min.) a genus of petrifactions, consist things of small value.

ing of a vegetable, or any of its parts converted into stone. PICKËT (Mil.) or piquet. 1. A certain number of men, PHYTOTO'NIA (Orn.) a genus of birds, Order Passeres. horse and foot, who do duty as an outguard, to prevent Generic Character. Bill conic, straight, serrate; nostrils surprizes. 2. A sharp pointed stake, on which soldiers oval; tongue short, obtuse ; feet four-toed.

who had committed any offence used to be made to stand

with one foot for a certain time. This punishment was ally for certain Spanish coins, as a piece of eight, worth called picketting, or standing upon the picket, and is about 4s. 6d. sterling. now disused.

Piece is also the name of a certain quantity of cloth, which PI'CKETS (Mil.) are sharp stakes used on various occasions, is made in one whole piece. Cloth, in the wholesale way,

as in fortification, for pinning the fascines of the battery ; is sold by the piece. in artillery, for pinning the park lines ; in the camp, for | PI’ED (Vét.) or piebald ; spotted, or speckled like a magpie, fastening the tent cords.

the colour of some horses or cattle. PICKETỈEE) (Bot.) a very fine variegated sort of carnation. PIED-DROIT (Archit.) a square pillar partly set within a PICKLE (Archæol.) or pightel, a small parcel of land in wall; also part of the jambs of a door or window. closed with a hedge.

PIED-OU'CHE (Archit.) a little square base, smoothed, and PICKLES (Cook.) fruits of plants, &c. pickled.

wrought with mouldings, serving to support a bust or PICQUEERING (Mil.) a flying warfare, or skirmishing. statue drawn halfway, or any small figure in relievo. PICNO'MON (Bot.) the Cnicus acarna of Linnæus. PI'ENO (Mus.) Italian for the word full, is frequently used PIERA'MNIA (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 22 Dioecia, instead of tuti, grande, or gruse. Order 6 Pentandria.

PI'E-POWDER-COURT (Law) i. e. dusty-foot-court; a Generic Character. Cal. perianth one-leaved.-Cor. petal court held in fairs, particularly at Bartholomew fair, for

one.-STAM. filaments many; anthers two.-Pist. germ the purpose of determining all causes, or remedying all oblong; styles two; stigmas simple.—Per. berry ovate; grievances that may happen there : it is supposed to derive seeds two.

its name from the dusty feet of those who attend this court. Species. The species are the Picramia Antidesma, seu PIER (Archit.) 1. A mole or rampart raised in an harbour Berberis, &c.

to break the force of the sea. 2. A kind of pilaster or PI'CRIS (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 19 Syngenesia, Order 1 battress raised against a building either for strength or Polygamia Æqualis.

ornament. 3. Piers in a bridge, i.e. walls, which serve to Generic Character. Cal. common.--Cor. compound. support the arches, and from which they spring, as bases

STAM. filaments five; anthers tubular.–Pist. germ sub to stand upon. [vide Building, Plate 29] ovate; style cylindric; stigmas two. Per. none; seeds | PI'ERCED (Her.) an epithet for any ordinary solitary.

that is pierced, perforated, or struck through, Species. The species are the-Picris echioides, Hieracium, with a hole in it, so as tha the field may be

seu Buglossum, Rough Ox Tongue, an annual; the seen. The piercing must be particularly exPicris asplenoides, Leontodon, Verea, seu Helminthotheca, pressed, whether it be square, round, or lo&c. Bauh. Hist.; Bauh. Pin.; Ger. Herb.; Park. Theat. zenge, as in the annexed figure, a cross square Bot.; Raii Hist.; Tourn. Inst.

pierced. PICRIUM (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 4 Tetrandria, PierceD (Mar.) an epithet for a ship capable of receiving Order 1 Monogynia.

guns, as, pierced for one hundred guns, &c. Generic Character. Cal. perianth one-leaved.--Cor. petal | PIES (Her.) knights that were created by Pope Pius IV. in

one.-Stam. filaments four; anthers sagittate. ---Pist. 1560, with the title of Counts Palatine. They took pregerm oblong; style filiform; stigma capitate.-Per.cap cedence at Rome of the Knights of the Teutonic order, sule ovate; seeds many.

and of those of Malta. Species. The species are the Picrium spicatum et ramosum. PIEÄSTRUM (Surg.) nispor an instrument to beat in pieces PICRO'CHOLOS (Med.) Fixpózones, an epithet for a person the bones of the head in drawing the child out of the womb. abounding in bitter bile.

