Hist. ;

* JA'MBOLOES garcia (Bot.) a shrub growing in the East || JASMELÆUM (Med.) a sort of medicinal oil composed Indies. Raii Hist. Plant.

of the flowers of violets, and the oil of Sesamum. JAMBOS (Bot.) a tree growing in Malabar, the fruit of JASMINO'IDES (Bot.) the Cestrum nocturnum. which is of sweet and grateful taste.

JA'SMINUM (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 2 Diandria, JAMBS (Carpent.) or jaumbs, the side posts of a door.

Order 1 Monogynia. IA'MBUS (Gram.) in ms Bos, an Iambic foot, consisting of two Generic Character. Cal. perianth one-leaved. - Cor.

syllables, ihe first short and the other long. [vide Grammar] petal.-Stam. filaments two; anthers small.-Pist. germ JAMBU'SA (Bot.) another name for the Gmelina of Linnæus. roundish; style filiform; stigma bifid.- Per. berry oval. ST. JAMES, Knights of (Her.) a military order in Spain, Species. The species are shrubs, as the Jasminum

first instituted in the year 1170, by Ferdinand II, King of sambac, seu Nyctanthis, Arabian Jasmin. - Jasminum Leon and Gallicia.

fruticans, seu Trifolium, Common Yellow Jasmin.JAMMA GOBA (Bot.) the Phytolacca octandra of Lin Jasminum officinale, Common White Jasmin.--Jasminum

grandiflorum, seu Gelseminum, Spanish Jasmin. Clus. · JANGOMAS (Bot.) a tree, the size of an ordinary palm,

Bauh. Hist.; Bauh. Pin.; Ger. Herb.; Park. bearing a fruit like that of the Service tree in Turkey. Thcat. Bot.; Raii Hist.; Tourn. Inst. Bauh. Hist. Plant. ; Raii Hist. Plant.

JASPACHA'TES (Min.) a sort of agate, so called from JANIPABA (Bot.) a Brasilian tree, the juice of which is its affinity to the jasper stone. Aetius recommends it to an excellent remedy for Aphthæ.

be inwardly taken on account of its lenient virtues. Plin. JA'NIPHA (Bot.) the Gardenia genista of Linnæus.

1. 37, c. 10; Aet. Tetrab. 1, serm. 2, c. 37. JA'NITOR (Anat.) the lower orifice of the stomach.

JASPER (Min.) vide Jaspis. JANITRIX (Anat.) a name for the Vena Porta.

JA'SPIS (Min.) lactis, Jasper, a precious stone of a green JANIZAR AGA'SI (Mil.) the officer who has the chief transparent colour, with red veins, &c. ; its virtues are the command of the Janizaries.

same as those of the Cornelian. Dioscor. 1. 5, c. 160; JA'NIZARIES (Mil.) the foot-guards of the Grand Seignior. Plin. I. 37, c. 8, 9; Gal. de Simpl. Med. Fac. l. 9; JAN RAIA (Bot.) the Raiania jan raia of Linnæus.

Oribas. Med. Collect. de Loc. Affect. Curat. l. 4, c. 83; JANSENISM (Ecc.) the tenets of Cornelius Jansenius, det. Tetrab. 1, serm 2, c. 85; Paul. Æginet. 1. 7, c. 3;

Bishop of Ypres, who maintained the doctrine of Augus Prisc, in Dionys. Perieges. tine concerning grace, and opposed the Jesuits.

Jaspis, in the Linnean system, a genus of silicious Earths, JANUA'RII Cataplasma (Med.) a cataplasm for the spleen, consisting of silica, with a small portion of alumina, oxide so called from its inventor one Januarius.

of iron, magnesia, and potash. : JANUARY (Ant.) Januarius, the first month in the year, | JA'SPONIX (Min.) isotón't, a kind of jasper of a white so called either because it is, as it were, janua, the gate, or

colour with red streaks. door, to the year; or rather, as others suppose, from the || JA'SS-HAWK (Falcon.) a young hawk newly taken out of god Janus, to which it was sacred.

the nest. JAPA'N Earth (Bot.) Terra Japonica, a sort of drug, sup IATRALEIPTES (Med.) iampaasiatn, from lempos, a phy

posed to be of an earthy substance, produced from the sician, and easiqw, to anoint; a physician who undertakes Acacia catechu of Linnæus.

to cure disorders by frictions and ointments. Gal. de Comp. JAPA'NNING (Mech.) the art of drawing and varnishing Med. secund. Loc. 1. 7, c. 5.

figures on wood, metal, &c. after the manner practised by IATRE'ON (Med.) ixtption, the art or function of a physithe inhabitants of Japan, &c.

cian, on which Hippocrates wrote a book. JAPARA'NDIBA (Bot.) a pomiferous tree of Brazil, with I'ATRICE (Med.) iz opixs, the art of medicine.

a flower like a Rose. Pis. de Med. Bras. et Marcgrav. IATROCHYMICK (Med.) from iurgès, a physician, and Hist.; Raii Hist. Plant.

xupeès, a humour; a chemical physician. JAPO'NICA (Bot.) vide Terra Japonica.

