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is B; if of the second C, of the third D, and so on with cession. In this case it is necessary, after having com. all the letters throughout the alphabet, except J, V, and posed a whole sheet, or half a sheet, or even less, to W; so that if the book contain above two-and-twenty put the first page on the imposing stone with the signasheets, the signature of the three-and-twentieth sheet ture to the left hand, facing us according to the several must be A a or 2 A, of the four-and-twentieth B b or subjoined schemes of a Quarto, Octavo, and Duo2 B, &c. The second and other even pages have no decimo; the outer form being one side of the sheet, and signature, but on the third, which is an odd


is the inner form the other. placed the signature B2, C2, &c. This applies to a sheet of 8vo.; but in 12mo., 18mo., &c., the signatures

Sheet of Quarto. are increased in proportion to the number of the pages.

Outer Form.

Inner Form. Galley. The Galley is a frame consisting of three sides,

namely, a, b, c, as in fig. 4, and of the slice d. When the page in the galley is complete, it is then tied up with a cord, and slid off upon the imposing-stone, as A in

fig. 5. Smaller galleys have only two sides. Imposing-Stone. The Imposing-Stone is a large marble,

or any other smooth stone, that is placed on a frame, as in fig. 4, and made capacious enough to hold two chases,

It is mostly furnished with two rows of boxes, as a a a a a and bbb, for the reception of furniture. Chase and Furniture. The Chase is an iron frame, as B

in fig. 5, which has two crosses belonging to it, namely, a Short Cross, marked a a, and a Long Cross, marked 66. The short cross is dove-tailed in the middle of the chase, as

A at cc, and the long cross in the middle of the other sides of the chase at dd; but the long and short crosses may be put into other female dovetails at ee, as occasion may

Sheet of Octavo. require. By means of these crosses the chase is divided

Outer Form.

Inner Form. into distinct portions called quarters, according as the

EV sheet is either a Quarto, Octavo, Duodecimo, &c.; but Folio chases admit only of the short cross. These divisions are so called, not because they are even fourth parts of the chase, but because they are locked up apart; thus, half the short cross in a twelves is called a quarter, though it is only the sixth part of the chase, or form. It is, however, now most usual to have chases

A2 fitted to each sized page. The Furniture consists of heads, which are commonly put at the head of the page when it is in the chase; foot-sticks placed against the

Sheet of Twelves. foot; side-sticks against the sides; gutlers, which are used Outer Form.

Inner Form. to divide the pages; and backs, placed between the page and the cross; reglets, or small pieces of wood, from the thickness of about half an inch to nearly that of a card, which are put along the sides of the two crosses to give the book a proper margin when it is bound ; quoins to lock up the form, i.e. to wedge up the page in the chase, by force of a mallet and shooting-stick, so close together, both on the sides and at the foot of the pages, that every letter bearing hard against every next letter, the whole form may rise, that is, that when lifted off the correctingstone, no letter, furniture, &c. should fall out. If in this, or any other such case, the letter of one or more such lines get into the adjacent lines, the line or page is said to be squabbled. The side and foot-sticks and quoins are generally cut quadrat height, and of different lengths, to suit them to different pages and position. To the fur

A2 niture belongs also scale-boards, i.e. slips of wood, cut by means of machinery, of different thicknesses, to less These draughts exhibit the order of the pages as they are than that of a card, which are employed in justifying the to be placed in the chase, fig. 5. page to the true length; and planers, which are made of Distributing Distributing, or distributing letter, is the soft wood, about nine inches long and three square, for separating of composed matter, and replacing the several the

purpose of running over the face of the form, and of sorts of type in their respective compartments of the being gently knocked upon with the mallet, so as to press

To this end it is necessary, first to unlock the form, down any letters that may chance to stand up. The i, e. to loosen and open it by slackening the quoins, then whole of this process is called dressing a form, whence, to wash it with lye, and afterwards to rince it at the if the furniture be taken off from about the sides of the rincing-trough, that the type may be perfectly cleansed. pages, the form is said to be naked.

After which the compositor proceeds to remove the Imposing. Imposing is the placing of the pages that be quoins and other furniture: he then takes in his hand a

long to a sheet with the chase and furniture about them, portion of a page, called a taking-up, which he distributes, in such an order that when the sheet is wrought off at by placing each letter in its proper box, and so proceeds press, all the pages may be folded into an orderly suc till the whole form is distributed.

