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SPI'RAL (Geom.) a curve line of the circular kind, which, neck, so called from its resemblance to the spleen in shape: s in its progress, recedes always more and more from a it serves to bend the neck backwards. point within, called its centre.

SPLE'NOCELE (Med.) from or in, the spleen, and xhan, a Spiral, in application to architecture and sculpture, is a tumour ; a hernia of the spleen. curve that ascends winding about a cone or spire, so that || SPLENT (Surg.) a scale of Hexible wood or pasteboard used all the points of it continually approach the axis. It is in supporting a fractured bone. thus distinguished from the helix, which winds in the same | SPLENT (Vet.) a hard swelling on the bone of a horse's leg. manner about a cylinder.

TO SPLICE (Mech.) to join one rope to another by interSPIRA'LIS (Bot.) twisted like a screw; an epithet for the weaving their ends. cotyledons, as in the Oleraceæ ; for the anthers, as of Chi-To SPLICE (Hort.) to graft the top of one tree into the stock ronia; for the tails of the seeds, as in Geranium.

of another, by cutting them sloping, and fastening them SPIRIPLO'CA (Bot.) a species of the Helicteres of Linnæus. together. SPI'RIT (Chem.) a term formerly given to all volatile sub- || SPLINT (Vel.) vide Splent.

stances collected by distillation. They were distinguished || SPLINTER-PROOF (Mil.) a fence or guard which is prointo inflammable or ardent spirits, acid spirits, and alkaline vided in field attacks, to protect the person who attends in spirits. The word spirit is now almost exclusively confined the powder magazines against the splinters of the shells. to alcohol.

SPLI'NTERS (Gunn.) fragments of shells. SPIRITO'SO (Mus.) Italian for, with spirit.

SPLINTERS (Mar.) the pieces of the ship's sides, masts, &c. SPIRITUA'LITIES (Ecc.) the profits which a bishop re which being knocked off by the shot, do much mischief

ceives from his spiritual livings, namely, the revenues among the men on board, whence nettings are employed which he receives from visitations, ordaining and insti to keep them off, which are called splinter-net'ings. tuting of priests, prestation money, &c.

SPLIT (Mar.) an epithet to denote the state of a vessel when SPIRITUALIZATION (Chem.) the extracting of the spirit it is bilged on a rock or shore. from natural bodies by means of distillization.

To Split a sail (Mar.) to rend it asunder, as by the force SPI'RITUS (Chem.) spirit; a term formerly in frequent use of a tempest, &c. coupled with the name of the substance from which the ex- SPODIUM (Chem.) créer, a substance mentioned by Galen traction was made, as Spiritus ætheris sulphurici, Sulphuric

and Dioscorides, which is said to have been produced by Ether; Spirilus ammonie aromaticus, Aromatic Spirit of cadmia alone in the furnace. It differed from the pomAmmonia, &c.

pholyx, in being not so pure, and more heavy.--Spodium SPI'RKETTING (Mar.) the strake wrought on the ends of urabum, burnt Ivory, or Ivory Black.-Spudium græcorum, the beams, &c.

the white dung of dogs. SPISSAME'NTUM (Med.) a substance put into oils and SPOILING (Mech.) a term in mast-making for the act of ointments to make them thick.

taking the greatest distance of the inequalities between any SPITHAME (Ant.) omilapin, a Grecian long measure con two pieces of timber to be fayed together.

taining about nine inches and a half. [vide Mensura] SPOKES (Mech.) the bars in the wheels of a carriage that SPI'TTAL (Archæol.) another name for an hospital.

pass from the naves to the felloe. SPITTER (Sport.) a red male deer near two years old, SPO'LIA (Ant.) spoils or booty, among the Romans, taken whose horns begin to grow spitwise.

from an enemy.-- Spolia opima, the best of the spoils, SPLANCHNIC (Anat.) an epithet for the intercostal nerve. which were given to a victorious general. [vide Militia) SPLANCHNICÀ (Med.) Ciday xuonee, from ot147 Xusúw, to SPOLIA'RIUM (ant.) a private room at the baths. operate on the bowels ; medicines proper for diseases of the SPOLIATION (Law) a writ which lies for an incumbent bowels.

against another, in any case where the right of patronage SPLANCHNO'LOGY (Med.) from cardáyxvel, the intestines, cometh not in debate. F. N. B. 36, 37. and róxos, a discourse; a treatise on the intestines.