IATROLI'PTICE (Med.) vide Tatraleiptes. JAPONICA (Mech.) Japan, a varnish made of gumlac, and | JATRO'PHA (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 21 Monoecia, spirit of wine.

Order 8 Monadelphia. JAPOTAPITA (Bot.) the Ochna squarosa of Linnæus. Generic Character. Col. perianth scarcely manifest.: JAR (Com.) the name of a measure for different kinds of Cor. petal one.-Sram. filaments ten; anthers roundish.

things; a jar of oil contains from 18 to 26 gallons; a jar -Pist. germ roundish; styles three ; stigmas simple.of ginger, about 100 pounds, &c.

- Per. capsule roundish ; seeds solitary. JARVES (Vet.) or jardons, callous and hard swellings in the Species. The species are perennials, as the-Jatropha hinder legs of a horse.

gossypifolia, seu Ricinus, Cotton-leaved Physic-nut.JARGON (Min.) vide Zircon.

Jatropha glauca, seu Croton, Glaucous-leaved, PhysicJARNI'NA (Bot.) a tree growing in the East Indies re nut.-Jatropha curcas, seu Mundubiguacu.-Jatropha sembling a fig tree. Raii Hist. Plant.

multifida, seu Avellana, French Physic-nut. Bauh. JASIO'NĖ (Bot.) ieriáva, a flower with a single leaf men Hist. ; Bauh. Pin.; Ger. Herb.; Park. Theat. Bot.;

tioned by Theophrastus and Pliny. Theophrast. I. 1, c. 21; Raii Hist.; Tourn. Inst.. Plin. l. 21, c. 16.

IATROPHYSICUS (Med.) an epithet for any one who treats JASIONE, in the Linnean system, a genus of plants, Class 19 of physical subjects in relation to the study of medicine. Syngenesia, Order 6 Monogamia.

JAVELIN (Mil.) probably from jaculum, a dart; a sort of Generic Character. Cal. perianth common.—Cor. petal half pike, or spear.

:-Stam. filaments five; anthers five.—Pist. germ | JAUMBS (Carpent.) vide Jambs. roundish; style filiform; stigma bifid. — Per. capsule || JAU'NDICE (Med.) from the French jaune, yellow; a disroundish; seeds many.

ease caused by the overflowing of the gall. Species. The single species is an annual, as the Jasione || JAUNTS (Mech.) the felloes of a wheel.

montana, Rapunculus, seu Scabiosa, Mountain Jasione, || JAW, locked (Med.) a spasmodic contraction of the lower or Hairy Sheep Scabious. Dod. Pempt.; Bauh. Hist.; jaw commonly produced by some external injury affecting Bauh. Pin.; Ger. Herb. ; Park. Theat. Bot.; Raii the tendons, or ligaments. Hist. ; Tourn. Inst.

JAWS (Anat.) vide Fauces. JASIONE is also the Astrantia jasione of Linnæus.

JAWS (Bot.) vide Fauces.


JAY (Orn.) a bird of the crow tribe, the Corous glanda | VCHNOGRAPHY (Perspect.) the view of any thing cut off

rius of Linnæus, which has a particoloured plumage, and is by a plane parallel to the horizon, just at the bottom of it.

very restless but docile, easily tamed, and taught to speak. ICHNOGRAPHY (Fort.) a draught of the length and breadth JAZÉL (Min.) a sort of precious stone of a blue colour. of the works raised about a place. IBAMETRA (Bot.) the Spondias myrobalanus of Linnæus. I'CHNOS (Med.) ixros, literally the sole of the foot, but IBACURAPARI (Bot.) a pruniferous umbellated fruit tree taken by Hippocrates for a kind of sock made of leather,

of Brazil. Pis. de Med. Braz. et Marcgrav. Hist. ; kaii and accommodated to the sole of the foot. Hippocrat. Hist. Plant.

de Art. IBACURUPA'RI (Bot.) a nut-bearing tree of Brazil, the I'CHOR (Med.) izue, a sulphurous and watery humour

fruit of which is the shape of a gourd. Pis. Med. Braz. which flows from ulcers. Cels. 1. 5, c. 26 ; Gal. Comm. 2. Marcgr. Hist. Braz.

in Hippocrat. Epid. 1. 6. IBEIXUMA (Bot.) a bacciferous tree of Brazil, bearing a ICHTHYA (Nat.) the skin of the Squatina marina, or

fruit the size of a tennis-ball. Marcgrav. Hist.; Raii Hist. Monk-fish. Plant.

