« ForrigeFortsett »
Grain-staff, a quarter staff with short lines at the end called grains, Grains of Paradise (Bot.) the seeds of the Amomum granum
paradisi of Linnæus, which have the fiery pungency of
pepper. GRAINAGE (Law) an ancient duty in London, consisting
of the 20th part of salt imported. GRAINER (Chem.) a lixivium made of an infusio of
pigeon's dung in water, in which light skins are steeped. GRAINING (Ich.) a fish resembling dace, the Cyprinus
leuciscus of Linnæus. GRAI'N-TREE (Bot.) the Cochineal-Tree, or the Cactus
coccus of Linnæus. GRAIN-TREE (Her.) three sprigs of this tree are borne in
the arms of the Dyers' Company. GRA'KLE (Orn.) a bird not inhabiting Europe, the Gra
cula of Linnæus, which has a thick bill and sharp-hooked
claws. GRA'LLÆ (Orn.) the fourth of the six orders into which
Linnæus has divided his Class Aves,or Birds. It consists of such genera as have their bill sub-cylindric, and a little obtuse; tongue entire, fleshy; legs naked above the knees.
(vide Animal Kingdom) GRA'MIA (Med.) the sordes of the eye. GRA'MINA (Bot.) Grasses, the fifth family in Linnæus'
general division of the vegetable kingdom. GRAMMA (Ant.) ypás pues, literally a letter; a name for
the scruple, so called because it is the twenty-fourth part of an ounce, as a letter is the twenty-fourth part of the alphabet. The character by which it was distinguished among the Romans was the letter F. Paul. Æginet. I. 7,
c. 26. GRAMMATIAS (Min.) a kind of jasper with white strokes
or lines athwart. Plin. l. 37, c. 9. GRAMMAR, in Latin grammatica, in Greek ypa pe punetixò, is
the art of speaking and writing any language with propriety; it is so called from spépopice, a letter, because letters are the elements or component parts of all languages. Grammar consists of four parts ; namely, Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, Prosody, and Figures.Orthography treats of letters, with the proper division of words and sentences.-Etymology treats of the several kinds of words and their accidents.—Syntax teaches the construction of words into sentences, according to their relations to each other.- Prosody treats of the quantity, &c. of syllables, and their arrangement in versification.Grammatical Figures are deviations from the ordinary rules of grammar, which have been introduced by the poets or otherwise.
Orthography. Orthography comprehends the nature and power of letters,
and their formation into words. Letters. A Letter is the smallest part of every word; and
an assemblage of the letters used in any language, and disposed in a certain order, with their names, powers, &c.is an alphabet. (vide Alphabet] Letters are the conventional representatives of articulate sounds, i. e. of significant sounds of the human voice, uttered by the help of the organs of speech. They are divided into Vowels and Consonants. A vowel is an articulate sound, that can be ut. tered entirely by itself, as a, e, 0.– A consonant is an articulate sound that cannot be uttered perfectly without the help of a vowel, as b, d, &c. Vowels are either simple or compound.Compound vowels consist of dipthongs, i. e. two vowels sounded with one impulse of the voice, as æ; or tripthongs, i.e. three vowels sounded at once, as eau.-À proper dipthong is that in which both the vowels are sounded, as ou.
--An improper dipthong has but one of the vowels sounded, as ea.
Consonants are distinguished into mutes, semivowels, and
liquids. Mutes are such consonants as cannot be sounded at all without the aid of a vowel, as b, p, t, d, k, &c.--Semivowels have an imperfect sound of themselves, as f, v, s, , x, &c.-Liquids are semivowels so called because they readily unite with other consonants, as
1, m, n, r. Letters are moreover distinguished, according to the organs
that are particularly employed, into-Labials, or those which are sounded by the lips.-Dentals, those which are sounded by the teeth.–Palatals, those which are sounded by the help of the palate ; and-Nasals, those which are sounded by the aid of the nose.