SPONDA'IC (Gram.) an epithet for an hexameter verse SPLANCHNUM (But.) a genus of mosses having the cap which has a spondee in the last foot but one, this foot

sule cylindrical, and the male a bud in a different plant. being commonly a dactyle. SPLAYING of the shoulder (Vet.) a disease in horses, caused SPONDAU'LA (Mus.) 6 orduurins, a player on the flute

by a slip, so that the shoulder departs from the breast, and among the ancient Greeks, who used to perform during leaves a rift in the film under the skin.

the libations and sacrifices. Diomed. de Art. Grammat.; SPLEEN (Anat.) orany, a spongy viscus, of a livid colour, Mar. Victor. de Spond. ; Salmas. ad Solin. and so variable in its form, situation, and magnitude, that SPO'NDEE (Gram.) reduios; a foot of two syllables, both it scarcely admits of a description. In a healthy subject, of which are long, as cõelūm. it is always placed on the left side, in the left hypochon- SPO'NDIAS (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 10 Decandria, drium, between the eleventh and twelfth false ribs.

Order 4 Pentagynia. SPLE'ENWORT (Bot.) the Asplenium of Linnæus.

Generic Character. Cal. perianth one-leaved.--Cor. peSPLE'GET (Surg.) a cloth dipped in any kind of liquor for tals five.-Stam. filaments ten; anthers oblong.- Pist. washing a sore.

germ ovate; styles five, short; stigmas obtuse.-PER. SPLENA'LGIA (Med.) from orar, the spleen, and agos, drupe oblong; seed nut ovate. pain ; a pain in the spleen, or its region.

Species. The species are trees, as the--Spondias mombin, SPLENETICA (Med.) from arany, the spleen; medicines seu Mombin, Purple Hog-Plum, or Spanish Plum.which remove diseases in the spleen.

Spondias Myrobalanus, &c. SPLE'NIA (Surg:) compresses resembling the spleen in SPONDYLI (Ănt.) condutos, or corduros, little shells, which shape, made of lint, tow, &c.

were used by the ancient Greeks in passing sentence, preSPLE'NICUS (Anat.) splenic; an epithet for an artery and vious to the introduction of beans. Poll. Onom. 1. 8;

a vein which enters the fissure on the inside of the spleen. Schol. Aristoph.; Salmas. ad Solin. &c. SPLENITIS (Med.) from man, the spleen, an inflammation SPONDYLUS (Con.) a genus of animals, Class Vermes,

of the spleen; a genus of diseases in Cullen's Nosology, Order Testacea ; the shell is bivalve, having the valves unClass Pyrexia, Order Phlegmasia.

equal, the animal of which is a Tethys. SPLE'NIUM (Surg.) vide Splenia.

SPONDYLUS (Anal.) rraduros, a name sometimes given to the SPLE'NIUS (Anat.) an epithet for a muscle of the head or spine or backbone, because it is fitted to move every way.

p. 124,

næus.

SPO'NGE-TREE (Bot.) the Mimosa farmesiana of Lin charged out of maskets through the sides of a ship where

bullets could not enter. SPO'NGIA (Ent.) a genus of animals, Class Vermes, Order SPRING (Nat.) a fountain or source of water rising out of

Zoophyta, which is fixed, sterile, torpid, of various the ground. forms, and clothed by a gelatinous and porous flesh, SPRING (Astron.) ver, one of the seasons of the year, comby which it absorbs or rejects water at pleasure. The mencing, in the Northern parts of the earth, on the day Spongia officinalis, or the Common Sponge, inhabits the the sun enters the first degree of Aries, which is about the Mediterranean and Indian Seas, and is found adhering to 21st of March, and ending when the sun enters Cancer at rocks by a small base.

the Summer Solstice; and, generally for any part of the SPONGIODES (Anat.) another name for the Os cribriforme, earth, the Spring season commences when the meridian albecause it is hollow and porous like a sponge.

titude, being on the increase, is at a medium between the SPONGIO'SA Ossa (Anat.) bones situated in the lower part

least and the greatest. of the side of the nose, which are of a triangular form and SPRING (Phy.) or Elater Spring, another name spongy appearance.

SPRING (Mech.) a piece of tempered steel fitted to different SPONGIO'SUM Os (Anat.) another name for the Ethmoid machines, to give them an elastic power. Bone.

