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epithet applied to a dignified clergyman, as an Archbishop rogative Court, a court belonging to the Archbishop of or Bishop.

Canterbury by his prerogative, wherein all wills are proved, PRELIMINARY (Polit.) from pre, before, and limen, the and all administrations taken out. -- threshold ; the first step in a negotiation, treaty, or im- PRE'SA (Mus.) a character in music called a repeat. portant business.

PRESBYO'PIA (Med.) from apéo Bus, old, and by, vision; a PRELU'DIO (Mus.) Italian for a prelude, or what is more defect in vision, when objects near are seen confusedly,

commonly called the overture, which is the commence but those at a distance more distinctly. This disease ment of a piece of music.

arises from too great a flatness in the crystalline humour, PREMIER (Her.) a French term, signifying the most an

and is so called because it is incident to aged people. cient, when applied to any peer of any degree by creation. PRESBYTÆ (Med.) those who have a long sight. [vide PREMISES (Log.) the two first propositions in a syllogism; PRESBYTER (Ecc.) from the Greek = fev Bútepos, an elder ;

is major in which is the major term of the question; and that a name given originally to those in the Christian church the minor, in which is the minor term. (vide Logic]

who were held in high esteem for their age and virtue : PREMISES (Law) things spoken of or rehearsed before, as also a title of honour and dignity given to bishops and - lands, tenements, &c., before mentioned in a deed, inden priests. Vopisc. in Saturn.; Procop. de Bell. Persic. I, 1, ture, lease, &c.

c. 25; Isid. 1. 7, c. 12; Ammian. 1. 31. PREMIUM (Cus.) whatever is given by way of reward for PRESBYTE’RIANS (Ecc.) a sect of Christians in Great an exertion.

Britain, who are so called from their admitting lay-elders PREMIUM (Com.) the sum of money given for the insuring of into their church-government. ships, goods, and houses.

PRESBYTERIUM (Archæol.) presbytery, or that part of PREMNA (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 14 Didynamia, the church where divine service is performed. Order 2 Angiospermia.

PRESBYTIA (Med.) vide Presbyopia. Generic Character. Cal. perianth one-leaved.--Cor. one TO PRESCRIBE against an Action (Larv) not to be liable

petalled. -Stam. filaments four; anthers roundish.— to it for want of being sued within the time. Pist. germ roundish; style cylindrical ; stigma bifid.- PRESCRIPTION (Law) a right or title to any thing,

Pex. drupe globular; seed nut nearly four-cornered. grounded upon a continued possession of it beyond the Species. The two species are trees, as the-Premna inte memory of man. Kitch. 104; Co. Litt. 114. grifolia, seu Cornuta ; and the Premna serratifolia, PRESENT Tense (Gram.) a tense which denotes an action Cornutioides, seu Sambucus.

done in the time that now is. PREMONSTRATE'NSES (Ecc.) an order of White Friars PRESENTATION (Law) the offering a clerk to the bishop observing St. Augustin's rules.

by his patron, to be instituted. PREMUNIE'NTES (Law) writs sent to every bishop to PRÉSENTEE' (Law) the clerk presented to a church by

come to parliament, warning him to bring with him the the patron.--The King's Presentee is he whom the king deans and archdeacons, one proctor for each chapter, and presents to a benefice, as mentioned in statute 13 R. 2, two for the clergy of his diocese.

stat. 1, c. 1. PREMUNI'RE (Law) vide Pramunire.

PRESE'NTMENT (Law) was originally the same as PrePRENA'NTHES (Bot) a genus of plants, Class 19 Synge sentation : it is now taken for a declaration or report made nesia, Order 1 Polygamia æqualis.

by the jurors or other officers of an offence inquirable in Generic Character. Cal. common calycled, cylindrical. the court to which it is presented. Lamb. Eiren. 1. 4, c.5;

-Cor. compound, consisting of a ring of 'florets. 2 Inst. 739. Stam. filaments five, capillary; anthers cylindrical.-Pist. PRESERVE (Sport.) a small place in a gentleman's grounds germ subovate; style filiform; stigma bifid.—Per. none; carefully enclosed for the preservation of the game.