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ital. caps.

Corrector's Office.

three lines large capitals; four lines large italic capitals; Corrections are made either in the sheet or the form. The

with the abbreviations, sm. caps.; caps.; ital. caps.; in former is done by the persons who read over the sheets,

the margin, thus, and are distinguished by the names of the corrector

“ arms, and the man I sing."

sm. caps. and the reader. The first sheet which is read over by the corrector called the first proof; likewise a foul

arms, and the man I sing."

caps. proof if it abound, as it too frequently does, with errors and corrections"; and a clean proof if it need but few

arms, and the man I sing." corrections. The sheets which follow the first are called the first, second, &c. revise, which are read over by the Superior letters, apostrophes, and stops, are marked thus, reader. The last reading which is given to any sheet is Dryden s Virgil S. Augustin Works, vlil v vlo! called reading for press. In the correcting of sheets various characters and abbreviations are used, the prin

The compositor's corrections of the above-mentioned faults cipal of which are as follow :

are made by means of a bodkin, with which he lifts up

the letters so as to take them out. When a letter which When one letter is set for another, strike out the false letter and place the right one in the margin.

is put in the place of another be smaller than the other, When several letters are to be struck out, the corrections a space must be put in order to justify, but if it be are placed in succession towards the right hand; but if

larger a space must be taken out. If a word or more it be a double column, then the first correction for the

be left out, it is necessary for the insertion of what is left hand column is placed on the right, close to the co

omitted to overrun, that is, by contracting the distance belumn, and the other corrections are continued outwards,

tween the words in as many lines as is requisite to put so

much of the forepart of the line into the line above it, in regular progression to the left. For substituting one word in the place of another, the false

or so much of the hinder part of the line into the next

line under it as will make room for what is left out: if word is struck out and the right one placed in the margin.

this insertion causes the addition of a line, it is said to When any thing superfluous is to be struck out, the pen

drive out a line, which renders it necessary to overrun the is run through it, and the annexed character, 8, signifying dele, i. e. put out, is to be placed in the margin.

next page or pages forward. On the other hand, when For supplying omissions this character A, for caret, is put in

by taking out what is superfluous there is a line less in

the page, this is called getting in a line, which renders it the text, and the thing omitted, in the margin.

necessary sometimes to overrun the next page or pages When any thing is struck out by mistake it is dotted un backwards. derneath, and the word stet, i.e. let it stand, is placed

Pressman's Business. in the margin.

The pressman's work is properly called printing, being perWhen a space is wanted between words or letters a caret formed by a machine called a press, which is composed is placed in the text, and the annexed character

of many parts, as in fig. 5; where a a are the Feet; written in the margin.

bb, the Cheeks; c, the Cap; d, the Winter; e; the When words or letters are to be brought nearer, or joined, Head; f, the Till; gg, the Hose, in the cross irons of

the annexed character is marked between them, and which, encompassing the spindle, is the Garter; h hhh, the same placed in the margin.

the Hooks on the hose, whereon the platten hangs; To point out a letter inverted, the letter is underlined, and i k l m n, the Spindle; i, part of the Worm below the

this character 9, for inversion, placed in the margin. head, whose upper part lies in the nut in the head; When a letter is of a wrong font, it is underscored, and the

kl, the Eye of the Spindle; m, the Shank of the Spindle; ligature wf. is placed in the margin.

n, the Toe of the Spindle; 0000, the Platten tied on When a letter or word is to be transposed, it is denoted by

the hooks of the hose ; p, the Bar ; 9, the Handle of the

bar; rr, the Hind-Posts; s s, the Hind-Rails; tt, the tr. in the margin, and this character, they and, for Wedges of the Till; u u, the Mortices of the Cheeks, in and they, in the text.

which the tenants of the head play ; x x x I


the CarWhen several words are wrongly placed, they are com riage; x 20 x x, the outer Frame of the Carriage; yy, the monly figured, thus,

Wooden Ribs, on which the iron ribs are fastened ; “ Man the arms and I sing," and tr. placed in the

z, the Stay of the Carriage, or the Stay; 1, the Coffin;

2, the Gutter ; 3, the Plank; 4, the Gallows; 5, the Timmargin.