Spring (Mar.) signifies, 1. A crack running tranversely or SPO'NSOR (Law) an undertaker, or surety for another. obliquely through any part of a mast or yard, so as to renSPO'NSUS (Chem.) an old epithet for mercury, from its

der it less serviceable. 2. A rope passed out of a ship's fitness to coalesce with sulphur.

stern, and attached to a cable, proceeding from the bow SPONTOO'N (Mil.) a weapon much like a halberd, which when she lies at anchor. 3. A rope reaching diagonally

was formerly used instead of a halfpike by officers of from the stern of one ship to the head of another foot.

lying abreast of her. SPOO'N-BILL (Orn.) a bird so called from the orbicular, TO SPRING (Sport.) to raise a partridge or pheasant. flat shape of its bill, the Platalea of Linnæus.

to Spring (Mar.) a term used in several sea phrases, as SPOO'N-DRIFT (Mar.) a sort of showery sprinkling of “ To spring a leak," is said of a ship, when, by any ac

sea water, swept from the surface of the waves in a tem cident, the water passes a breach through her sides or pest, and flying according to the direction of the wind like bottom into the hull. “ To spring a-luff,” vide Luff. " To a vapour.

spring a mast,” when the mast is cracked but not broken. SPOON-WORT (Bot.) the Cochlearia of Linnæus, a pe- SPRING-ARBOR (Mech.) the part in the middle of the rennial.

spring-box of a watch, about which the spring is wound or SPO'RADES (Astron.) cropedes, from rasipw, to sow or scat turned.

ter ; a name given by the ancients to the stars that were SPRI'NG-BOX (Mech.) the box which contains the spring not included in any constellation which are now distin of a watch, being a case or frame shaped like a cylinder. guished by the name of unformed stars.

SPRI'NG-TAIL (Ent.) the Podura of Linnæus, an insect SPORA'DIČI (Med.) an epithet formerly applied to diseases so called from its tail which acts as a spring.

which arise in many parts at the same time, or are preva- SPRI'NG-TIDES (Nat.) tides at New and Full Moon, which lent in different parts at the same time.

flow highest, ebb lowest, and run strongest, SPORTULA (Ant.) signified properly a small basket, but SPRI'NG-GRASS (Bot.) the Anthoxanthum odoratum of was taken metaphorically for the dole of meat, or money

Linnæus, a perennial. contained in the basket, which the great used to present to SPRINGING (Her.) an epithet in blazon for beasts of their poor dependents. In the time of Juvenal, the higher chace, as saliant is for those of prey. orders degraded themselves by accepting such presents SPRINGY (Mech.) the same as elastic. from their clients to whom they had originally been made. SPRIT (Mar.) in French livarde, a small boom or pole Juv. Sat. 1, v. 95, &c.

which crosses the sail of a boat diagonally from the mast SPOTS (Astron.) dark places observed on the disks or faces to the upper aft-mast corner.-Sprit-Sail, a sail attached

of the sun and moon and planets, on the nature of which to a yard which hangs under the bowsprit. various conjectures have been formed, but all equally SPRUCE (Chem.) or Spruce-Beer, a fermented liquor prewithout foundation. They are observed to change much pared from the spruce-fir, which, from the quantity of car. in their number, figure, and appearance; and those on the bonic acid it contains, is reckoned a good anti-scorbutic. sun are distinguished into Maculæ, or dark spots, and Fa. SPRUCE-FIR (Bot.) the Pinus canadensis of Linnæus. culæ, or white spots.---Lucid Spots are several little whitish SPU’LLERS of yarn (Mech.) men employed to see that it spots that are observed to be interspersed among the stars be well spun and fit for the loom.

of the firmament, but are not yet ascertained to be stars. SPUN-YARN (Mar.) the yarn of untwisted ropes, whose SPOU'SE-BREACH (Archæol.) another name for adultery. ends are scraped and beaten thin, in order to be let into SPOUT (Meteor.) or Water-Spout, a mass of water collected

the ends of other ropes. between a cloud and the surface of the sea, in the form of SPUNGE (Bot.) a substance which grows in the sea under a water-spout or a trumpet. Meteors of this kind are most rocks; a sort of sea fungus or mushroom. It is said to frequently observed at sea, where they bring the vessels he the habitation of the Spongia of Linnæus. sometimes into great danger.