Letters are combined so as to form syllables, and syllables so as to
form words. Syllables. A syllable is a sound pronounced by a single impulse of the voice, which constitutes a word, or part of a word, as a, an, ant, ab, bot. The rightly dividing of syllables, and expressing words by their right letters,
termed spelling. Words. Words are articulate sounds used by common con
sent, as the signs of our ideas. In respect to the number of syllables, they are distinguished into-Monosyllables, or words of one syllable. -Dissyllables, or words of two syllables.- Trissyllables, or words of three syllables.- Polysyllables, i. e. words of four or more syllables. In respect to their formation they are either Primitives or Derivatives.- Primitive words are such as are not formed from any other words.-Derivatives are those which are derived from other words, as goodness, contentment, &c. derived from good, content. What respects the signification, &c. of words comes under the
other heads of grammar. To letters, syllables, and words, belong Punctuation. Punctuation. Punctuation is the distinguishing of words from
each other by marks called points, or notes.- Points, or stops, are marks which serve to distinguish different pauses between words, according to the sense and pronunciation, such as the comma, marked thus (, ), which denotes the shortest pause ; semicolon, marked thus (; ), is the double of the comma; colon, marked thus* (:), the double of the semicolon; the period, thus ( . ), the double of the colon. — Notes, or fullstops, are marks which affect either the pronunciation or the sense, or both; as the note of admiration, of interrogation, of reference, &c. [vide Notes, &c.]
Etymology. Etymology treats of words to their distribution,
and their several accidents. Words are commonly divided into nine sorts, called parts of speech ; namely, Article, Substantive or Noun, Adjective, Pronoun, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, and Interjection. These are distinguished, in most languages, into declinable and indeclinable, according as they admit of
inflections, or otherwise. Article. The article is a small word prefixed to substan
tives to point out their signification. It is termed-Indefinite when it simply denotes unity of number without specifying the thing; as a man, a house, i.e. any one man, or any one house.-
Definite when it defines, or points out, the particular thing referred; as the man, or the book. Noun. The noun, or substantive, is the name of every
thing which is the object of our senses, or our thoughts ; it is denominated proper when it is the name of any particular person, place, or thing; as John, London, &c. : common when it is the name of many things of the same kind; as Man, House, &c. This last kind of nouns is likewise called appellatives. Nouns may also be distinguished into collective, abstract, verbal, &c. [vide
in most languages, are the Present, Imperfect, Perfect, Pluperfect, Future, &c. (vide Tense, &c.] The disposing of a verb in order, according to its various inflections for Mood, Tense, &c. is called conjugating a verb; and the inflections so collected in orderly succession is called a conjugation, of which there are four different sorts in
Latin, Adverb. The adverb is a part of speech that is joined to
a verb, an adjective, and sometimes to another adverb, to express some circumstance of, or to modify an action,
&c.; as well, ill, truly, sometimes, &c. Preposition. The preposition serves to connect words with
one another, and to show the relation between them; as
with, by, from, &c. Conjunction. The conjunction joins words and sentences,
and is principally distinguished into the conjunctive, which joins both the word and the sense ; as and, both, &c.: and the disjunctive, which couples the words, but disjoins or opposes the sense; as nor, but, neverthe
less, &c. Interjection. The interjection is a word thrown in between
the parts of a sentence to express the emotions of the speaker; as oh! alas! &c.