pans; 6, the Frisket; 7, the Points; 8, the Point-Screws. For marking a break or paragraph, this character [ is

Under the head of printing is comprehended making replaced in the text, and the syllable par, or br, in the

gister, or making ready the form, putting on the tympans margin.

and frisket, wetting the paper, knocking up the balls, The same character is used in the margin and text when a

briaring out ink, distributing the balls, beating, and line following is to be indented, thus,

pulling:--Making register is the quoining up a form, and “ Arms, and the man I sing, who forced by fate

otherwise altering whites between the crosses and pages, and haughty Juno's unrelenting hate.”

so that when a second form of the same volume, meaTo denote that there must be no break or paragraph, this

sure, and whites is placed in the same position, all the

sides of each page shall fall exactly upon all the sides character

of the pages of the first form. To this operation beno par. in the margin, as

longs, first, the choosing of points for the paper; namely,

short-shanked points for large paper, and long-shanked points Arms, and the man I sing,

for the small, &c.; then fastening a sheet on the tympan, Cwho forced by fate."

called the tympan-sheet ; and, lastly, trying with a second To mark the character that is to be employed, a single

sheet called the register-sheet, whether the impression of line under the word denotes Italic, if it be Roman, and

the sides and heads of all the pages agree, which, being Roman if it be Italic; the syllables Ital. and Rom. being done, register is said to be made, or it is said to be good reput in the margin.

gister. Putting on the tympans is the covering and

pasting For marking capitals, two lines denote small capitals ; on of vellum, forrels, or parchment upon frames. -Put

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ting a drawer on the tympan, is pasting a smaller parchment to one work, the press is said to be full, and the men over the old one when only the middle part of it is worn are called companions, distinguished into first and second, - Wetting the paper is done in tokens, as they are called. according to seniority. Besides that, for the sake of exPressmen regulate their work by the token; a token of pedition, there is sometimes a person who takes the paper consists of 10 quires, which is equal to 250 sheets ; sheets from the press, who is called a Ay. When a and this token, or 250 sheets, is considered an hour's sheet has been pulled so as to print the composed work for two pressmen; consequently as many tokens as matter, this is called an impression ; but when an entire a pressman works in the day, so many hours' work has he impression of any page is prevented by the friskets not performed. Before the wetting commences, the first quire being sufficiently adjusted, this is termed a bite; and when is laid down dry; when it is called the dry laying down, part of the impression on a page appears double, owing which receives a sufficient degree of moisture from the re to the platten's dragging on the frisket, this is called a mainder of the heap. Each quire of the token is then mackle. When pages are not worked even on each made to pass through the water, after which the pressman other, they are said to be out of register. When the doubles down a corner of the upper sheet, which is called impression of the sheet appears smeared, it is called a the token sheet, because it serves as a mark for him where slur. While the pressman is at work, the press is said by he may know how many tokens of any given heap is to go ; when he has worked off the required number wrought off, and, consequently, how many he has to from a form, it is said to be off. work. When the whole heap is wetted, it is put on a paper-board; and, another paper-board being put over it,

Warehouse Keeper's Business. a weight is set thereon for the purpose of pressing it

The Warehouseman is concerned with the paper before it down.-Knocking up the balls is the fixing of a leather is printed, as also with the sheets after they are printed. ball, stuffed with wool, on a stick or stock called the ball The paper is delivered to him in bundles, which consist of stock. If, on the application of ink to the balls, it two reams of twenty quires each, so disposed that the sticks equally all over, then they are said to take, and back, or doubling of each quire, lies upon the opening or are accordingly fit for use.-Briaring out the ink is the edges of the next quire. Two of the twenty quires of the process of rubbing the ink about the ink-block previously ream are called the cording quires, i. e, the two outsides, to its being used, with a wooden tool called a brayer, because the whole ream is corded or tied up between whereby the whole may be equally mingled together them; they are also called cassic quires, because they so as to be free from all clots or thicknesses, which, if serve as cases for the ream. These are culled by the taken up by the ball and carried to the face of the warehouseman, that is, each sheet is examined as to its letter, will cause black prints or patches called picks. quality, and that which is fit for use in printing is counted For small letter, or curious work, it is necessary to have out into 10 quires, or two hundred and fifty sheets, to be hard ink ; but, for great letter, or common work, soft ink wetted, which is called setting out paper. will answer the purpose. -Distributing the balls is the rub When the heaps which are wrought off are delivered to the bing the balls round and against each other in opposite warehouseman, the first thing which he does is to hang them directions, and in so artful a manner that the ink may be about a half-quire thick on the poles to dry, by means of a equally distributed over the surface of the ball leathers. tool called a peel. This is succeeded by laying the heaps, Beating is the beating of the balls over the face of the letter which is the placing them in an orderly succession of in the form, which, when it proceeds, as it commonly does the signatures on benches; and gathering of books, which from the hither to the farther side, is called going up the is the taking the sheet off every heap, beginning at the form ; and, when they are on the return, it is called last heap first, i. e. at the left-hand of the range; when coming down the form. If any part of the form, in going a book is thus gathered it is then knocked up, that is, up or down, be left untouched by the ball, this pro. the whole collection of sheets are made to rest on their duces a defect in the printing called a friar; but when, edges; and, in that position, are shaken gently until for want of a due distribution of the balls, the ink lies in they all lie even ; after which the book is folded up, that blotches, this is called a monk; and when the pressman