seeds solitary; pappus capillary, sessile; receptacle naked. PRESIDENT (Law) the king's lieutenant of a province. Species. The species are mostly perennials, as—Prenan The Lord President of the King's Council, an officer of the thes tenuifolia, seu Chondrilles, fine-leaved Prenanthes. crown, who is to attend the sovereign, to propose business

- Prenanthes viminea, seu Lactuca, Rushy-twigged Pre at the Council Table, and to report the several transactions nanthes.- Prenanthes purpurea, seu Sonchus, Purple there managed. Prenanthes.—Prenanthes repens, Creeping Prenanthes. | PRESS of Sail (Mar.) denotes as much sail as the state of Clus. Hist.; Bauh. Hist.; Bauh. Pin.; Ger. Herb.; the wind at any given time will permit the ship to carry. Park. Theat. Bot.; Raii Hist.; Tourn. Inst.

Press (Mech.) any machine which is constructed so as to PRE'NDER (Law) the power or right of taking a thing act by means of pressing on other bodies. [vide Mechanics

before it is offered.-Prender de Baron, an exception to and Printing) disable a woman from pursuing an appeal of murder PRESS (Law) or Press-gang, a body of seamen employed on against the killer of her former husband. Staundf. Plac. shore under the command of a captain, a lieutenant, and a Cor. I. 3, c. 59.

midshipman, to impress men into his majesty's service PRENTICE (Law) vide Apprentice.

during war. - To Press, vide To Impress. PREPARATION (Med.) the manner of compounding and PREST (Law) from præsto, at hand; a duty in money to making up medicines.

be paid by the sheriff upon his account in the Exchequer, PREPENSE (Law) premeditation and forethought as ap or for money left in his hands.

plied to bad actions, whence the term malice prepense. Prest Money (Mil.) from presto, at hand; earnest money PREPOSITION (Gram.) one of the eight parts of speech, commonly given to a soldier when he is listed, so called

so called because it is set before a noun to denote the rela because it binds the receiver to be ready for service at all * tions of things to each other.

times appointed. 18 H.6, c. 19; 7 H. 7, c. 1; 2 & 3 PREROGATIVE (Law) peculiar pre-eminence or authority Ed. 6, c. 2.

above others, or a special privilege.—The King's Prero- PRESTATION Money (Ecc.) a sum of money paid yearly gative, the rights of majesty, which are peculiar to him by archdeacons to their bishop for their jurisdiction, &c. and inseparable from his person.-Prerogative of Arch-PRESTISSIMO (Mus.) Italian for extremely fast or quick. bishops, a special pre-eminence which the Archbishops of || PRESTO (Mus.) Italian for quickly; meno presto, not so Canterbury and York have above ordinary bishops.- Pre quick ; non troppo presto, not quite so quick.

VOL. II.

3 B

PREST-SAIL (Mar.) vide Press of Sail.

PRICE Current (Com.) a weekly account of the current PRESU'MPTIÒ (Archæol.) was anciently taken for intru value of all commodities which are articles of commerce.

sion, or the unlawful seizing of any thing. Leg. H. 1. | PRICK POSTS (Archit.) such as are framed into the breastapud Brompton.

summers, between the principal posts, for strengthening PRESU'MPTION (Law) a supposition or belief previously the carcase of a house.

formed, which shall be accounted truth if the contrary be TO PRICK (Sport.) to trace a hare by her footway : also not proved.-Presumptions are said to be juris and de jure : the hare herself is said to prick when she beats in the highjuris : hominis vel judicis.-Presumptio Juris and de Jure way, so that her footing may be perceived. is that where law or custom establishes the truth of any to Prick the Chart or Plot (Mar.) vide To Point.— To point on a presumption that cannot be traversed on con prick a Sail, to stitch two cloths of a sail together along trary evidence ; thus a Minor is deprived of the power of the space comprehended between the two edges or selvages acting without the consent of his Guardian on a presump that overlay each other. tion of incapacity.-Presumptio Juris is a presumption to PRICKET (Sport.) is said of a young male deer of two established in law till the contrary be proved, as the pro years old, which begins to put forth the head or spilter. perty of goods is presumed to be in the possessor.–Pre- PRICK-POST (Archit.) vide Prick. sumptio Hominis vel Judicis is the conviction arising from PRICKLY Parsnep (Bot.) the Echinophora of Linnæus, a the circumstances of the case. Violent Presumption perennial.- Prickly Pear, the Cactus Opuntia, a tree. amounts almost to full proof, as if one be killed in a PŘI'DE Gavel (Law) a rent paid to the lord of a manor by house, and a man be seen to come out of it, no other some tenants for the liberty of fishing for lampreys in the person being in the house at the time, there is violent pre river Severn. sumption against this man. Presumption is also probable, PRIDE (Her.) a term used for turkey cocks, and pea cocks, which moves but little ; and light or temerary, which does which are said to be in their pride when their tails are not move at all. 1 Inst. 6. 272, &c.