Noun) To Nouns belong number, gender, and case. Number is that change of nouns by which the number of things is denoted. It is called singular when only one thing is signified ; dual when only two things are expressed ; plural when more than one are denoted.Gender is the distinction of nouns with regard to sex, which is termed masculine when it expresses the male sex ; feminine when the female sex ; neuter when it denotes objects of neither sex; epicene when it denotes an object of both sexes; doubtful, when it denotes an object of either sex.-Case is the inflexion of nouns that denotes the relation of things to each other. The number of cases varies in different languages; in the Latin there are six ; namely, the Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, Vocative, and Ablative. [vide Case] The distribution of nouns, according to their gender, number, and case, is termed a declension, the number of which is different in different languages; the Greek and Latin have five declensions. Nouns which deviate from the ordinary mode of declension are called heteroclites, which are either variants, redundants, or defectives. - Variants are those which have a different gender, or a different declension, for each number.Redundants are those which have different endings in the nominative, but retain the same sense.—Defectives are such as are defective in number or case. Some defeca tives in number want the singular, others the plural. Defectives in case want either all the cases, or only particular cases in either number; they are distinguished into Aptotes, Monoptotes, Diptotes, Triptotes, Tetrap
totes, Pentaptotes. [vide Aptotes, &c.] Adjective. An adjective is a word added to a substantive
to denote the quality of a thing. Adjectives either vary for the gender, number, and case throughout, as in the Greek and Latin ; or for the gender and number only; or for particular cases, &c. They admit of three de. grees of comparison, which are commonly variable ; namely, the positive, comparative, and superlative. [vide
Positive, &c.] Pronoun. The pronoun stands for the noun, and is dis
tinguished into Personal, Possessive, Relative, Demon
strative, and Indefinite. [vide Pronoun, &c.] Verb. The verb is a word which denotes either being,
doing, or suffering. Verbs are of different kinds, as Active verbs, which express an action.— Passive verbs, which express passion. — Neuter verbs, which express neither action nor passion.-- Auxiliary verbs, by the help of which other verbs are formed in different parts. To these may be added, in respect to their form, Regular, Irregular, Deponent, Reflective, Impersonal, Defective Verbs, &c.; and, in respect to their signification, Inceptives, Frequentatives, Meditatives, &c. [vide Verb, &c.] To the verb belong Number, Person, Voice, Mood, Participle, Tense.- Number is either singular, dual, or plural, as in nouns.-Person is that which denotes the person of the agent. There are three persons in each number; namely, the first, second, and third person.Voice is that form of the verb which denotes by inflection either action or passion in some languages. The voices are three; namely, Active, Passive, and Middle. [vide Voice, &c.]-Mood is the manner of forming the verb so as to express different forms of the action. The moods are generally reckoned five, as the Indicative, Imperative, Potential, Subjunctive, and Infinitive. [vide Mood, &c.)- Participles are those parts of the verb which partake both of the noun and the verb; they are distinguished into Participles, properly so called, Gerunds, and Supines. [vide Participles, &c.]-Tense is the distinction of time in the action, which is marked by a particular inflection or form of the verb. The tenses,
Syntar. Syntax treats of words as they are connected with, or de.
pend on, each other in a sentence. Sentence. A sentence is an assemblage of words which form complete sense. The parts of a sentence are the
-Subject, or the thing spoken of; it is otherwise called the nominative, because it is denoted by that case. — Attribute, whatever is affirmed, or denied of the subject; this is otherwise called the verb, because it is expressed by the verb.-Object, the thing affected by the action, which is signified by the noun or pronoun in the accusative, or some other oblique case. Sentences are either simple or compound.— A simple sentence has but one subject and one finite verb; as®“ The bird Aies." -A compound sentence consists of two or more simple sentences connected together. Sentences may likewise be distinguished into explicative, or explanatory; interrogative, when a question is asked; and imperative, when a command is given, &c. Syntax consists of Concord and Government.
- Concord is the agreement between two words, in regard to gender, number, &c. Concord is threefold ; namely, between the nominative and the verb when they agree in number and person; between the adjective and substantive when they agree in gender, number, and case ; between the relative and antecedent when they agree in
gender, number, and person. Government. Government is that influence which one
word has over another to determine its case or mood; in this manner verbs govern nouns in different cases, and verbs or conjunctions govern other verbs in certain moods.
Prosody. Prosody, the fourth part of grammar, treats of accent,
breathing, quantity, and versification. Accents. Accents are of three kinds ; namely, acute,
grave, and circumflex. [vide Accent] Breathings. Breathings, spiritus, are of two kinds; name
the lenis and asper, which, in modern languages, are not marked as in the Greek; but words which are pronounced with breathing are now denominated aspirate, in distinction from those which are not aspirated : of this description there are several words, both in French
and English, beginning with h. Quantity. The quantity of a syllable is the time which
is occupied in pronouncing it; this is either long, short,
or common; a long syllable, marked thus (-), requires spelling of words introduced by the poets, which have double the time in pronouncing it that a short one, marked been termed figures ; the principle of which are as thus (), does ; a common syllable, marked (), is that follow :—Prosthesis, which adds a letter, &c. to the bewhich is either short or long at the option of the poet ; ginning; as gnatus for natus.--Aphæresis, which takes as in ămābõ, where the first a is a short, the second long,
away from the beginning of a word; as 'st for est, &c.and the third common. Feet are composed of syllables,
Epenthesis, which inserts in the middle; as relligio for and verses of feet.