Icthya (Surg.) izlús, a hook for the extraction of the fætus ; I'BERIS (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 15 Tetradynamia, so called, says Galen, from its likeness to the scale of a Order 1 Siliquosa.

fish. Gal. Ereges. Generic Character. CAL. perianth four-leaved.-Cor. petals ICHTHYELÆ'UM (Nat.) the oil of fishes.

four. -- Stam. filaments six ; anthers roundish.—Pist. | ICHTHYE'MATA (Nat.) ixouüporta, signifies literally the germ roundish; style simple; stigma obtuse. Per. scales of fishes; but figuratively the raspings or scrapings silique upright; seeds few.

of the bark of trees. Species. The species are mostly perennials, as the-Iberis ICHTHYI'TES (Min.) a stone so called because it has a

semperflorens Leucoium, seu "Thlaspi, Broad-leaved cavity in it resembling a fish. Evergreen Candy Tuft.-Iberis saxatilis, Rock Candy || ICHTHYOCO'LLA (Nat.) iztuéxoard, isinglass ; a glue Tuft.

- Iberis rotundifolia, Round-leaved Candy Tuft. made of the skin of fish. Dioscor. l. 3, c. 102; Plin. -Iberis linifolia, Flax-leaved Candy Tuft. But the 1. 32, c. 7; Gal. de Simpl.; Paul. Æginet. 1. 7, c. 3. Iberis umbellata, seu Thlaspidium, Purple Candy Tuft; ICHTHYOLITHUS (Min.) a stone formed by the petriIberis amara, White Candy Tuft; and the Iberis odorata, faction of a fish, or any of its parts. Sweet-scented Tuft, are annuals. Clus. Hist.; Bauh. ICHTHYO'LOGY, from izous, a fish, and nóyos, a discourse; Hist. Bauh. Pin.; Ger. Herb.; Park. Theat. Bot. ; that part of general zoology which treats of fishes. Under Raii Hist.; Tourn. Inst.

the Class of Fishes are included those animals which in. I'BEX (Zool.) a kind of wild goat mentioned by Pliny. Plin. habit the water, breathe by means of gills, swim by means Hist. Nat. 1. 8, c. 35.

of fins, and are mostly covered with cartilaginous scales. Ibex, in the Linnean system, is a variety of the Capra Structure of Fishes. In respect to their general structure, • @gagrus.

the body of fishes is distinguished by the epithet of comIBIPITA'NGA (Bot.) the Brazilian cherry-tree.

pressed, when the diameter from side to side is less than IBIRA (Bot.) a Brazilian tree, bearing a fruit in shape like from back to belly; depressed, on the contrary, when a filbert, with an aromatic and acrimonious taste.

the diameter from side to side is greater than from back IBIRA'CE (Bot.) another name for the Guaiacum.

to belly; oblong, when the longitudinal exceeds the transIBIRACEM (Bot.) a species of wild liquorice.

verse diameter; oval, when the base is likewise circular; IBIRAREMO (Bot.) a sort of Brazilian Alliaria.

orbicular, when the longitudinal and transverse diameters IBIRUBA (Bot.) a Brazilian plum-tree.

are nearly equal ; gibbous, when the back presents one I'BIS (Orn.) an Egyptian bird resembling a

or more protuberances; so likewise carinate, ensiform, stork, which, having freed the country of

cuniform, or wedgeshaped, &c. The surface of the body serpents, was worshipped by the inhabitants.

is termed naked, when destitute of scales ;, scaly, when It is one of the emblems of Egypt, as in

furnished with scales ; smooth, when the scales are with. the annexed figure.

out angles, &c.; lubricous, when provided with a mucus ; Ibis, in the Linnean system, the genus Tantalus,

tuberculate, when covered with tubercles, &c.; loria bird of New Holland.

cate, or mailed, when inclosed in a hard integument; IBISCUS (Bot.) vide Hibiscus.

fasciate, or banded, when marked with transverse zones IBIXU'MA (Bot.) the Saponaria arbor, or Soap-Tree.

from the back to the belly; so also spinous, striped, retiICA'CO (Bot.) the Chrysobalanus Icaco of Linnæus.

culate, or chequered, &c. I'CE-PLANT (Bot.) the Mesembryanthemum crystalinum of Parts of the Body. The parts of the body are external or Linnæus.

internal. The external are the Head, Trunk, and Fins. ICH dien (Her.) i. e. I serve; the motto taken by the Black Head. The head is always placed at the anterior part of

Prince, and since borne in the arms of the Heir Apparent body, and is obtuse, acute, slanting, aculeate, unarmed, to the crown of England.