Foes. Oeconom. Hippocrat. PICROMEL (Chem.) a name for the peculiar substance PIETANTIA (Archeol.) a pittance or portion of victuals which characterizes bile.

distributed to the members of a college upon some great PICTOʻRUM colica (Med.) the painter's colic.

festival. PICUS (Orn.) a genus of birds, Order Picæ.

PIETANTIARIUS (Archæol.) the pittancer; an officer in Generic Character. Bill angular, straight; nostrils co collegiate churches who gave out the several pittances.

vered with recumbent setaceous feathers; tongue round | PI'ETAS (Ant.) piety both towards God and man was one of and worm-shaped ; tail feathers hard and rigid ; feet the virtues held in most esteem by the climbers.

ancients, and is therefore commemorated Species. Birds of this genus are distinguished in English on innumerable medals, sometimes under by the name of the Wood-pecker, because they pick the figure of a female carrying children, insects out of wood, particularly that of dead trees. or of Æneas bearing his father, &c., but The principal species are, the- Picus martus, in French more frequently under that of a female le Pic noir, the Great Black Woodpecker.- Picus prin standing by an altar, as in the annexed cipalis, seu niger, in French Pic noir à bec blanc, White figure. The most usual inscription is, PIETAS AUG. bellied Woodpecker.—Picus erythrocephalus, in French Vaill. Num. Imper.; Patin. Num. Imp.; Pemb. Mus. le Pic tricolor, the Red-headed Woodpecker.- Picus pi- PI'FFARO (Mus.) Piffero ; Italian for an instrument somelealus, Pileated Woodpecker.- Picus major, in French thing like an hautboy. L'Epeiche ou Pie varié, Great Spotted Woodpecker.- PIG of lead (Com.) the eighth part of a fother, amounting Picus cardinalis, Cardinal Woodpecker, &c.

to about 250 pounds weight.-Pig-iron, another name for PIE (Print.) the composed matter broken or thrown out of cast iron.

order; or fonts of different sorts and sizes mixed indiscri- PIGEON (Orn.) the Columba domestica of Linnæus, is disminately together. [vide Printing]

tinguished into several varieties, as the Rock Pigeon, the PIECE (Mil.) a name for any gun, large or small. – Pieces of Powter, the Carrier, the Shaker, the Tumbler, &c.

ordnance, all sorts of great guns. - Field-pieces, twelve- Pigeon pea (Bot.) the Cytisus cajan of Linnæus. pounders, and guns still smaller, which move with an army, PIGER HENRICUS (Chem.) a very slow distilling vessel. and are parked behind the second line when it encamps, PIGMENT (Mech.) any paint wherewith women colour their but are placed in front, in the intervals of battalions, &c. faces. during an engagement.

Pigments are also artificial preparations made by painters to Piece (Com.) a name for coins in general, but more especi imitate certain colours.

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PI'GMY (Zool.) a sort of ape, the Simia sylvanus of Lin- | PI'LLAGE (Archit.) a square pillar standing behind a conæus, which is mild, and easily tamed.

lumn, to bear up the arches, having a base and capital, as PI'G-NUT (Bot.) the Bunium bubocastanum of Linnæus. a pillar has. PIKE (Mil.) a long slender staff, with a spike at the end, PI'LLAR (Archit.) another name for a column.-Square pillar,

which was forinerly used by the infantry to keep off the a massive work, called also a pier, or piedroit.- Butting cavalry: the bayonet has now superseded the pike in mo pillar, a buttress raised to support the shooting of a vault. dern warfare.