spread and their wings dropped. PRESU'MPTIVE Evidence (Law) the same as Presumption. | PRIEST (Ecc.) a clergyman in full orders. [vide Orders]

-Presumptive Heirs, those who, if the ancestor should die PRIMA (Mus.) signifies the first, or number one. immediately, would in the present circumstances be his PRIMACY (Ecc.) the office or dignity of a primate; the heirs, in distinction from the Heirs Apparent.

chief rule in ecclesiastical matters. PŘETENCÉ Escutcheon of (Her.) is that escutcheon in || PRIMÆ VIÆ (Anat.) i. e. first passages; a name given to

in which a man bears the coat of arms of his wife, being the stomach and intestines, in distinction from the lacteals, an heiress : it is placed in the centre of a man's coat, which are the viæ secunde. thereby, showing his pretensions to her lands accrued to | PRIMAGE (Law) a duty paid to the mariners for loading him and the heirs of his body by his marriage.

a ship at the going out from any

haven. PRETENDER (Polit.) a name given to the grandson of || PRIMARY PLANETS (Astron.) those which are supposed

James II. who laid claim to the crown of Great Britain. to revolve round the sun as a centre, as Jupiter, Saturn, PRETE'NSED Right (Law) is when one is in possession of Mercury, Venus, Mars, &c. in distinction from the se

lands or tenements, and another claims it and sues for it; condary planets, or Satellites. the pretensed right and title is said to be in him that does PRIMATE (Ecc.) an archbishop, who has a distinguished so claim and sue.

rank over all other archbishops and bishops. PRETERIMPERFECT (Gram.) a tense denoting the time || PRIMA'TES (Zool.) the first Order of animals under the

in which the action is not completed, as “I was writing Class Mammalia in the Linnean system, including the four when he came in."

generaHomo.- Simia, the Ape, Monkey, Baboon, &c.PRETERITION (Rhet.) is when the orator seems to pass Lemur, the Lemur, or Loris.- Vespertilio, the Bat.

by, or to be unwilling to declare that which at the time he || PRIME (Ecc.) one of the seven canonical hours in the is discanting upon.

Romish Church. PRETERITĚ (Gram.) preleritum, past; a teose which de- || Prime (.1rith.) or Primes, the first divisions into which a

notes time perfectly, as “ I wrote an hour ago:” in distinc whole or integer is divided, as a minute, the 60th part of tion from the perfect, which refers to the finishing or com a degree.- Prime Numbers, such as have no common meapletion without particular regard to time, as “ I have written sure except unity, as 2, 3, 4, 5, &c. a letter."

Prime Figure (Geom.) that which cannot be divided into any PRETERPERFECT (Gram.) the tense which denotes an figure except itself. action perfectly finished.

PRIME of the Moon (Astron.) the New Moon at her first PRETIUM Affectionis (Law) an imaginary value in the Scotch appearing, or about three days after the change.- Prime

law set upon a thing according to the liking of the seller. Vertical, that vertical circle, or azimuth, which is perpenPREVARICATOR (Lit.) a name given to the orator at dicular to the meridian, and passes through the east and

Cambridge, who, in his oration at the commencement, west points. used to make satirical allusions on the conduct of the Prime of a Gun (Gunn.) the powder which is put in the members of that University.

pan or touch-hole. PREVENTER (Mar.) an additional rope employed to sup- Prime Parade (Fenc.) is formed by dropping the point of port any other, when the latter suffers an unusual strain.

your sword to the right, bending your elbow, and drawing Prevenier Braces, temporary braces to succour the main the back of your sword-hand to within a foot of your foreand fore-yard of a ship.- Preventer Plate, a broad plate of head.--Prime Thrust, a thrust applicable after forming iron, fixed below the toe-link of the chains to support the above parade.- Prime hanging Guard, with the broadthem against the efforts of the masts and shrouds.

sword, a position with the broad sword in which the head PREVE'NTIONAL full Moon (Astrol.). that full moon is brought somewhat to the left, in order to secure that

which happens before any great moveable feast or planet side of the face and body. ary aspect.