&c. To the head belong the Mouth, Nose, Jaws, Lips, ICHNEUMON (Ent.) a genus of insects, Order Hymen Teeth, Tongue, Palate, Eyes, and the Branchial Opercles, optera.

Membrane and Aperture. The mouth is said to be supeGeneric Character. Mouth with a straight horny jaw; rior, when placed at the upper part of the head; inferior, feelers four unequal filiform; antenne setaceous ; sting when at the lower part ; vertical, when it descends perexserted.

pendicularly from the upper part; horizontal, when it is Species. The insects of this singular tribe derive their parallel to the water in which the fish swims; oblique, nourishment from other insects, in the body of which when it is neither vertical nor horizontal.—The nose, or they deposit their eggs. The larva is without feet, soft, snout, is the forepart of the head, and is cuspidate and cylindrical ; the pupa, sometimes naked, and some when its apex terminates in a sharp point; spatulatimes folliculate. [vide Entomology, Plate, No. II]

shaped, when its extremity is flattened ; triquetrous, or ICHNOGRAPHY (Archit.) izvorpre pice, from ixres, a draught, tetraquetrous, having three or four flat sides ; refler,

and type@w, to delineate; a geometrical plan or platform when it is incurved towards the belly.-The jaws, which of an edifice, or the ground plot of a house or building are always two in number, vary in respect to figure, delineated upon paper. Vitruv. 1.1, c. 2; Bald. Ler. Vitruv.

proportion, &c. being subulate, or awl-shaped ; cari

nate, or keel-shaped; dentale, or provided with teeth; of the thorax and the origin of the tail; it is either critnaked, not covered with lips, &c. The lips are not rinate, serrate, or plane. — The lateral line is a line distinctly visible in many fishes, and are either of a formed by tubercles or lines running along the sides, and fleshy or a bony consistence; they are distinguished terminating at the fins ; it is either straight, curved, into, plicate, or consisting of folds; retractile, or ca broken, obliterated, double, &c.—The anus, or vent, is pable of being drawn in or out.— The teeth are either the external orifice of the rectum, which is jugular when acute, obtuse, serrate, similar, dissimilar, &c. The situated under the branchial opercles; pecloral when tongue is either acute or obtuse ; bifid, or divided into two under the gills; remote when distant from the head; lobes ; carinate, or ridged on the surface; dentate, or mean equally near the head and the tail.— 'The tail is the covered with teeth; papillous, or covered with fleshy solid part of the trunk, which is either round, carinate, points. The palate is smooth when destitute of teeth

muricate, or apterygious, &c. - The scales are cartilaor tubercles, or it is denticulate.-The nostrils are mostly ginous integuments, which are oval; orbiculate, i. e. situated before the eyes, and are anterior when they oc nearly round; smooth ; ciliate, i. e. set with setaceous cupy the fore part of the rostrum, or snout; posterior processes; serrate, i. e. toothed like a saw ; imbricate, when they occupy the base; superior when they are on when the scales partly cover one another, &c. the crown of the head ; cylindrical when they form a Fins. The Fins consist of several bony rays, connected tube; single, or solitary, when there is only one on each together by a tender membrane; they are denominated, side the head; double when there are two.-The eyes, according to their position, Dorsal, Pectoral, Ventral, which are two in number, consist of two principal parts, Anal, or Caudal.— The dorsal fins are situated on the namely, the pupil and the iris ; besides which most of upper part of the body, between the head and the tail, them have a firm pellucid membrane, called the nictitant and vary in number; whence called monopterygious, dipmembrane, which serves the purpose of an eyelid. The terygious, &c.; they are said to be fleshy when covered eyes are said to be covered, semi-covered, or nukell, ac with a thick skin or muscular substance; and ramenta. cording as they are furnished or otherwise with this ceous when furnished with filamentous appendages, &c.-membrane; vertical, or lateral, when situated on the The pectoral fins are situated on each side, about the crown or the sides of the head; binate when both are on aperture of the gills, and are solitary, double, or altogethe same side of the head; plane, or depressed, when ther wanting.–