religio.-Syncope takes away from the middle; as dix'ti Feet. A foot is a certain measured number of syllables
for diristi.- Paragoge adds to the end of a word; as into which a verse is divided. Feet are distinguished
dicier for dici.- A pocope takes away from the end, as according to the number of syllables, as in the follow
satin' for satisne, &c.- Antithesis changes a letter, as olli ing table:
for illi. - Metathesis transposes a letter, as Lybia for
Libya.--Archaismus, an old mode of writing, as aulai Spondæus mūsæ.
for aulæ, &c.—Hellenismus, an imitation of the Greek
form, as Helene for Helena.
Figures of Syntax. To the syntax belong certain pecu
liarities termed figures, of which the four principal are lambus Děo.
Ellipsis, Pleonasmus, Enallage, and Hyperbaton.-
Ellipsis is the omission of some word necessary to com-
plete the sense; thus, the nominative is most commonly Dactylus
understood in Latin by this figure; as ita aiunt for ita carmină.
homines aiunt, &c. The ellipsis is of different kinds ; Anapæst domini.
namely, apposition, when two nouns stand together, as te Bacchius ěgēstās.
duce, i. e. you being leader, where the verb ens or existens Antibacchius cāntārě.
is understood; asyndeton where conjunctions are onitted, Amphimacer cāstītās.
as ferte citi flammas, date tela, impellite remos; Syllepsis
is when one adjective or verb agrees with two or more Amphibrachys ămārē.
substantives ; Zeugma, when the adjective or verb agrees Dispondæus conclūdēntēs.
with the nearer substantive; prolepsis, synecdoche, &c. Proceleusmaticus hominibús.
- Pleonasmus is a redundance of one or more words in Diiambus
a sentence, which may be of different kinds; as parelcon, sěvērītās.
polysyndeton, hendyadis, and peraphrasis. [vide PaDitrochæus comprobārē.
relcon, &c.]— Enallage changes the genders, numbers, Ionicus a majore cāntābsmŭs.
persons, moods, and tenses ; as Romanus victor erat for Ionicus a minore věněrāntēs.
Romani victores erant. The different sorts of enallage Choriambus històriæ.
are the antimeria, synthesis, anacolouthon, hellen
ismus, and archaismus. (vide Antimeria, &c.]-HyperAntispastus sècündārē.
baton is a derangement of the words from their natural Epitritus 1. sălūtāntēs.
order, of which there are different kinds; as the anastro2. concitāti.
phe, tmesis, parenthesis, hypallage, synchysis, and anaco-
louthon. [vide Anastrophe, &c.]
Figures of Prosody. The figures employed in scanning
are the cæsura, echthlipsis, synalæpha, systole, diastole, Pæon 1. conficērē.
synæresis, and diæresis. [vide Cæsura, &c.] 2.
rěsõlvěrě. 3. sociārē.
Writers on Grammar in chronological succession. 4. cělěrītās.