is, the sheets are doubled altogether, according to the has too much ink, he is said to sop the balls. A modern nature of the volume. To prevent mistakes in the improvement has been introduced, of inking the type by gathering by putting in two of one sheet or none of anmeans of cylindrical rollers, by which the ink is laid on other in the book, it is necessary to collate then, which with more equality, and the labour considerably lessened. is the examining of every sheet by its signature for the When the bar of the press requires to be brought close to purpose of seeing if they follow in order. When the the cheek to make a good impression, this is called cheek books are all gathered, collated, and folded, they are told ing the bar.

When the carriage of the press runs in light in order to see how the impression holds out, i. e. what and

easy, it is said to go light under the hand ; and, in a number of perfect books have been printed off, which contrary case, heavy under the hand. When the spindle are then disposed in heaps of a suitable size, with the goes soft and easy, it is said to go well upper-hand,' or back and edges of the different books placed alternately above-hand; and, on the contrary, if heavy, it is said on the same side like the unprinted paper; and, after to go ill upper-hand. Pulling, i. e. pulling off the having been put into the press for a time, they are tied sheets, is the last part of the pressman's work, which up in bundles ready for delivery. is called working off

, and the sheet so wrought off is | PRI'NUS (Bot.) the Quercus prinus of Linnæus. a printed sheet. To this part of his business belong PRIONITIS (Bot.) the Barberia prionitis of Linnæus. the several movements of taking the sheet off the heap, PRI'ONUS (Ent.) a division of the genus Cerambyx, comdisposing it on the tympan-sheet, running in the carriage, prehending those insects which have the jaw cylindrical and giving the first and second pull, running the carriage and entire. out, taking up the wrought off sheet, and laying it down | PRI'OR (Ecc.) the head of a priory. on the bank of the press. While the pressman is engaged PRIO'RITY (Law) antiquity of tenure in comparison of with the first form he is said to be working the white another not so ancient; hence “ To hold by priority," is paper ; and, when he is about the second form, it is called to hold of one lord more anciently than another.-old working the reteration : whence the first and second Nat. Brev. 94; Crompt. Jurisd. 117; F. N.B. forms are severally denominated white paper and retera- | PRI'ORS aliens (Law) governors of priories in England, who tion in this connexion. Where there are two pressmen were formerly chosen from among persons who were aliens.

PRISAGE (Law) the King's custom, or share of lawful PRI'VY (Law) one who is partaker, or has an interest in

prizes, usually one-tenth.--Prisage of wines, a custom for any action, or thing; of Privies there are different kinds, ; the King to challenge two tuns of wine at his own rate, namely, Privies of Blood, as the heir to the ancestor.which is 20s, per tun out of every ship loaded with wine Privies in Representation, as executors or administrators to less than forty tuns. It is now received by the King's the deceased.-Privies in Estate, as between donor and chief butler, and called butlerage.

donee, &c. Old. Nat. Brev. 117.-Gentlemen of the Privy PRISCI'LLIANISTS (Ecc.) a sect of Christians in the fourth Chamber are those who are in immediate attendance upon

century, who added several errors to those of the Gnostics, the person of the King; of whom there are forty-eight which they also maintained. August. de Hær. 70; Sulpit. under the Lord Chamberlain.-- Privy Council, vide Council