SPUNGE (Vet.) that part of a horse's shoe next the heel. SPRAIN (Med.) a violent contorsion or wresting of the SPUNGE (Gunn.) a rammer or staff, with a piece of lamb skin

tendons of the muscles, occasioned by a sudden accident. at the end of it, for the purpose of cleaning a great gun SPRAT (Ich.) a fish nearly allied to the herring, of which it before it be charged again.

is made a species in the Linnean System, namely, the Clupea SPU'NGING-HOUSE (Law) a victualling house where sprattus.

persons arrested for debt are kept for some time, either till SPRAY (Mar.) the sprinkling of the sea, which is driven they come to a compromise with their creditors, or are from the top of a wave in stormy weather.

removed to a closer confinement. SPRIG (Mar.) a name given to a small eye-bolt which is SPUR (Bot.) or horn, calcar, seu cornu, the hinder part of ragged at the point.

the nectary in some flowers, shaped like a cock's spur or a SPRIGHTS (Mar.) short arrows formerly used in sea-fights horn. This kind of nectary is called nectarium calcara,

which had wooden heads made sharp. They were dis tum; and the corolla, having such a nectary, is named

næus.

6. He

corolla calcarata, as in Larkspur, Orchis, &c.; and a calyx sel, as-Square-sail, any sail extended to a yard which having such a spur, is called calyx calcaratus, as in tropeo hangs parallel to the horizon, as distinguished from the lum.

other sails, which are extendeid obliquely. The square sail SPU'RGE (Bot.) the Euphorbia of Linnæus, a shrub. is also the name of a sloop's or cuiter's sail, which hauls Spurge Laurel, the Daphne laureoli, a shrub. -- Spurge

out to the lower yard, called the square-sail-yard.-SquareOlive, the Daphne mezereum.

sail-boom, a boom lashed across the deck of a vessel with SPU'RIOUS Flesh (Anat.) the flesh of the lips, gums, &c. one mast, and used to spread the foot of the square sail. - have been so denominated, because they are of a constitu Square rigged, an epithet for vessels whose sails are extion different from all the rest.

tended by stays, lateen, or sail-yards, &c. SPU'RLING Line (Mar.) the line which forms the commu SQUARE Measures (Arith.) the squares of lineal measures : • nication between the wheel and the telltale.

thus, a square foot, a square yard, &c. [vide Measures] SPU'RREY (Bot.) the Spergula of Linnæus.

Square Number, the product arising from any number mulSPU'RREY-WAY (Archæol.) a horse way through a man's tiplied by itself: thus 4. is the square of 2, and 16 the ground which one may ride in by right of custom.

square of t.-Square Root, a number considered as the SPUR-RI'AL (Com.) a gold coin current in the time of root of a square number : thus, 2 is the square root of 4, King James L.

and 4 the square root of 16. SPURS (Mar) pieces of timber fixed on the bulgeways for SQUA'RING (Geom.) vide Quadrature.

their security.— Spurs of the Beams, curved pieces of tim- SQUARRO'SUS (Bot.) squarrose or jagged ; an epithet for whole beam cannot be placed, on account of the hatchway. SQUA'SH-GOURD (Bot.) the Cucurbita melope;»o of Lin

-Spurs of the Bits, the same as the standards. SPURS (Fort.) walls that cross a part of the rampart, and SQUILL (Bot.) the Scilla of Linnæus, a bulbous plant. join to the town wall.

SQUI'LLA (Ent.) a division of the genus Cancer, accordSPURS (Archit.) braces which prop the two pillars supporting ing to Fabricius, comprehending those insects which have a wooden bridge.

the shell of the thorax very short. SQUAD (Mil.) a diminutive of squadron, to denote a small SQUI'NANCY-WORT (Bot.) the Aspergula cynanchica, of

number of men, horse or foot, assembled for the pur Linnæus, a perennial. pose of drill exercise, whence the term awkward squad is SQUIRE (Her.) the next degree of honour below a knight. employed to denote those who are beginning to learn their | SQUIRREL (Zool.) a well known animal, the Sciurus of exercise.