Varro “ De Analogia;” Trypho “ De Dialectis;" Ælius
Dionysius περί ακλίτων ρηματων; Cheroboscus περί έγκλίνοThe first twelve of these feet are simple, of which only perws; Apollonius Alexandrinus sspil ouitátios; Julius
five are used in poetry; namely, the Dactyle, the Ana Pollux “ Onomasticon ;" Q. Rhemnii “ Ars Grammapæst, the lambus, the Trochee, and the Spondee; the tica;" Marci Valerii Probi “ Institutiones Grammaticæ;" remainder are compound feet composed of the preceding Herodiani παρεκβολαι μεγάλο ρήματος ; Suetonius « De feet. A verse is a certain number of feet disposed in Grammaticis illustribus ;” Sosipatri Charisiï “ Institua certain regular order and cadence; in the Greek it is tiones Grammaticæ ; Diomedes “ De Oratione, &c.; called sixos; whence the distich is a couplet, or two Macrobius “ De Differentiis et Societatibus Græci et verses ; and the hemistich is half a verse. Verses are Latini Verbi;" D. Augustinus “ De Grammatica;" distinguished, in respect to cadence, into catalectic, Ælii Donati “ De Arte Grammatica ;" Prisciani “ Inacatalectic, &c.; in respect to the number of feet, or stitutiones Grammaticæ;" Cassiodorus “De Arte Gramthe measures they contain, into hexameter, pentameter, matica," &c. &c. &c.; sometimes from the foot which prevails, as dactylic, GRA'MME (Anat.) ypa uspain, the iris of the eye. iambic, &c.; sometimes from the author by whom it was GRA'MPUS (Ich.) a fish of the whale tribe, the Orça of particularly used, as Alcaic, Archilochian, &c. [vide Pliny, and Delphinus orca of Linnæus, which the former Verse] To versification belongs scanning, and figures
describes as "an immense heap of flesh, with dreadful employed in scanning.
teeth," it being remarkably thick in proportion to its Scanning. Scanning is the distinguishing or distributing length. It is extremely voracious, not even sparing the
any verse into the proper number of feet of which it is porpoise, a congenerous fish. It is likewise said to be a composed.
great enemy to the whale, whom it fastens on as a dog on a Figures. Figures belong to Etymology, Syntax, or Pro bull. Plin. I. 9, c. 6; Gesn. de Pisc.; Rondelet. de Pisc. sody.
GRAN cantore (Mus.) Italian for a fine singer. Figures in Etymology. Under the head of etymology are GRA'NA (Med.) a term applied in the pharmacopæia to cer
comprehended several irregularities in the formation or tain seeds used medicinally, as the Grana chidia. [vide
Cnidia) Grana infectoria tinctoria, or kermes. [vide | GRANI'VOROUS (Zool.) an epithet for animals feeding on
Kermes] Grana paradisi, the seeds of the Amomum, &c. grain. GRANADI'ER (Mild) vide Grenadier.
GRANT (Law) a gift in writing of such things as cannot GRANADI'LLA (Bot.) another name for the Cataputia. conveniently be passed or conveyed by word of mouth; GRANA'DO (Mil.) vide Grenade.
whence a thing is said “ To lie in grant” which cannot be GRA'NARY | Husband.) a storehouse for threshed corn. assigned without an instrument or deed. He to whom the GRANATARIUS (Archæol.) the store-keeper or officer grant is made is the grantee, and he who makes the grant
who took charge of the coro-chamber in religious houses. is the grantor. GRANAT (Min.) the Gemma soranus of Linnæus, a shining GRANTE'E (Law) vide Grant.
transparent gem, of a yellowish red colour, so called be- GRANTOR (Law) vide Grant. cause it is sometimes found in the form of rounded grains To GRANULATE (Chem.) to pour melted lead through an mixed with sand or earth.
iron cullender into cold water, that it may become grains. GRANATITE (Min.) a sort of precious stone of the gra- GRANULATE (Bot.) vide Granulatus. nate kind.
GRANULATION (Med.) the little grain-like fleshy bodies GRANATRI'STUM (Med.) a boil or carbuncle.
that form on the surfaces of ulcers and suppurating wounds. GRANATUM (Bot.) the Punica granalun, or Common GRANULATUS (Bot.) granulate, or, according to WitherPomegranate Tree.
ing, beaded ; an epithet for a root, radix granulata, a root GRANĀTUS (Min.) or Gemma granatus, in the Linnean consisting of several tubes or fleshy knobs resembling grains. system, the garnet.
GRANULE (Com.) a small grain. GRAND (Mil.) an epithet for a division of troops consisting GRAPE (Bot.) the fruit of the vine.—Grape Hyacinth, the of two companies.