. Sever, l. 2, Dial, 3; Baron. Annal. Ann. 301; Praleol. - Privy, Seal, the King's seal, which is first set to such Dogmat, omn. Heret.; Sander. Hær. 8+, &c.

grants as pass the Great Seal of England.—Lord Privy PRI'SER (Law) an old name for the things taken of the Seal, a great officer who keeps the King's Privy Seal, and

King's subjects by purveyors; also a toll or custom due to is by office next in dignity to the lord president. the King

PRIZE (Mar.) a vessel taken at sea from an enemy by a PRISM (Geom.) a geometrical figure, or solid, bounded by ship of war, privateer, &c. — Prize Agent, a person ap-.

several planes, whose bases are polygons, equal, parallel, pointed for the distribution of such shares of money as and alike situated.-Right Prism, one whose sides and axis may become due to the officers and men.

-Prize-money, . are perpendicular to its ends.- Oblique Prism, is when the money due to the officers and men on the capture of any

axis and sides are oblique to the ends.-Triangular Prism, ship or place. one whose two opposite bases are triangles, alike equal PRO'A (Mar.) a sort of canoe in the Ladrone islands. (and parallel. Prisms may also be pentagonal, hexagonal, | PRO'BANG (Surg.) a flexible piece of whalebone with a . &c. according to the form of its end; and moreover regu sponge fixed to the end, used occasionally in probing the .lar or irregular, according as the figure is a regular or throat. irregular polygon.

PROBA'RE (Archæol.) to claim a thing as a man's own. PRISM (Opt.) a solid Glass in the form of a triangular Leg. Canut. apud Brompton.

prism, through which the sun's rays being transmitted, are PROBATE (Law) the proving of wills of persons deceased, refracted into the vivid colours of the rainbow.

in the spiritual court, either in common form by the oath PRISMATIC COLOURS (Opt.) the same as Primary. of the executor, or, to avoid future debates, by witnesses [vide Colours ]

also. PRISMOID (Geom.) a solid figure contained under several | PROBA'TION (Lit.) the trial of a student, who is about to : planes, whose bases are right-angled parallelograms, pa

take his degrees. rallel and alike situated.

PROBA'TIONER (Lit.) a scholar who undergoes a proPRI'STIS (Ich.) the Saw-fish; a genus of fishes of the bation. - Chondropterigious order, having the snout long; spiracles PROBA'TOR (Law) an accuser, or one who undertakes to

lateral; body oblong, roundish; mouth underneath; nostrils prove a crime charged upon another. Flet. 1. 2, c. 52, . before the mouth; ventral fins approximate; anal fins § 42, &c.

PROBA'TUM est (Math.) i. e. it is proved; a term often. PRI'VATE (Mil.) a name given to a common soldier, in set at the end of a demonstration. distinction from an officer, or subaltern.

PROBATUM est (Med.) a receipt for the cure of some disease. PRIVATEE'R (Mar.) a ship fitted by one or more private PROBE (Surg.) a surgeon's instrument to search the depth,

persons, with a licence from the prince, or state, to make windings, &c. of a wound. prize of an enemy's ships and goods.

PROBLEM (Math.) zpábanuese ; a proposition in which PRIVATION (Law) is when a bishop, or parson, is by something is proposed to be done, as to bisect a line, to

death, or any other act, deprived of his bishopric, church, draw a circle through three points, &c. or benefice.

PROBOLE (Anat.) a Prominence. PRIVATIVE (Gram.) an epithet for what denotes taking | PROBO'LIUM (Ant.) a hunting spear.

away: thus, in the Greek is called privative, because it PROBOSCI'DEA (Bot.) the Martynia proboscidea of Lintakes from the affirmative sense of a word, and gives it a negative sense.

PROBO'SCIS (Zool.) an elephant's trunk. PRI'VEMENT enceinte (Law) a term signifying a woman PROBULEU'MA (Ant.) apoBesuw; a decree of the Areo.. with child, but not quick with child.

pagus. PRIVET (Bot.) a well-known shrub, the Ligustrum of PROCA'RDIUM (Anat.) #perapoor ; the pit of the stomach.