The ventral fins are placed in the under the convexity of the ball does not rise above the surface part of the fish, and are abdominal, jugular, thoracic, of the head; conver when they exceed the surface ; sa &c. according to their situation.--The anal fin is placed liant when they are very prominent.—The branchial oper between the anus and the caudal fin, and is bifurcate, cles, or gill-covers, are scaly or bony processes situated or two-forked; coalescing, i. e, united with the caudal on both sides of the head, which close the gills, and are fin; longitudinal, extending from the anus to the tail ; simple when composed of a single piece; diphyllous, tri posterior when placed at the end of the tail, near the phyllous, &c. when composed of two, three, or more caudal fin.—The caudal fin is situated at the extremity pieces ; ciliate, having the margin fringed; scabrous of the tail, and is equal or entire when its rays are of when covered with asperities; striate, or marked with equal length; lanceolate when the middle rays are the hollow lines; radiate when the marks run like rays, &c. largest ; emarginate when they are the shortest; coales-The branchial, or branchiostogous membrane, formed of cing, cuspidate, setiferous, &c. crooked bony substances, lies under the opercula, to which it adheres, and is capable of being folded or ex

Internal Parts. panded at pleasure; it is either patent, i. e. projecting The internal part comprehends the organs, viscera, bones, beyond the margin of the opercula ; latent, or covered, muscles, and vessels. according as it is more or less concealed under them. Organs and viscera. The principal organs and viscera disThe aperture of the gills is a cleft, commonly lateral, tinguishable in fishies are, the Brain, Esophagus or formed by means of the gills, and closed by means of Gullet, Stomach, Swimming or Air-Bladder, Heart, Inthe opercula. It is arcuate, or arched; operculate testines, Liver, Gall-Bladder, Spleen, Urinary-Bladder, when quite covered by the opercles ; pipe-shaped, in the Kidneys, Diaphragm, Peritonæum, and Ova. Fishes form of a tube.-The nape is the hind terminating part have no external organ of hearing, and, as has been geof the head, attached to the first vertebra of the trunk, nerally supposed, also none internal; but nodern natuand is either carinate, i. e. sharply angulated, plane, or ralists conceive that they have found indisputable traces sulcate, &c.

of this organ in the form of a bag, at some distance beTrunk. The trunk in fishes comprehends all the body, hind the eyes of some fishes, as the skate, cod-fish, &c.

from the nape to the fins, and consists of the–Branchiæ, Those who deny the sense of hearing to fishes suppose or Gills, Throat, Thorax, Back, Sides, Abdomen, La they perceive sounds through the medium of their feelteral Line, Anus, Tail, and Scales.—The gills are formed ing, which is affected by the vibratory motion that mostly of four unequal bones, furnished with small soft sounds occasion in the water. The brain is a small appendages, like the beards of a feather, and generally organ, divided into three lobes, and surrounded by a of a red colour. They are aculeate when provided with frothy matter, resembling saliva. In this region ihe spines; denuded when wanting opercles, &c.—The throat optic and olfactory nerves are easily discovered. The is placed between the branchial apertures, and is said to cesophagus, or gullet, is very short, and scarcely to be be swelling when it exceeds the level of the body ; cari distinguished from the stomach, which is a membranous nate when angulated underneath; plane when on a level sack divided into two lobes.—The swimming, or airwith the thorax and head. The thorax is comprehended bladder, otherwise called the sound, is an oblong white between the throat and the pectoral fin. The back, membranous bag, in which is contained a quantity of which is the upper part of the body, extends from the elastic air. This organ lies close to the back-bone, near nape to the origin of the tail. It is apterygious if without a red glandular substance, and has a strong muscular fins; monopterygious, dipterygious,&c. if furnished with one coat, by which it can occasionally contract itself. The or two, &c. fins; convex, serrate, &c.—The sides lie be. flat-fish are unprovided with this bladder. The heart is tween the back and the abdomen.-The abdomen is the a viscus of a triangular form, with the base downwards, under part of the-trunk, between the posterior extremity and apex upwards, consisting of one auricle and one