Prime Verticals (Diall.) those circles which are projected PRIAPÉI'A (Bot.) the Nicotiana rustica of Linnæus.

on the plane of a vertical circle, or on a plane parallel to it. PRIAPI'SMUS (Med.) an involuntary erection of the penis, || To PRIME (Gunn.) to put powder into the pan or touch-hole

occasioned, as Cælius Aurelianus says, by a palsy of the st minal vessels.

To Prime (Paint.) to lay on the first colour.

of a gun.

p. 838.

PRIMER (Gunn.) or Priming Iron ; a pointed iron to PRINCE (Law) the king's eldest son, as the Prince of pierce the ear,

Wales, by distinction called the Prince. PRIMER (Print.) a printing letter, of which there are two | PRI'NCEPS Senatus (Ant.) an honourable appellation given

sorts, namely, Great Primer, which is a large-sized letter, to that senator who stood the first on the Censor's Roll. and Long Primer, a smaller size. [vide Printing]

Cic. pro Dom. c. 32; Liv. I. 22, c. 2; Gell. 1. 3, c. 18.PRIMER (Lit.) a child's first book, in which he is taught Princeps Juventutis, a title given to the captain or chief in the elements of reading.

the army of youths that performed the Ludus Troja. PRIMER Fine (Law) a fine due to the king by ancient pre- PRINCE'S FÉATHER (Bot.) the Amaranthus hypochon

rogative on suing out a writ or Præcipe, called a Writ of driacus of Linnæus.Prince's Wood, the Cordia GerascanCovenant. It was a noble for every five marks of land thus of Linnæus. sued for.

PRI'NCIPAL (Com.) any sum of money, in distinction PRIMERO (Sport.) an ancient game at cards.

from the interest. PRIMICE'RIUS (Archæol.) the first of any degree of men; PRINCIPAL Point (Perspect.) the point where the principal sometimes taken for the nobility. Mon. Angl. tom. 1, ray falls on the table.- Principal Ray, the perpendicular

ray
which

goes from the beholder's eye to the vertical PRI'MIER Seisin (Law) a branch of the King's prerogative plane, or table.

whereby he had the first seisin, or possession of all lands || PRINCIPAL (Polit.) the head of a College in a University; and tenements throughout the realm, till the heir do his also the chief person in some of the Inns of Chancery. homage, or come to age. Bract. 1. 4, tr. 3, c. l; Staundf. PRINCIPAL Posts (Archit.) the corner posts which are tePrærog.- Primier, or Premier Serjeant, the King's first noned into the ground-plate below, and into the beams of Serjeant at Law.

the roof. PRIMING (Gunn.) the same as Prime. - Priming Horn, PRINCIPA'LITIES (Bibl.) one of the orders of the

a horn full of touch-powder to prime the pieces. It is angels. worn by the gunner by bis side when he is at the guns. PRINCIPES (Ant.) one of the four grand divisions of the PRIMIPILUS (Ant.) vide Primopilus.

Roman army, who, before the institution of the Hastata, PRÍMITIÆ (Law) all the profits of every church living are supposed to have commenced the battle, from which

for one year, after it becomes void, belonging to the king. circumstance they derive their name. Varr. de Ling. Lat. PRIMITIÆ (Theol.) the first fruits of the year offered to 1. 4, c. 16; Liv. I. 8, c. 8; Tacit. Annal. 1. 1, c. 1. God.