Linnæus, which is much used in forming hedges in gar Poll. Onom. I. 2, segm. 163. dens.-Mock Privet, the Phyllyrea ligustifolia.

PROCATARCTICA Causa (Med.) from ArporatepXW, to PRIVIES (Law) vide Privy.

precede; the prime cause of a disease which co-operates PRIVILEGE (Law) a special grant or right whereby a with others that follow, as excessive heat in the air, a vio

person, or corporate body, is freed from the rigour of the lent fit of passion, &c. common law; this is either real or personal.—Real Privi- | PROCEDENDI (Law) or Procedendo in Loquela, a writ lege is that which is granted to a place, as to the Uni whereby a cause before called from an inferior to a superior versities, that none may be called to the courts at West court, as the Chancery, King's Bench, &c. by writ of · minster, or held in other courts, on any contract or agree privilege of certiorari, is released and sent down again to ment made within their own precincts.—Personal Privilege be tried in the same court, where the suit was first begun. is that which is allowed to any person against or beyond F. N. B. 153.- Procedendo ad Judicium, a remedial writ

the course of Common Law, as freedom from arrest, which in case of refusal or neglect of justice, which issues out of · is granted to a Member of Parliament, or any of his ser the Court of Chancery, where any of the judges of the vants during the session of Parliament.

inferior courts do delay the parties. F. N. B. 151, &c. PRIVITY (Law) i. e. private knowledge; as when a wo- | PROCEE'DS (Com.) that which arises from any thing; as

man is said to do any thing without the privity of her the neat proceeds of any sale, &c. husband : so if there be any lord, or tenant, and the tenant PROCELEUSMATICUS (Poet.) #poxsasur patixos, a foot, . hold of the lord by certain services, there is a privity be consisting of four syllables. tween them in respect to the tenure.

PROCELLARIA (Orn.) a genus of birds, Order Anseres. VOL. II.




Generic Character. Bill toothless ; nostrils cylindrical; feet || PRO CONFE’SSO (Law) i. e. as though it had been conpalmate.

fessed: a term applied to a defendant in Chancery who Species. Birds of this genus, distinguished in English by appears and is afterwards in contempt for not answering;

the name of the Pelrel, live chiefly at sea, and, except at wherefore the matter contained in the bill shall be taken breeding time, are rarely seen near land. The principal pro confesso, species are-Procellarin pelagica, the Stormy Petrel. PROCONSUL (Ant.) an officer sent into the province to Procellaria glacialis, the Fulmar Petrel.-Procellaria administer the government with consular and extraordinary puffinus, the Shearwater Petrel, &c.

power. The proconsulship succeeded the consulship, and PROCERS (Mech.) irons hooked at the end.

lasted but one year, during which time the expences were PROCESS (Law) the manner of proceeding in every cause, defrayed at the charge of the public. Apul. Florid.; Tacit. or the beginning and principal part of it.

Annal. I. 3, c. 58 ; Sigon. de Ant. Jur. Prov. 1. 2, c. 1; Process (Chem.) the whole course of an operation or expe Huttoman. de Magistrat. Roman. apud Græv. Thes. Antiq. riment.

Rom, tom. ii. &c. Process (Anat.) the prominent part of a bone.

PROCONSULES (Archæol.) a name applied to justices in PROCESSION (Ecc.) a solemn march of the clergy and

Eyre. people of the Romish Church in their habits, &c.; also the PROCTALGIA (Med.) from sparròs, the fundament, and visitation of the bounds of a parish performed by the minis aayos, pain ; a violent pain in the fundament. ter and churchwardens, &c.

PROCTOLEUCORRHEA (Ned.) from apaxre, the funPROCESSUS continuando (Law) a writ for continuing a dament, asuxos, white, and piw, to flow; a purging of white process after the death of the chief justice. Reg. Orig. PROCTOR (Law) Procurator, an advocate, or one who

128. Processus cilinris (Annt.) muscular filaments in the eye undertakes to manage the cause of another in the ecclesias

whereby the pupil is dilated and contracted.- Processus tical court.-Proctors of the Clergy, deputies chosen by the styliformis, an outward process of the bones of the temples, clergy to sit in the lower house of convocation ; also those long and slender, having the hyoides bones attached to it. who are chosen to appear for the cathedral and collegiate Processus zygomaticus, an outward process of the bones of churches. the temples, running forward and joining with the bone of PROCTORS (Cus.) two persons chosen from among the the upper jaw, by which juncture the bridge, called zygoma, graduated members of a university for the purpose of prereaching from the eye to the ear, is formed.