ICO ventricle. It is inclosed in a membrane, which is called | Thoracic. The apodal comprehend those fish which are the pericardium.-The intestines are in general very short, destitute of ventral fins, as the Eel, Gymnote, Wolf-fish, making only three turns, the last of which terminates in Sword-fish, &c.—The jugular fishes have the ventral fins a common outlet, or vent.-The liver is remarkably placed more forward than the pectoral, or breast fins, as large, lies commonly altogether on the left side, and ihe Haddock, Blenny, &c.— The thoracic fishes have contains a great proportion of oil or fat.-The gall their ventral fins situated immediately under the pectoral bladder is oval, and lies under the right side of the liver. ones, as the Bull-Head, Band-Fish, Remora, &c.It communicates with the stomach or intestines by means The abdominal fishes have the ventral fins situated be. of the cystic duct and the choledochic canal.— The hind or beyond the pectoral fins, as in the Barbel, the spleen, which varies in form and colour, is situated near Carp, the Pike, the Salmon, the Flying Fish, &c. Mothe back-bone, so as to be subject to the alternate con dern naturalists have added a fifth order to these br striction and dilatation of the air-bladder. The urinury transferring the cartilaginous fishes from the Class Ara bladder is distinguishable in most fishes, being of an phibia, where they had been placed by Linnæus, under oval form, and terminating under the tail.-The kidneys the name of nantes, from the supposition that they had are two flat bodies, of a pyramidal form, of a reddish both lungs and gills, a supposition which has since been colour, and the length of the abdomen.- The diaphragm found to be incorrect; they are called cartilaginous beis a white and shining membrane which separates the cause they have a cartilaginous instead of a bony skethorax from the abdomen.—The peritoneum is a thin leton, as the Shark, the Ray, the Angler, Pipe-Fish, membrane, of a blackish colour, that invests the contents Sucker. (vide Plates No. I. II. (43, 44), and Animal of the abdomen.—The ova, or roe, in the females, are Kingdom] disposed into two large oblong bodies, one on each side the abdomen ; and the milt, or soft roe, in the male,

Explanation of the Plates. appears in a similar form in the same part.

Plate No. I (43). Bones. The bones which constitute the skeleton of a fish

may be divided into those of the Head, Thorax, Abdo. Order I. Apodal Fishes. Fig. 1. The Conger Eel, having men, and Fins.--The head contains a vast number of no ventral fin; a the dorsal and anal fins united with the bones, even as many as eighty in the perch; those of the tail.–Fig. 2. The Trichiurus lepturus, or Silver Trichiure, skull are the principal ; besides which are the bones of

with the dorsal fin extending from the head almost to the palate, the jaw-bones, the opercular bones, &c. the extremity of the tail.-- Fig. 3. The Electric GymThe thorax is a cavity formed by the sternum, or back

note. Fig. 4. Stylephorus chordatus, with its lengthened bone, the vertebræ, clavicles, and scapulæ.—The abdo

snout retractile towards the head by means of a memmen is encompassed by the ribs and ossa pelvis, which brane.— Fig. 5. Odontognathus, having a mouth furnished defend the viscera.—The tail is composed of certain

with a strong moveable lamina, or process, on each side bones, which terminate the vertebral column ; and the the upper jaw.–Fig. 6. The Sword-Fish, with an ensifins consist of an intertexture of ossicles and firm' mem. form snout. Order II. Jugular Fishes. Fig. 7. The branes.

Haddock, having a the pectoral fins; b the ventral fins ; Muscles. The principal muscles in fish are the two lateral

c the anal fins; d the caudal fin, or the tail; e dorsal muscles, which proceed from the head to the tail, along

fins; f bony opercles, or gill-covers ; g branchiostegous the side, which have also transverse muscles that are si rays, and their membranes ; h lateral, or side line.milar and parallel. The caudal and pectoral fins have

Fig. 8. The Ocellated Blenny. Order III. Thoracic four muscles each; namely, two erectors and two de

Fishes. Fig. 9. Father Lasher, having a the ventral fins pressors. Each ventral fin has three muscles, one erector placed beneath, b the pectoral fins.-.Fig. 10. Common and two depressors.-The carinal muscles of the back and

Band-Fish. tail are slender, and closely united, their number being

Plate No. II (44). proportioned to that of the dorsal fins. Fishes, for example, having one dorsal fin have one pair of carinal Order III. Thoracic Fishes continued. Fig. 1. The Echimuscles ; those with two dorsal fins have three pair, &c. neis Remora, or Indian Remora.-Fig. 2. The Trichopus, -The interspinous muscles are those whose office it is to having ventral fins, with two extremely long filaments. raise and depress the dorsal and anal fins, of which there Order IV. Abdominal Fishes. Fig. 3. The Cyprinus are four to each interspinous ray; namely, two erectors barbus, or Barbel, having a the ventral fius placed beand two depressors.