Linnæus, which climbs dexterously, leaping from tree to TO SQUAD (Mil) to divide a troop or company into small tree, and in some instances is furnished with a flying mem

parties for the purpose of drilling the men separately. brane. It lives mostly on seeds and fruit, and is sometimes SQUADRON (Mar.) a detachment of ships employed on subterraneous.

any particular expedition ; also the third part of a naval SQUIRREL (Her.) is sometimes borne in coat armament.

armour, as in the annexed example. SQUADRON (Mil.) a body of cavalry, composed of two beareth ermine, two squirrels, sejant, adtroops, and consisting of from 80 to 120 men.

dorsed, gules." By the name of Samwel. SQUALL (Mar.) a sudden violent gust of wind at sea. A SQUIRREL-FISH (Ich.) a sort of Perch,

black squall is attended with a dark cloud, in distinction the Perca formosa of Linnæus.
from a white squall, where there are no clouds, and a thick | STA'BBER" (Mech.) an instrument used in sail-
squall, accompanied with hail, sleet, &c.

making like a pricker. SQUA'LUS (Ich.) a genus of fishes, of the Chondropteri- || STABLE Stand (Law) one of the four evidences whereby a gious Order.

person was convicted of intending to steal the king's deer; Generic Character. Head obtuse ; spiracles from four to namely, if he were found standing in a forest, with his bow

seven, at the sides of the neck ; eyes oblong; mouth be bent ready to shoot, &c.; the other three being backberind, neath, in the forepart of the head ; teeth numerous and dog-draw, and bloody hand. [vide Backbcrind, &c.] sharp; body oblong and rough, with very tender pric- STACCATO (Mus.) the name of a character, marked thus kles; ventral fins less than the pectoral.

(!), which signifies that the notes over which it is placed Species. The following are the principal species of this must be performed in a distinct or detached manner. dreadfully rapacious tribe of fishes ; namely, the-Squa- | STACHYOIDES (Bot.) the Ornithogalum of Linnæus. lus maximus, Basking Shark.-Squalus canicula, Spotted STA'CHYS (Bot.) surus, a plant mentioned by Dioscorides Dog-fish.--Squalus acanthias, Prickly-Dog-Fish.--Squa and Pliny, having a resemblance to an onion. Dioscor. lus vulpes, Sea Fox.-Squalus galeus, the Tope.-Squalus 1. 3, c. 120; Plin. l. 24, c. 15. mustela, Smooth Hound.-Squalus squatina, the Angel Stachys, in the Linnean system, a genus of plants, Class 14 Fish.

Didynamia, Order 1 Gymnospermia. SQUAMARIA (Bot.) the Lathræa squamaria of Linnæus. Generic Character. Cal. perianth one-leaved. - Cor. SQUAMO'SA Ossa (Anat.) the bones of the skull behind one-petalled.-Sram. filaments four. -Pist. germ four

the ear.--Squamosa sutura, one of the sutures of the skull, parted; style filiform; stigma bifid.--Per, none; seeds so called because the parts of the bones are joined together four. aslope, and like scales.

Species. The species are perennials, as the-Stachys sylSQUARE (Geom.) a quadrilateral figure whose angles are vatica, Cardiacı galeopsis, Uitica, seu Lamium, Hedge

right angles and sides equal ; or it is an equilateral rectan Woundwort or Hedge-Nettle.-Stachys palustris, Side

gular parallelogram. [vide Parallelogram and Rectangle] ritis, Panax, seu Clymenum, Marsh-Woundwort, or SQUARE (Mech.) an instrument used by carpenters for the Clown's All-Heal.. Stachys germanica, seu Pseudopurpose of squaring.

Stachys, Downy Stachys, &c. Dd. Pempt.; Clus. SQUARE (Astron.) an aspect between two planets which are Hist.; Bauh. Hist.; Bauh. Pin.; Ger. Heib.; Park. distant 90° from each other.

Theat. Bot. ; Raii Hist. ; Tournef. Inst. fc. SQUARE (Mil.) the form in which troops are disposed on STA'CTE (Nat.) sauti, the gum issuing from the myrrh and

particular occasions, as that of resisting the charge of other trees, so called from saiálo, to distil.

cavalry. The square is either solid, hollow, or oblong.. STA'DDLES (Hort.) young tender trees. SQUARE (Mar.) an epithet applied to some things in a ves STADIUM (Ant.) surtor, a Greek long measure, containing

3 R

VOL. II.