Hyacinthus Romanum.-Sea Grape, the Ephedra distaGRAND (Law) an epithet for several things in law, as-Grand
assize, a writ in a real action to determine the right of pro- GRAPES (Chem.) by a chemical analysis, are found to conperty in lands.—Grand cape, a writ on plea of land where tain supertartrate of potash, tartaric acid, citric and malic the tenant makes default in appearance at the day given for
acids, abundance of sugar, a portion of mucilage jelly, the king to take the land into his hands. Reg. Jud. 1.- some albumen and colouring matter, and also gluten, as is Grand days, those days in the term which are solemnly said by some. kept in the Inns of Court and Chancery, i. e. Candlemas GRAPES (Vet.) arrests, or mangy tumours in the legs of Day, in Hilary term; Ascension Day, in Easter term; St. horses. John the Baptist's Day, in Trinity term; and All Saint's GRAPHIOIDES (Anat.) ype Peidas, a process about the basis Day, in Michaelmas term; which days are Dies non juri of the brain inclining backward. dici, or no days in court. -- Grand distress, a writ so called GRAPHI'SCUS (Anat.) ypapíoxos, a surgical instrument for because of its extent, namely, to all the goods and chattels extracting darts, invented by Diocles, and described by of the party distrained within the county.-Grand jury, Celsus. Cel. 1. 7, c. 1. the jury which finds bills of indictment before Justices of GRAPHOMETER (Mech.) an instrument for measuring of the Peace, Gaol Delivery, &c. in distinction from the petit heights, &c. jury, by whose verdict causes are tried.-Grand serjeanty, GRAPHOY (Bot.) the Dormium germanicum of Linnæus. an ancient tenure by military service.
GRAPNEL (Mar.) or grapling-iron, in French grapin, an Grand gusto (Paint.) term used to express that in a pic anchor for a small ship of war.— Fire-grapnel, an instru
ture there is something very great and extraordinary to ment provided with barbs or points for grapling or laying surprize and please.
hold of an enemy's ship, in order to board her. GRAND Seignior (Polit.) a title by which the Sultan of the TO GRAÄPPLE (Man.) is when a horse lifts up one or both Turkish empire is distinguished.
his legs at once, and raises them with precipitation, as if Grand Seignior's crown (Her.) consists of a turban enriched he were curvetting.
with pearls and diamonds, and held out by a wire that GRA'PPLING-IRON (Mar.) vide Grapnel. keeps it from falling.
GRA'SIER (Husband.) one who grazes or fattens cattle. GRANDE' (Mus.) an Italian epithet signifying grand. GRASS (Bot.) is the name of several sorts of plants, of which GRA'NDEBALD (Anat.) the hairs which grow under the the following are the principal, namely--Arrow-headed Grass. armpits.
[vide Triglochin)—Barley Grass. [vide Hordeum)–Bent GRANDE'E (Polit.) a nobleman of Spain or Portugal. Grass. (vide Agrostis]— Brome Grass. [vide Bromus]-CaGRANDIMONTE'NSERS (Ecc.) an order of monks insti nary Grass. (vide Phalaris) - Cat's-Tail Grass. [vide tuted in the 11th century.
Phleum]-Cock's-Foot Grass. [vide Dactylis)-Cotton GRANDINES (Med.) vide Grando.
Grass. [vide Eriophorum]-Couch Grass. [vide Triticum] GRANDINO'SUM Qs (Anat.) the Os cuboides.
-Darnel Grass. vide Lolium)-Dog's Grass. [vide TritiGRANDO (Med.) zarábiov, a movable tumour on the margin cum]-Dog's-Tail Grass. [vide Cynosurus)-Feather Grass.
of the eye-lid, so called from its likeness to a hail-stone. [vide Stipa) - Fescue Grass. (vide Festuca)-Five-leaved Cels. 1.7, c. 7; Gal. de Ocul. c. 9, &c.; Aet. Tetrab. 2, Grass. [vide Potentilla)-Fox-Tail Grass. [vide Alopecurus] serm. 9, c. 81; Paul. Eginet. 1. 3, c. 21; Act. de Meth. -Hair Grass. [vide Aira]–Hard Grass. [vide Dactylis] Med. 1. 2, c. 7; Gorr. Def. Med. in Voc. tanélior.