hind; b the pectoral fins; c the cirri, or bearded apVessels, 8c. The principal vessels are, the-Aorta, an pendages, one on each corner of the mouth, and one on

artery attached to the apex of the heart, which sends each side the nose.—Fig. 4. Exococtus volitans, or the out numerous branches to the gills, and is afterwards Flying Fish, having pectoral fins almost as long as the subdivided into very minute ramifications.— The sinus body. Order. V. Cartilaginous Fishes. Fig. 5. The venosus, which communicates with the auricle by a large Picked Shark, or Dog-Fish, having a the lateral aperaperture, and receives at the other end three large tures.-Fig. 6. Squulus vulpes, or the Long-tailed Shark. trunks of other veins ; besides these are the lacteals and -Fig. 7. The Lophius piscatorius, or Common Angler. lymphatics, which, together with the thoracic duct, &c. - Fig. 8. Raia clavata, the Thornbacked Ray.-Fig. 9. form a network about the heart, and in other parts.

Syngnathus barbatus, the Longer Pipe-Fish.-Fig. 10.

The Bimaculate Sucker.
Classification of Fishes.

ICHTHYOME'THIA (Bot.) the Psidia erithina of LinThe systematic arrangement of fishes was reserved for

Linnæus, previous to whose age no writer on this sub- ||ICHTHYO'SIS (Med.) from izdva, the scale of a fish; a disject had done much more than describe the different ease in the skin when it is harsh, dry, and scaly. kinds of fish. The Linnean Orders, which were four in || ICI'CLE (Her.) a bearing in an escutcheon, which is othernumber, were instituted from the absence, presence, or

wise called a gutty. situation of the ventral or belly fins, which were consi- ||I'CON (Paint.) firmy, a picture, or representation of a thing. dered by him to be analogous to the feet in quadrupeds : I'CONISM (Rhet.) uxoro uos, a figure of speech which conthey are denominated Apodal, Jugular, Abdominal, and sists in representing a thing to the life.


c. 15.

I'CONOCLAST (Ecc.) uixorox dagis, from sixer, an image, and

Ovid. Fast. 1. 1, v. 56. khów, to break ; i. e. a breaker or demolisher of images, a

Idibus alba Jovi grandior agna cadit. name given to some of the Greek emperors. ICONOGRAPHY (Lit.) sirovoy pa Qúce, from sixd, an image, And on these days usurers received their interest. Dionys.

and ypáow, to describe; a description by means of images. Antiq. 1. 9; Fest. de Verb. Signif. ; Macrob. Saturn. 1. 1, ICOSAE'DRON (Geom.) xixorúsdpor, a regular solid body, bounded by 20 equal triangles, having 20 equal sides.

I'DYLL (Poet.) sideralov, a little pastoral poem, treating of ICOSA'NDRIA (Bot.) from sixers, twenty, and átne, a hus shepherds and shepherdesses.

band; the name of the twelfth Class in the Linnean system, | ICANATES (Mil.) soldiers posted round the outside gates comprehending those plants which have hermaphrodite of the palace of the Grand Seignior. flowers, with twenty stamens, or more, growing on the in- | JEA'R-ROPE (Mar.) a piece of hawser fastened to the main side of the calyx, not on the receptacle. The situation, and fore-yard, to help to hoist up the yard, and to keep and not the number of the stamens, is here to be observed; the yards from falling if the tyes should break. also that the calyx is monophyllous, and concave. There JECORA'RIA vena (Anat.) the hepatic vein. are eight Orders in this Class, namely, Monogynia, Digy- JE'CUR (Anat.) the liver. — Jecur uterinum, another name nia, Trigynia, Tetragynia, Pentagynia, Octogynia, Deca

for the placenta. gynia, Polygynia, which contain the following genera- | JEE (Polit.) a title of respect in India. Cactus, Melon Thistle, Torch Thistle.—Cereus, Indian Fig. || JEER (Mar.) vide Jear.

- Philadelphus, Syringa.--Myrtus, Myrtle.- Punica, Pome- JEHOVAH (Bibl.) nyn', the proper name of the Most High granate.- Amygdala, Almond.- Prunus, Plum, Cherry. in the Hebrew, denoting Him who is, who was, and who is Cratægus, Hawthorn.-Sorbus, Service. -Pyrus, Pear, to come. Apple, Quince.- Mespilus, Medlar.-Rosa, Rose ---Rubus,JE'JUNUM intestinum (Anat.) the second portion of the Raspberry, Bramble.—Potentilla, Cinquefoil.-Calycanthus, small intestines; so called because it is mostly found All-Spice, &c. &c.

empty. I'CRIUM (Ant.) ixplov, a cross set upon one's tomb. JE'LLOPPED (Her.) an epithet for the wattles of a cock. ICTERIAS (Min.) a stone or gem, recommended by Pliny JE'LLY (Chem.) that part of any liquid, as the juice of fruits, against the jaundice. Plin. l. 37, c. 10.