125 geometrical paces, or 625 Roman feet, and answering || STA'GGERS (Vet.) a disease in horses, which consists in to our furlong. There were, however, stadia of different giddiness, and often terminates in madness. measures, according to different times and places. Stadium | STAGIA'RIUS (Ecc.) a canon who kept his stated residence is said to be derived from ignes, to stand, because Hercules

in a church, ran over such a space at one breath, and stopped at the STA'GIRITE (Phil.) an epithet applied to Aristotle, from end of it, whence the course for the running of men or

Stagira, a town in Macedonia, where he was born. horses was called by the same name. Cic. Iusc. Quæst. STA'GMA (Chem.) a name for any distilled liquor. 1. 2, c. 23 ; Vitruv. I. 5, c. 2; Colum. l. 5, c. 1; Plin. 1. 2, | STA'GNES (Law) pools of standing water, mentioned in c. 23; Sueton. Domit. c. 5; Pæt. de Roman, et Griec. Mens. Stat. 5 Eliz. c. 21. apud Græv. Thes. Antiq. Rom. tom. xi.

STAG’S HORN-TREE (Bot.) the Rhus of Linnæus. STAEHELI'NA (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 19 Syn- | STA'JA (Com.) a corn measure in Italy about one-third of genesia, Order 1 Polygamia æqualis.

an English bushel. Generic Character, CAL, common oblong.-Cor. com STA'L-BOAT (Archæol.) a kind of fishing boat mentioned

pound uniform ; proper one-petalled.-Stam. filaments in Stat. 27 Eliz. c. 21. capillary; anthers connate. — Pist. germ very short; STALACTITES (Min.) from senátu, to fall in drops; a style filiform ; stigma double.—Per, none; seeds solitary; genus of Calcareous Earths, consisting of carbonate of receptacle chaffy

lime, carbonic acid, and water, found chiefly on the roofs Species. The species are shrubby plants, natives of the and sides of arches and caverns of calcareous mountains. Cape of Good Hope.

STALAGMITES (Bot.) the name of a tree from which STAEHELI’NIA (Bot.) a species of the Bartsia of Linnæus. gamboge is said to be procured. STAFF (Mil.) a specified number of officers acting toge- STALE (Husband.) the urine of cattle.

ther according to their several ranks; whence the term Stale (Sport.) a fowl which is used as a decoy bird. staff-officers, or officers of ihe staf, comprehending the STALK (Bot.) vide Caulis. quarter Master General, Majors of brigade, &c.— Per- STALKER (Law) a sort of fishing nets. Stat. 13 Rich, I, sonal staff, those officers that are immediately about the

c. 19. person of the general. Besides this there is the garrison STA'LKING (Sport.) the going gently step by step under staff, medical staff, civil staff, fc.

cover of a horse, &c. to take game; which was prohibited STAFF (Mar.) in French baton, a light pole erected in dif by Stat. 19 Hen. 17, c. 11.

ferent parts of a ship, whereon to hoist and display the STA'LLAGE (Law) stallagium, the liberty or right of colours.- Ensign-staff

, a staff reared immediately over the pitching and erecting stalls in fairs or markets. stern of a ship Flag-staff, that erected at each of the STALL A'RIUS (Law) the officer now called the Master of mast heads. - Jack-staff, that fixed at the end of the the Horse. bowsprit.

STAMEN (Bot.) the third part of the fructification, conStaff is also a name for the short pieces used in mast sisting of the filament, the anther, and the pollen. [vide making, by which the sets are made.

Botany] Staff (Math.s an instrument for taking altitudes at sea, STAMINEUS (Bot.) an epithet used by Ray for a flower

which is called a backstaff, when the observer, who uses it, having no corolla, for which Linnæus has substituted the has his back to the sun; and the forestaf, when he has

word apetalus. his face so situated.

STAMIŃI'FERUS (Bot.) an epithet for a flower having STAFF-TREE (Bot.) the Celastrus of Linnæus.

stamens without a pistil. STAG (Her.) is borne in coat-armour either tripping, as TO STANCH (Surg.) to stop the flux of blood from a wound. in fig. 1; or springing, as fig. 2: at gaze, when it stands STA'NCHIONS (Mar.) pieces of timber that support the

waste-trees in a ship.
Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.

STANCHIONS (Carpent.) pieces which are used in support

ing buildings. STANDARD (Mil.) 1. A banner or flag borne as a signal

for the joining together of the several troops belonging to the same standard. 2. The measure of height for such as

enlist into his Majesty's service.

STANDARD (Law) the standing n.easure of the King to the looking full at you, as fig. 3; or under-lodged, when it scantling, whereof all the measures in the land are or is lying down, as fig. 4. It also is said to be attired and un ought to be framed by the clerks of Markets. guieil, as fig. 3.