Pillar (Man.) the centre of the bolt-ring, or manegePpke (Ich.) the Esox of Linnæus, a sort of fish common in ground, round which a horse turns.

most of the lakes of Europe, the largest of which are taken PILLAR (Her.) when the pillar is enwrapped in Lapland, where they are said to be cight feet long. The with an adder it is supposed to signify prupike is a voracious fish, and when pressed with hunger will dence conjoined with consistency, as in the attack animals larger than itself. It is also celebrated for annexed figure. “ He beareth or a pillar its longevity, of which two remarkable instances are given, sable enwrapped with an adder argent, by the namely, one by Rzaczynski, in lis Natural History of name of Myntur.” Poland, which he states to have lived 90 years, and an PILLARS (Mar.) pieces of wood or iron fitted under the other by Gessner, which, by an inscription on a ring round beams of the decks, in order to support them.

its neck, was found to have lived upwards of 200 years. PILLED (Hus.) au epithet for a sheep that is shorn of its PI'KEMAN (Mil.) a soldier armed with a pike.

wool. PI'KE-STAFF (Mil.) the wooden handle in which the pike PI'LLION (Man.) a kind of side saddle, on which a woman was fixed.

rides commonly behind a man. PI'LA (Mech.) the puncheon or mattrice used formerly in PI'LLORY (Law) a well-known wooden machine, in which

coining, which contained the arms and figures to be struck offenders are placed to be exposed to public view. on the coins.

PI'LLOW (Mar.) a piece of timber on which the boltsprit PILASTER (Archit.) a kind of square pillar made to jut out rests at its coming out of the ship's hull aloft, close by of a wall.

the stem. PILCH (Med.) a piece of Aannel to be wrapt about a young PILOCA'RPUS (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 5 Pentaxchild.

dria, Order 1 Monogynia. PI'LCHARD (Ich.) a fish thicker and rounder than the her Generic Character. Cal. perianth inferior.-Cor. petals ring, the Clupea pilcardus of Linnæus.

five.-Stam. filaments five; anthers small.-Pist. germ PI'LČORN (Bot.) the Avena nuda of Linnæus.

superior ; styles scarce any; stigmas acute.-Per. capPILE (Num.) the side of a piece of coin which contains the sules five grains ; seeds solitary. arms, or any other figure, in distinction from the head,

Species. The species is the Pilocarpus racemosus, seu Exwhich was otherwise called the cross. (vide Cross]

nymus, native of the West Indies. Pile (Archit.) a mass or stack of buildings.- Pile-engine, or PILOSE'LLA (Bot.) the Draba verna of Linnæus.

Pile-driver, an engine for driving the piles of bridges. PI'LOT (Mar.) one employed to conduct ships into roads or Pile (Her.) an ordinary in form of a wedge, which is borne harbours over bars, sands, &c.

commonly, as in fig. 1. Sometimes the pile is borne wavy, PILOʻSUS (Bot.) hairy; an epithet for a leaf, a seed, and a as fig. 2. “ He beareth azure a pile wavy issuing out of receptacle.

PI'LOT-FISH (Ich.) the Gasterosteus ductor, a fish that al-
Fig. 1. Fig. 2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.

ways attends on the shark.
PI'LOT-BIRD (Orn.) a bird found about the Caribbee

Islands, in America, which gives notice to ships that sail PI'LOTAGE (Mar.) the duty paid to a pilot for steering a

ship. PILULA'RIA (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 24 Crypto

gamin, Order 1 Miscellaneæ. the dexter corner.” Sometimes inverted, as fig. 3.

Species. The single species is the Pilularia globulifera, seu beareth azure a pile inverted in bend, sinister or ;” and Graminoides, Pill Wort, or Pepper Grass. sometimes engrailed, &c. as fig. 4.

PI'LUM (Ant.) a missile weapon used by the Roman soldiers, Pile (Gunn.) a collection or heap of shells, shot, &c.

and in a charge darted upon the enemy. Its point was so to Pile arms (Mil.) to plant three muskets together, with long and small, that after the first discharge it was gene

the butt-ends on the ground, so that they may remain rally useless. Polyb. 1. 6, c. 21; Appian. de Bell. Gall.; fixed.

Veget. I. 2, c. 1; Rhodig. Antig. Lect. 1. 16, c. 2. * PILES (Med.) the Hemorrhois.

PI'LUS (Bot.) the hair; an excretory duct of a plant in shape PILES | Archit.) great stakes rammed into the earth for a of a bristle. It is a sort of pubescence. foundation to build upon in marshy grounds.