PRINOIDES (Bot.) the Ilex prinoides of Linnæus. PRI'MITIVE (Gram.) an original word from which others PRINOS (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 6 Hexandria, Or. are derived.

der 1 Monogynia. PRIMO Beneficio (Law) the first benefice in the King's gift. Generic Character. Cal. perianth one-leaved.-Cor. onePRIMOGE'NITURE (Law) the title of an elder son, or petalled ; border six-parted; segments ovate.-Stam. fila

brother, in right of his birth, the reason of which, accord ments six, awl-shaped; anthers oblong.–Pist. germ ing to Coke, is “ Qui prior est tempore, potior est jure.” ovate; style shorter than the stamens; stigma obtuse. PRIMO'PILUS Centurio (Ant.) or Primipilus, Primipilaris Per. berry roundish; seeds solitary.

Centurio, the principal centurion in the Roman legion. Species. The species are shrubs, or trees, as the---Prinos Dionys. l. 9; Liv. 1. 7, c. 41; Val. Mar. 1.1, c. 6; Plin. verticillata, Alcanna, seu Aquifolium, Deciduous Winter 1. 22, c. 6; Veget. 1. 2, c. 8.

berry, Prinos glabra, Evergreen Winter-berry, &c. PRIMROSE (Bot.) the Primula vulgaris of Linnæus, a per- | PRINTING is an art of such importance in respect both to

ennial.-Nightly or Tree Primrose, the Enothera, a bien literature and the arts of civilization, as to give it high claims nial.- Peerless Primrose, a name for a variety of the Daf to consideration. To printing belongs the compositor's, corfodil.

rector's, pressman's, and warehouseman's business, each of PRIMROSE (Her.) an ancient term for Quatrefoils.

which may

be considered in its order. PRIMULA (Bot.) a diminutive of primus, first, so called because it is one of the first flowers in the spring; a genus

Compositor's Business. of plants, Class 5 Pentandria, Order 1 Monogynia.

The business of the compositor consists of four things; Generic Character. Cal. involucre many-leaved; perianth namely, composing, imposing, correcting, and distri

one-leaved.--Cor. monopetalous; tube cylindrical; bor buting. der five-cleft; segments obcordate ; throat pervious. - Composing. Composing is the arranging of letters in such STAM. filaments five, very short; anthers acuminate. an order as to fit them for the press; whence the person -Pist. germ globular; style filiform; stigma globular. who follows this part of the business is termed the ComPer. capsule cylindrical, one-celled; seeds numerous ; positor. If two or more compositors are engaged on the receptacle ovate, oblong.

same work, they are called Companions; and the portion Species. The species are perennials, as the -- Primula of work which each writes down in his account at the end

vulgaris, Alisma, seu Verbascum, Common Primrose. - of the week over and above what he has actually done is Primula elatior, seu Paralysis, Great Cowslip, or Oxlip. called the horse. The Compositors also distinguish their -Primula officinalis, Verbasculum, Paralysis, seu Alisma, work by the epithets of fat and lean, according as it has Common Cowslip.-Primula farinosa, Bird's-eye Prim many or few breaks, wide or close spaces, &c. To the rose. - Primula auricula, Auricula, seu Sanicula, Auri Compositor's business belong the Type, Cases, Comcula, or Bear's Ear.---Primula minima, Dwarf Primrose. posing Stick, Galley, Furniture, Chase, and Imposing Clus. Hist,; Dod. Pempt.; Bauh. Hist.; Bauh. Pin.; Stone. Ger. Herb.; Park. Theat. Bot.; Raii Hist.; Tourn. Type. The Type is the type or representation of any Inst.

character on metal, which is composed for that purpose; PRIMUM MOBILE (Astron.) i. e. the first mover; a term and as letters are the principal characters used in print

in the Ptolemaic astronomy, is the ninth or highest sphere ing, the words letter and type have been made synony, of the heavens, and the farthest from the centre, contain mous. Letters are of different bodies or heights, which ing all the other spheres within it, and giving motion to are measured by a perpendicular line drawn between the them, from whence it has its name, turning itself and them top and bottom lines of long letters, which, being diquite round in the space of twenty-four hours.

vided according to a given scale, shows the relative

dimensions of different letters of the same body, where

English.

French.

German. a long letter, for example 1, takes up all the forty-two English.

Le Saint Augustin. Mittel. parts, i. e. the whole body. The bodies most used at present are given in the following specimen, with the Typographia, Ars Artium omnium Conser: English, French, and German names.

English.

French

German.
English.
French.

Pica.
Le Cicero.