STANDARD is also taken for the rate of fineness at which Stag (7:01.) a well-known animal, the male of which has gold and silver are fixed by the king to be coined.

branched, round, and recurvate horns; the female has (vide Coining] mostly no horns. It is the Cervus elephas of Linnæus, STANDARDS (Hort.) a term used to distinguish such which inbabits most parts of the world, but particularly fruit-trees as are not trained against a wall, or grow in Europe, in herds of many females under the guidance of espalliers. one male; it is gentle, except in the season of the gadily, STANDEL (Law) a young store oak tree, twelve of which and figlits furiously for the females, which are gravid eight are to be left in every acre of wood at the felling thereof. months, and bring forth mostly one. The stag drops his STANDING (Mar.) an epithet applied to different parts of horns in February and recovers them in July.

a ship, or its tackling; as “ The standing part of a sheet," STAG-BEETLE (Ent.) the Lucanus cervus of Linnæus, an that part which is made fast to a ring at the ship's quarter;

insect which lives in the decayed trunks of oak trees. Standing ropes," those which do not run in any block. STAGE (Nar.) a machine composed of planks let over the Standing army (Mil.) the permanent military force of a

sides of a slip by ropes, whereon the people may stand country, particularly that of the regulars, which is retained when repairing the vessel.

during peace as well as war. STAG-EIVIL (Vit.) a disease in the jaw of a horse, which STA'NNARIES (Min.) tin mines or works. is a kind of palsy.

STANNUM (Min.) Tin, a genus of metals of a silvery STA'GGARD (Sport.) a male deer four years old, of the white colour, very malleable and ductile, not sonorous, red kind,

flexible and crackling, easily melting, and soluble in acids,

giving the solution a bitter taste, and forming å purple

other offences, which the inferior judges were not supposed precipitate when mixed with a solution of gold ; specific competent to correct. This court has since been abogravity 7.291.

lished. STA’NZA (Poet.) an Italian word for a staff of verses forming || STARE (Orn.) vide Starling. an entire strain.

STA'R-FALLING (Meleor.) or Shooting Star, a luminous STAPELIA (Dot.) a succulent plant of the Cape of Good meteor darting rapidly through the air, which reseinbles a Hope, of the Class Pentandria, Order 2 Digynia.

falling star, and is attributed to electricity.
STA'PES (Anat.) a little bone in the inner part of the ear. STA'R-FISH (Ent.) vide Sea-Star, or Asterias.
STAPHISA'GRIA (Bot.) a species of the Delphinium of STAR-FLOWER (Bol.) vide Star.
Linnæus.

STAR-FO'RT (Fort.) vide Slar.
STA'PHYLE (Med.) sabuni, a disease in the roof of the STAR-HEA'DÈD (Bot.) vide Star.

mouth, when the uvula grows black and blue like a grape- | STA'RLING (Orn.) a bird about nine inches long, the stone. Gal. de T'um.

Sturnus of Linnæus, which breeds in the eaves of houses, STAPHYLE'A (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 5 Pentan or the cliffs of rocks, and lays four or five pale aslı-green dria, Order 3 Trigynia.

eggs. It is very docile, and may be easily taught to Generic Character. Cal. perianth five-parted.-Cor. petals speak.

five.-Sram. filaments five; anthers simple.-Pist. germ STARLING (Archit.) or jetlees, a kind of case made about thickish ; styles three; stigmas obtuse.—Per. cpsules a pier built upon stilts. three ; seeds two.

STARO'STIES (Polit.) certain fiefs or domains granted by Species. The species are trees, as the-Staphylea pinnata, the Kings of Poland to some of their subjects, who were

Staphylodenilron, Pistacia, seu Nux vesicaria, five thence called starosts, or noblemen.
leaved Bladder-Nut, &c. Dod. Pempt.; Clus. Hist. ; TO START a hare (Sport.) to force her from her seat.
Bauh. Hist.; Ger. Herb.; Park. Theat. Bot.; Raii | STARTING (Mar.) a summary mode of punishment,
Hist. fc.

formerly practised on seamen with a rope's end for laziness, STAPHYLI'NI (Anat.) another name for the two muscles or want of alacrity, &c.

of the mouth, called the Azygos Uvule and the circum- || STARWORT (Bot.) vide Slar. flexus.