PIMELEA (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 2 Diandria, PILE'TTUS (Archæol.) a blunt or blunted arrow that had a Order 1 Monogynia.

pile or button fixed near the point, to keep it from going Generic Character. Cal. none.-Cor. four-cleft.-STAM. too far into the mark.

inserted in the throat; nut-one-celled. PI'LEUS (Bot.) the cap of a fungus, expanding horizon Species. The species are the Pimelea gnidia, Banksia, seu tally, and covering the fructifications. [vide Cap]

Passerina.- Pimelea pilosa, &c. PI'LÉWORT (Bot.) the Ranunculus ficaria of Linnæus. PIMEÄLIA (Ent.) a genus of insects, of the Coleopterous PI'LGRIM (Ecc.) in Italian pelegrino, from the Latin pere Order, having the antenna filiform ; feelers four; thoras

grinus, a foreigner or stranger; one who travels through plano-convex ; shells rather rigid ; wings usually none. foreign countries to visit holy places, for the purpose of PIMENTA (Bot.) the Myrtus pimenta of Linnæus. paying his devotions.

PIME'NTO (Bot.) another name for All-Spice. PILL (Med.) a solid medicine, made up of several ingredients, PIMPERNEL (Bot.) the Anagallis of Linnæus. like a little ball.

PIMPINE'LLA (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 5 PentanPI'LLA terræ (Archæol.) a small piece of ground.

dria, Order 2 Digynia.

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Generic Character. Cal. universal.-- Cor. universal.-- 11 Pink (Nat.) a sort of yellow colour.

STAM. filaments five; anthers roundish. - Pist, germ Pink (Mar.) a little sailing ship having a very narrow stern. inferior; styles short; stigma globular.- Per. none; seeds to PINK (Mech.) to cut silk or cloth with a variety of figures two.

in round holes or eyes. Species. The species are mostly perennials, as the-Pim- PI'NNA (Conch.) a genus of animals, Class Vermes, Order pinella, seu Saxifraga, Common Burnett.Pimpinella Testacea. magna, Great Burnett Saxifrage.- Pimpinella lutea, seu Generic Character. Animal a Limar; shell bivalve, and

Tragoselinum, Yellow Burnett Saxifrage; but the furnished with a byssus or beard ; hinge without teeth. Pimpinella anisum, seu Anisum, is an annual. Bauh. Species. The inhabitants of these shells, which are distinHist.; Bauh. Pin.; Ger. Herb.; Park. Theat. Bot. ; guished in English by the name of Nacre, produce a Raii Hist.; Tourn. Inst.

byssus, from which the Italians spin a fine sort of silk. PIN of a Block (Mar.) in French esseiu de poulie, the axis | Pinná auris (Anat.) the upper and broader part of the ear.

on which the sheave revolves, being supported by the shell. Pinna (Bot.) signifies literally a wing; but is applied to Pin (Mech.) any small piece of brass or iron with a head, plants to denote the leaflet of some compound leaves.

which serves as a fastening.--Axle-Tree Pin, or Linch-Pin, PI'NNACE (Mar.) a small vessel with a square stern, going the iron which locks the wheel of a carriage to the axle. with sails and oars, and carrying three masts ; this is chiefly Breech-Pin, the screw or plug of a musket-barrel.-Bridle used for conveying. Pin, the screw which steadies the bridle to the lock-plate. Pinnace is also a boat usually rowed with eight oars. - Hammer-Pin, the screw which the hammer acts upon. PI'NNACLE (Archit.) in Italian pinnaculo, from pinna, a Peer-Pin, the screw which steadies the peer to its action. wing; the battlement or highest top of a great building, Tumbler-Pin, the screw which fastens the cock to the PINNACULUM (Anat.) the name of the uvula, from its

tumbler.- Pin-Wheel, the same with the striking-wheel. shape. Pin (Vet.) or Thorough-Pin, a disease in horses, which con AD PINNAS bibere (Archæol.) i. e. drinking to the pin, or sists of a swelling in the hock.

up to the pin ; an old Danish custom of drinking up to a Pin and Web (Med.) a horny induration of the membrane of certain point in the cup marked by a pin, which he who the eye, not much unlike a web.

could not do, was obliged to forfeit. PI'NANGA (Bot.) the Areca oryzceformis of Linnæus. PINNATIFI'DUS (Bot.) pinnatifid, or featherPINASTE'LLA (Bot.) the Hippuris of Linnæus.