Cicero. French Canon. Le Gros Canon. Missal. Typographia, Ars Artium omnium Conservatrix.

German.

Typograph

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English.

French.

German.

Brevier or RheinSmall Pica. La Philosophie.

lander. Typographia, Ars Artium omnium Conservatrix. English.

French.

German. Long Primer. Le Petit Romain.

Corpus or Gar

mond. Typographia, Ars Artium omnium Conservatrix. English.

French,

German.
Burgeois.

La Gaillarde.
Typographia, Ars Artium omnium Conservatrix.
English.

French.

German.
Brevier.

Le Petit Texte. Petit or Jungfer.
Typographia, Ars Artium omnium Conservatrix.
English.

French,

German. Minion.

La Mignione. Colonel. Typographia, Ars Artium omnium Conservatris.

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English.

French.

German.
Nonpareil. La Nonpareille. Nonpareille.

Typographia, Ars Artium omnium Conservatrix.
English.

French.

German.
La Parisienne ou le
Pearl.

Perl.
Danoise.
Typographia, Ar Artium omnium Conservatrix.

Typographia, Ars

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French Canon, like the German Missal, is supposed to

derive its name from the circumstance of having been employed in the canons or services of the church. Paragon, which has preserved its name in most European languages, was obviously so called to denote that it was the best kind of type then in use. Great Primer, as its name denotes, was one of the major sizes first in use. English is called St. Augustin, both by the French and Dutch, because, as is supposed, the works of St. Augustin were printed in it. For the same reason the Pica has the name of Cicero in French and German. Small Pica is called Philosophie in French, because applied to philosophical or scientific subjects. Brevier had its name from being first used in the printing of the breviary; and the German Corpus, in English Long Primer, probably from its use in printing their Corpus Juris. The Mittel of the Germans is supposed to have been the middle sized letter, between the Primer, Secunda and Tertia, on the one side, and Pica, Long Primer, and Brevier, on the other. The names of Minion, Nonpareil, Pearl, and Diamond, allude to their smallness as well as come. liness: for which latter use, the Germans have given the

name of Jungfer, or maiden letter, to our Brevier. A correct knowledge of the body of every letter, and of

the space which it occupies when used in composition,

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is particularly serviceable in casting of copy, i. e. in

from 3 to 17. A third sort of rules is called space rules, counting the copy, in order to determine what will be of different thicknesses, but generally cast about four to a the size of the work.

small pica m-quadrat, and are used principally in algeThese bodies are commonly cast with a Roman, Italic, and braical works, to distinguish the numerator from the desometimes an English, or Black Letter, face. The face

ab+a? • of a letter consists of fat strokes and lean strokes, as the

nominator, viz. Leads are used for leading, or

6 right hand stroke in the letter A, which is fat, and the increasing the space between the lines, to give the page left hand stroke, which is lean. The parts of the face a more open and airy appearance. are-the stem, which is the straight fat stroke, as that on Cases. Cases are fitted up for the reception of the type. the left hand of the letter B; the topping, or stroke in A pair of cases is an upper case and a lower case, the top line of ascending letters, which in Roman letters as fig. 1, Plate 56. The Upper Case, as A, is fitted pass at right angles through the stems, but in the Italics

up with ninety-eight divisions, or boxes, all of equal at oblique angles, as B B, H H; the footing, or the sizes; but the Lower Case, B, is divided into fifty-six stroke in the foot line of letters ascending or descending, boxes, of different sizes. The disposing of the several is also at right angles to the stem in the Roman, and sorts of letters in the boxes is called laying the case, oblique angles in the Italic, as B B, HH, II; the as in the figure where, in the upper case, are to be bottom-footing, the fine stroke in the bottom line of de

seen the capitals, A, B, &c., in their orderly succession; scending letters, as pp, 99; the beak is the stroke but the lower case is not disposed according to the order that stands mostly on the left hand of the stem, either in of the alphabet, those letters þeing put in the large the top-line, as b, d, h, &c. or in the head line, as m, n, middle boxes which are most frequently wanted, and ac&c.; but sometimes on the right hand, as f; g, s; the cordingly easiest of access to the compositor. The tail is the stroke from the right hand side of the stem in letters that lie in every box of the case are separately the foot line, as a, d, t, &c. To the letter belongs also called sorts, as a sort, b sort, &c.; and the whole col. the shank, which is the square piece of metal on which lection of type thus disposed is a fount, fund, or stock, the face stands. The shoulder of the shank forms a which the printer has for his use.