STA'TER (Ant.) a Greek coin of different values in different STAPHYLI'NUS (Ent.) a genus of insects of the Coleopter. places. (vide Moneta

ous Order, having the antenna moniliform ; feelers four ; || Stater (Com.) an apothecaries' weight equal to an ounce shells half as long as the body.

and a half, STAPHYLINUS (Bot.) the Daucus carota of Linnæus. STATE’RA (Ant.) a Roman balance very similar to our STAPHYLODENDRON (Bot.) the Royena hirsuta of Lin steelyard. næus.

STATES GENERAL (Polit.) an assembly of the deputies STAPHYLOMA (Med.) or staphylosis, a disease of the of the several Dutch provinces.

eyeball, in which the cornea loses its natural transparency, || STATHOLDER (Polit.) the governor of a province; a

and projects beyond the eyelids in the form of a tumour. title formerly given to the head of the Dutch Provinces. STAPHYLOPA'RTES (Sürg.) an instrument to raise up | STATICE (Bot.) a genus of plants, Class 5 Pentandria, the uvula when it is loose.

Order 5 Pentagynia. STA'PLE (Com.) any town where merchants jointly lay Generic Character. Cal. perianth proper, one-leaved.

up their commodities for the better vending of them Cor. funnel-form. - STAM. filaments five, awl-shaped ; in the wholesale.- Staple commodities, such as are vended anthers incumbent. - Pist. germ very minute ; styles abroad in fairs or markets.

five, filiform ; stigmas acute.- Per. capsule oblong ; seed STAPLES (Con.) loops of iron, or bars pointed and bent single. so as to be driven in at both ends.

Species. The species are perennials, as the-Statice armeria, STAR (Astron.) in Latin stella, a general name for all the Limonium, seu Caryophyllus, Thrift, or Sea-Gilliflower.

heavenly bodies. Stars are distinguished into the fixed Statice limonium, seu Limonium, Sea-Thrift, or Seastars, which are the stars properly so called; or the erratic Lavender, &c. Dod. Pempt.; Clus. Hist.; Bauh. stars, which are more commonly called planets. [vide Hist.; Bauh. Pin.; Ger. Herb.; Park. Theat. Botan.; Astronomy, and Plates No. II. IV (14. 16)]

Raii Hist.; Tournef: Instit. &c. STAR (Chem.) a term employed in electrical experiments to STA'TICS (Mech.) sutixn, a branch of the science of me

denote the appearance of the electric matter on a point chanics, showing the properties of natural bodies, as reinto which it enters.

spect their weight, equilibrium, &c. Star (Fort.) a small fort having five or more points, or STA'TION (Mar.) or naval station, a cominodious shelter saliant, and re-entering angles flanking one another.

or harbour for ships while under repair, &c. Star (Law) a name formerly given to all the deeds and STATION (Astron.) the position or appearance of a planet

obligations, &c. of the Jews, which were written either in in the same point of the zodiac for several days. Hebrew alone, or in Hebrew and Latin.

Station (Maih.) a place pitched upon to make an observaSTAR-A'PPLE (:.) the Chrysophyllum of Linnæus. tion, or take an angle; as in surveying, measuring heights

Star-Flower, the Ornithogalum, a bulb. - Star-headed and distances, &c. Chickweed, the Callitriche verna, an annual.--Star-headed || STATIONARY (Astron.) an epithet applied to a planet Hyacinth, the Scilla autumnalis, a bulb.-Star of Beth which, to an observer on the earth, appears for sometime lehem, the Ornithogalum, a bulb.-Star-Thistle, the Cen to stand still. taurea calcitrapa, an annual.- Starwort, the Aster, a per- STATIONERS, Company of (Her.) consist of

ennial.- American Starwort, the Tridax procumbens. a master, 2 wardens, and 30 assistants, besides STARBOARD (Mar.) the right-hand side of a ship, when the livery. Their arms are, as in the annexed

a person on board stands with his face looking forward figure, " Sable, on a chevron, between three towards the head or forepart of the ship.

bibles, or, a falcon rising between two roses, STAR-CHA'MBER (Law) a court at Westminster held gules, seated of the sccond in chief a glory in

in a chamber of the same name, where the Chancellor, the shape of a dove expanded proper." assisted by others, sat to punish riots, routs, forgeries, and STATIONES (Ant.) a name given by the Romans to the

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