cleft, an epithet for a leaf; folium pinnatifidum, PINA'STER (Bot.) the Pinus pinaster of Linnæus.

a simple Leaf, divided transversely by oblong, PI'NCARY (Mech.) an instrument by which nails are drawn. horizontal segments, or jags, not extending to PINCER (Mar.) a small iron instrument with which the fore the midrib, as in the annexed figure.

locks are drawn out of the saucer links of the chain-pump. PINNA'TUS (Bot.) pinnate, an epithet for a leaf; PINCES (Vet.) French for a horse's gatherers or fore-teeth. folium pinnatum, a compound leaf, the simple Pinces (Mech.) French for crows used by miners.

petiole of which has several leaflets fastened to each side PI'NCHBECK (Metal.) an alloy, consisting of zinc melted of it. It is said to be conjugatum, conjugate, if it have with brass or copper.

only one pair of leaflets ; bijugum, or bipinnatum, &c. if it PINDA'RIC (Poet.) a sort of poetry which consists of lofty have two pairs of leaflets ; so trijugum, if it have three

strains, after the manner of Pindar, from whom it derives pairs, &c.; imparo-pinnatum, i.e. terminated by a single or the name.

odd leaflet, as in fig. 1 ; opposite-pinnatum, oppositely pinPI'NE-APPLE (Bot.) the Bromelia ananas of Linnæus. nate, having the leaflets placed opposite to each other, as

Pine-Screw, the Pandanus of Linnæus.—Pine Tree, the in fig. 3; alternatè pinnatum, alternately pinnate, as in fig. 1; Pinus.

Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PI'NEA (Bot.) the Pinus of Linnæus.

Fig. 3.

Fig. 4. PI'NEAL Gland (Anat.) a small heart-like substance, about

the size of a pea, situated immediately over the corpora
quadrigemina. "It is so called from its supposed resem-

blance to the fruit of the pine.
PINEUS purgans (Bot.) the Jatropha curcas of Linnæus.
PINGUE'DO (Anat.) the fat of animals lying under the skin.
PINGUICULA (Bo..) a genus of plants, Class 2 Diandria,

Order 1 Monogynia.
Generic Character. Cal. perianth small.–Cor. petal one. interruptè pinnatum, having smaller leaflets interposed be-

-Stam. filaments two; anthers roundish.-Pist. germ tween the larger, as in fig. 1; decursivè pinnatum, when globular; style short; stigmas two-lipped.- Per. capsule the leaflets run one into another, fig. 2; articulatè pinovate; seeds many.

natum, when the common petiole is jointed, as in fig. 4; Species. The species are perennials, as the-Pinguicula abruptè pinnatum, i.e. not terminated either by a leaflet or

lusitanica, seu Viola, Pale Butterwort.-Pinguicula vul tendril, fig. 3, &c. garis, seu Sanicula, Common Butterwort.- Pinguicula PINNE (Falcon.) a disease in the foot of a hawk. alpina, Alpine Butterwort, &c. Clus. Hist.; Dod.PI'NNING (Mason.) the fastening of tiles or slates together Pempt. ; Bauh. Hist.; Bauh. Pin.; Ger. Herb.; Park. with heart of oak for the covering of a house, Theat. Bot. ; Raii Hist.; Tourn. Inst.

PINNOʻPHYLAX (Ich.) a little shell fish like a shrimp, PINGUIN (Orn.) vide Penguin.

which always attends upon the nacker-fish; and as he PINHO'NES Indici (Bot.) the Jatropha curcas of Linnæus. opens, and little fishes pass by, he gives him a prick that PI'NION (Mech.) the nut or lesser wheel of a clock or watch he may close his shell and catch them. Plin. I. 2, c. 42. that plays in the teeth of another.-Pinion of Report, that PINNU'LA (Bot.) the small pinna of a leaf. pinion of a watch which is equally fixed on the arbour of a PINNULATUS (Bot.) an epithet for a leaf; folium pinnu

latum, a leaf, each pinna of which is subdivided. PINK (Bot.) a well-known beautiful flower, the superior | PINT (Com.) an English liquid measure, the half of a quart,

sorts of which are distinguished by the name of Cloves and and the eighth of a gallon. Carnations, the Dianthus caryophyllus of Linnæus. PI'NTLE (Ğunn.) an iron pin which keeps the cannon from

great wheel,

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