Knot Grass. [vide Polygonum]-Lyme Grass. [vide GRANGE (Archæol.) a great farm, with all the necessary Elymus)-Manna Grass. (vide Festuca] – Marl Grass. appurtenances, as barns, stables, granaries, &c.
(vide Trifolium)-Mat Grass. [vide Nardus]-Meadow GRANI'FEROUS (Bot.) an epithet for such pods as bear Grass. (vide Poa)-Melic Grass. [vide Melica)-Millet seeds like grains.
Grass. [vide Milium]-Oat Grass. [vide Avena)-OrGRANITE (Min.) a sort of speckled marble which is chard Grass. [vide Dactylis) - Panic Grass. [vide Pa.
classed under the head Granites in the Linnean system. It nicum) -Pepper Grass. (vide Pilularia) – Quaking Grass. is valued for its extreme hardness and beauty, and is ca (vide Briza) -Quick Grass. [vide T'riticum)–Ray Grass. pable of an elegant polish,
[vide Lolium)-Rye Grass. [vide Hordeum)-Scurvy GRANITES (Min.) a genus of earths of the Aggregate Grass. [vide Cochlearia]-Spiked Grass. [vide Triglo.
Order, which consists of parts, mostly in the form of cry chin]-Spring Grass. [vide Anthoranthum]— Three-leaved stals, and is of a granular texture.
Grass. (vide Trifolium) - Timothy Grass. [vide Phleum]
-Vernal Grass. vide Anthoxanthum-Vetch Grass. resisting medium.-Relative Gravity is that with which a
Gravity (Hydrostat.) the law of bodies gravitating in fluids,
which is either absolute or specific.— Absolute, or true Grau, earth with a plough; an ancient customary service of te vity, is the whole force with which the body tends downnants doing one day's work for their landlord.
wards.—Specific Gravity, the relative or comparative graGRASS-HOPPER (Ent.) a well-known insect, nearly allied vity of any body in respect to that of an equal bulk or mag.
to the locust tribe; it is the Gryllus campestris of Linnæus. nitude in another body; as suppose there be two equal GRA’SS-WEEK (Ecc.) vide Rogation-week.
spheres, each one foot in diameter, the one of lead, and the GRATIA Dei (Bot.) a name given to Herb Robert and other of wood: the leaden one in this case is said to be
Hedge Hyssop, and other plants, because of their sup specifically, or in specie, heavier, and the wooden one speposed efficacy in curing disorders.
cifically lighter. GRATIÆ expectative (Ěcc.) vide Graces.
GRAY (Her.) an epithet for a badger. GRATIEUSEMENT (Mus.) the same as Grazioso.
GRAZIER (Husband.) vide Grasier. GRATIFICATION (Law) a rewarding or making amends GRAZIO'SO (Mus.) vide Gratiosa. for some piece of service done.
GREAT (Astron.) an epithet for those circles of the sphere GRATINGS (Mar.) frames or lattice-work between the which divide it into two equal parts, as the Equinoctial, mainmast and foremast.
Meridian, and Equator.—Great Bear, a constellation. [vide GRATIOLA (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 2 Diandria,
Ursa Major] Order 1 Monogynia.
Great Circle sailing (Mar.) the manner of conducting a Generic Character. Cal. perianth five-leaved.—CoR. un ship in or very near the arc of a great circle that passes
equal.-STAM. filaments four; anthers roundish.-Pist. through the zenith of the two places whence and whither germ conic; style straight; stigma two-lipped.-Per. he is bound. capsule ovate; seeds small.
Great Seal (Law) the king's principal seal for the sealing of Species. The species are perennials, as the-Gratiola offi charters, commissions, &c. used by the Lord Chancellor and cinalis, Officinal Gratiola, Hedge Hyssop, or Water Lord Keeper.-Great Men, a title applied sometimes to the Hyssop.-Gratiola monnieria, Monnieria, seu Annagalis, laity of the Upper House of Parliament. native of the Indies.-Gratiola veronicifolia, seu Ruellia, || Great Cannon (Print.) a sort of letter type, seventeen and Veronica-leaved Gratiola; but the-Gratiola hyssopioides, a half of which are contained in one foot.-Great Primer, Hyssop-leaved Gratiola, is an annual. Bauh. Hist.; another sized letter, fifty of which are contained in one Bauh. Pin.; Ger. Herb.; Park. Theat. Bot.; Raii foot. (vide Printing] Hist., &c.