serving discipline. PROCHÅRISTERIA (Ant.) apoxupisupe, a festival in honour PROCTORRHE'A (Med.) vide Proctoleucorrhoea.

of Minerva, celebrated by the Athenians at the commence PROCUMBENS (Bot.) procumbent, an epithet for a stem; ment of spring. Suidas.

caulis procumbens, a stem unable to support itself, and PROCHEIN AMY' (Law) he that is necessary to a child therefore lying on the ground.

in nonage, and allowed by the law to manage his affairs. PROCURATION (Law) a composition paid by the parish Stat. Westm. 1, 3 Ed. I, c. 47; West. 2, 13 Ed. 2, clerk to an ecclesiastical judge, to commute for the enterc. )5; 2 Inst. 261.

tainment which was to have been given him at his visitaPRO'CHRONISM (Chron.) apoxforooueds, an error in chro tion.

nology, when things are brought under a date that is ante- PROCURATION (Com.) a letter of attorney. rior to the time at which they happened.

PROCURATOR (Polit.) the governor of a country under a PROCIDE'NTIA (Anat.) the falling down of any part, as sovereign.- Procurators of St. Mark, magistrates at Venice the Procidentia ani, Uteri, &c.

next in dignity to the doge. PRO'CKIA (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 13 Polyandria, PROCURATOR (Ecc.) one who gathers the fruits of a benefice Order 1 Monogynia.

for a person.-Procurator Monasteriž, the advocate for a Generic Character. CAL. perianth three-leaved. - Cor. religious house.

-STAM. filaments numerous; anthers roundish. PROCURATO'RES Ecclesiæ parochialis (Law) the church-Pist. germ roundish; style filiform; stigmas bluntish. wardens. -Per, berry quinquangular; seeds very many.

PROCURATO'RIUM (Law) vide Procuratory. Species. The single species, the Prockia crucis, is a PROCURATORY (Law) procuratorium, the instrument shrub.

whereby any person constitutes or appoints his proctor to PROCLAMATION(Lar) a notice publicly given of anything represent him in any court or cause.

whereof the King thinks proper to advertise his subjects: - PROCYON (Astron.) a bright fixed star of the second magProclamation of Courts is used particularly in the beginning nitude in the body of the constellation Canis Minor, the or calling of a court, and at the discharge or adjourning right ascension of which in 1813 was 112° 22' 32"; declithereof.-Proclamation of Exigents, a writ on awarding an nation 5° 41' 52" ; N. annual variation in right ascension exigent, for proclamation to be made three times in the 47•1", in declination 8.5”. county where the party dwells, that the defendant yield PRODES HOMES (Polit.) i. e. wise or discreet men; a himself or be outlawed.-Proclamation of a Fine is a notice title given to the barons who were called to the King's given openly and solemnly at all the assizes in the county, council, to give advice to the best of their ability. within one year after the engrossing of it. Stat. 1 R. 3, PRODITO'RIE (Law) i. e. treasonably; a term employed c. 7.- Proclamation of Rebellion, a public notice given by

in indictments for treason. an officer, that a man who does not appear upon an attach-PRODROMUS morbus (Med.) a disease which is the forement in chancery, or a subpæna, shall be accounted a runner of one greater, as tightness of the breast is the rebel unless he surrender himself.- Proclamation of Recu prodromus of a consumption. sants, a proclamation heretofore, whereby recusants were PRODUARIUS canis (Àrchaol.) a lurcher or setting dog. convicted on non-appearance. Stats. 29 Eliz. c.6; 3 Jac. 1, PRODU'CING (Geom.) the continuing a line, or drawing it c. 4, &c.

further out until it have an assigned length. PROCLINIATÆ (Ecc.) heretics in the fourth century who PRODUCT (Math.) the number or quantity sought by the

denied the incarnation of our Saviour, the resurrection of multiplication of two or more numbers, &c. together; as the body, and the general judgment. Epiphan.

4 x 4 = 16, or a xb= ab. When two lines are mulPROCO'NDYLI (Anat.) the bones of the fingers next the tiplied into one another, the product is always a recback of the hand.



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