&c. which has coagulated into a tremulous soft substance. ICTERI'TIA (Med.) vide Icterus.

This is scarcely soluble in cold water, but very soluble in I'CTERUS (Med.) ixt&pos, the jaundice, a disease which turns hot ; and when the solution cools it again coagulates into

the skin yellow. Aret. Chron. Morb. 1. 1, c. 15; Gal. de the form of a jelly. When long boiled it loses the property Symptom. Differ. c. 4; Aet. Tetrab. 3, serm. 2, c. 17; of gelatinizing, and becomes, when cooled, analogous to Paul. Æginet. 1. 3, c. 50.

mucilage. IcTerus is placed by Cullen in his Nosology as a genus of JE'MIDĂR (Mil.) a black officer, who has the same rank as diseases, Class Cacherie, Order Impetigines.

a lieutenant in the East India Company's service. IDENTITATE nominis (Law) an ancient but obsolete writ ||JENIZER-EFFE’NDI (Mil.) an appointment among the

that lay for one taken and arrested in any personal action, Turks, similar to that of provost-marshal in the European and committed to prison for another man of the same name;

armies. which writ was in the nature of a commission to inquire JE'NNETS (Man.) a sort of Spanish horses. whether he were the same person against whom the action JEO'FAIL (Law) is when a cause or issue is so badly pleaded was brought or not.

or joined that there can be no proceeding without error. IDES (Ant.) vide Idus.

JERBOA (Zool.) an animal, much resembling the dormouse, IDIOCRA'SIA (Med.) the proper temperament and disposi which makes prodigious bounds by means of its long hindtion of a thing

legs, and uses its fore-paws to carry food to its mouth; it I'DIOM (Gram.) idiwa, from idos, proper, or peculiar ; a is the Dipus of Linnæus.

phrase or manner of expression peculiar to any language. JER'GUER (Law) an officer of the custom house who overI'DIOPATHY (Phy.) idorábesa, from idos, proper, and wódos, sees the waiters. affection; the peculiar affection which one has for any | JE'RKIN (Cus.) from the Saxon cỳntel; a short

upper coat. thing.

JerKIN (Falcon.) a male hawk. IDIOPATHY (Med.) a primary or original disease, which nei- || JERSEY-COMB (Her.) a bearing used by the wool-combers. ther depends on, nor proceeds from, any other.

JERU'SALEM, Cross of (Her.) another name for the Cross IDIOSYNCRASY (Med.) idoruny xpacoise, a temperament pe

crosslet. culiar to any animal body, whereby it has, either in sick- | JERUSALEM Artichoke (Bot.) the Helianthus tuberosus of Linness or in health, a peculiar inclination to, or aversion from, næus, an annual.- Jerusalem Cowslip, a species of the particular things.

Pulmonaria.-Jerusalem Sage, the Phlomis fruticosa. IDIOTA inquirendo de (Law) a writ or commission to in- JE/SSAMIN (Bot.) a shrub bearing sweet-scented flowers, quire into the state of a person's mind.

the Jasminum of Linnæus. I'DIOTISM (Gram.) the same as Idiom.

JE’SSANT (Her.) an epithet for a lion or beast IDIOTRO'PÌA (Med.) vide Idiosyncrasy.

when erected over two or more colours, as I'DOCRASE (Min.) the name of a sort of stone of the hya “ He beareth argent a chief ermine, a lion cinth kind.

rampant jessant azure, by the name of IDO'NEUM se facere (Law) to purge oneself by oath of a Trotter.”

crime of which one is accused. Leg. H. 1, c. 15. JESSANT also signifies shooting forth, as vegeIDOU-MOU'LLI (Bot.) an Indian tree, which grows seventy tables spring or shoot out, and is applied parfeet high, and bears a sort of plum.

ticularly to the fleur-de-lis, as “ Field sable, IDUS (Ant.) the Ides, the eighth day, or eight days in three leopards' faces jessant fleurs-de-lis, or,

every Roman month, that immediately follows the Nones : by the name of Morley, Sussex.” it is so called because iduat, that is dividit, divides the JESSE (Archæol.) a large brass candlestick, month into equal parts; whence it is called by Dionysius with many sconces, hanging down in the Halicarnassus dexonewvida ipiéper, the dissecting day. These middle of a choir. days were held sacred to Jupiter, according to Ovid. JESSED (Her.) an epithet for a hawk or falcon having



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