If the letter in any projecting angle when the letter is first cast, called box or boxes is nearly all used by the compositor, the the beard, which reaches almost up to the face of the case is then said to run low; and when all is used it is said letter, and is therefore broken off by the founder. When to be out ; also when any particular type is used more than the letter has an irregularity on any of its edges, this is the rest, the matter is said to run on this or that sort. called a bur or rag. Large and small letters, which are Composing Stick. The Composing Stick is an instrument commonly called capitals and small letter, are by printers with which the compositor performs the work of compodistinguished into upper case and lower case ; and, among sition. It is an iron plate, consisting of the Head, the letter founders, the Italic capitals have the name of Bottom, the Back, the two Slides, and the two Screws. swash lelters.

[vide Composing Stick] About two inches from the head, The other characters besides letters which are cut or cast in the bottom, is begun a row of round holes, as may be seen

in type, and used in composing, are those belonging to in fig. 2, Plate 56, which admits the male and female screw, Arithmetic, Astronomy, Grammar, Music, Chemistry, whereby the slides are fastened down to the bottom, and &c. which will be found under the head of Characters, niay be set nearer to or farther from the head, as the mea. or in their respective places. But besides these there sure of a page may require. While the compositor is in are pieces of metal cast or cut, which serve the compo the act of composing he holds the composing stick in his sitor for various purposes in his business: the principal left hand, placing the second joint of his thumb over the of these are quadrats, spaces, and rules. Quadrats, which slides of the stick, so as to keep the letter tight and derive their appellation from quadro, to square, are cast square together as he places them in the stick, as may to the size of an n-quadrat (half the thickness of the m be seen in fig. 2. When one line is composed so as to quadrat), and one, two, three, and four m's. N-quadrats fill the measure, it is said to be justified, which if it be are generally used after a comma, semicolon, &c. The filled very stiff with letters or spaces, is said to be hard m-quadrat, of which the others are derivatives, is the exact justified; but if loosely, loose justified. In justifying square of the body of the fount to which it belongs, and the line it is necessary to take care that letters do not is used at the beginning of a paragraph, to indent the line, hang, i. e. stand awry, or not directly square; also that or to cause it to fall in more than the succeeding; and the line be not too much spaced out, i. e. not to make likewise after full stops, to designate that the sentence is wide whites, called pigeon-holes, in a line, by putting in ended. Two, three, and four m-quadrats, are appropri too many spaces, as on the other hand not to be set too ated to fill up the short lines in poetry, and the ends of close, by inserting thin spaces where thick ones ought to paragraphs; they are likewise used to make distinguish be used. If a compositor set too close, this is called getting able distances between stanzas in poetry, &c. when they are in; if too wide, driving out : against the first fault he called whites, or white lines. Spaces are used to separate is warned by telling him to space out ; and for guarding words from one another, and are made of various thick him against the second he is told to space close. Componesses, as

sitors use a composing rule, which is only a brass rule Five to an m, or five thin spaces ;

cut to the length of a measure, with a small ear left at Four to an m, or four middling spaces;

one end to take it out by when the line is full, and to Three to an m, or three thick spaces;

lay it upon the composed line, to set successively the Two to an m, or two n-quadrats ;

other lines upon, till the stick be full. When this is the

case, he proceeds to empty his stick into the galley, in which latter being employed as spaces, may be reckoned the manner that is represented in fig. 3. After this he among the number; in addition to which there are some fills his stick again, and so on till his page is completed ; cast remarkably thin, that are called hair spaces. Rules and formerly it was the practice after the last line of every are either brass rules, made letter-high, which are used in page to set a direction, that is, to set a line of quadrats, table-work, or metal rules, which, like quadrats, are cast and at the end of it the first word, or the first syllable of from one to four, or sometimes six m's, and are used in the first word, in the next page, called the catch-word. schemes of accounts, also for cyphers in columns of On the first page of every sheet he sets a letter called the figures, and sometimes for the words to or till, as 3–17, signature, which, if it be the first page of the first sheet,

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