GREAVÈS (Mil.) a sort of armour for the legs. GRATIOLA is also the name of the Holtonia indica.
GREBE (Orn.) a division of the genus Colymbus, consisting GRATIO'SA (Mus.) Italian for an agreeable manner of of such birds as have their feet four-toed and lobed. playing.
GRE'CES (Her.) signifies steps, às a cross on three greces. GRATTERONA (Bot.) vide Aparine.
GRECIAN (Mil.) vide Greek. GRATTON (Archæol.) grass which comes after mowing. GREE (Law) good liking or allowance, satisfaction, as " To GRAVATI'VUS (Med.) an epithet for a pain in the head. make gree to parties," i. e. to agree with or satisfy the parGRAVE (Gram.) an accent opposed to the acute, marked ties for any wrong done. Stat. R. 2, c. 15; 25 Ed. 3, thus (').
19. GRAVE (Mus.) an epithet for a low deep sound, in distinction | GREEK (Gram.) vide Alphabets.
from the acute.-Grave, or gravement, is also a term to de- || Greek Fire (Mil.) a sort of artificial fire, consisting of
note a motion faster than adagio, and slower than largo. naphtha, bitumen, sulphur, gum, and pitch, which was so GRAVEDO (Med.) a weight or listlessness which accom called because it was first used by the Greeks in their system panies a lessened transpiration. Cel. l. 4, c. 2; Paul. of warfare. Ægin. I. 3, c. 28.
Greek Orders (Archit.) the Ionic, Corinthian, and Doric are GRAVEL (Med.) a disorder otherwise called calculus, or the so named, in distinction from the Tuscan and Composite, stone. [vide Calculus]
which are of Roman origin. GRAVEMENT (Mus.) vide Grave.
GREEN (Nat.) one of the seven primitive colours. GRAVER (Surg.) an instrument for scaling the teeth. Green (Nech.) an epithet for a hide or skin which is not yet GRAVER (Mech.) a tool used in engraving.
curried, but is just as it was taken off the carcase of the GRAVIDITAS (Med.) the state of being gravid, or preg.
beast. dant. Spurious Gravidity is that which is produced by GREEN-CLO'TH (Law) the compting-house of the king's water in the abdomen, uterus, &c.
household, so called because the table is always covered GRAVI'METER (Mech.) an instrument for measuring the with a green cloth. specific gravities of bodies.
GREEN-SILVER (Lau) a duty of one halfpenny paid anGRAVITATION (Phy.) the exercise of gravity, or the nually in Writtle, in Essex, to the lord of the manor.
pressure a body exerts on another body beneath by its | GREEN-WAX (Law) the estreats of fines, issues, and amerceweight.
ments in the Exchequer, delivered to the sheriff under the GRAVITY (Phy.) the natural tendency or inclination of seal of that court; it is so called because it is made in
bodies towards the centre, or according to some, the na green wax. tural tendency of one body towards another, or the mu-GREE'N-FINCH (Orn.) a yellowish green bird, an inhatual tendency of each body, and each particle of a body, bitant of Europe, which builds in hedges, and lays five or towards all others: this is otherwise called the centripetal six pale green eggs, with blood-coloured streaks. It is the force, or gravitating force.
Loxia chloris of Linnæus. The native note of this bird GRAVITY (Mech.) the conatus, or tendency of bodies by their has nothing musical in it, but it may be taught to pipe or
weight towards the centre of the earth. This is either whistle in imitation of other birds. absolute or relative.-Absolute Gravity is that with which | GREE'N-HOUSE (Hort.) a place where exotics and tender a body descends freely and perpendicularly through an up plants are sheltered from the cold and inclement weather.