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ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SOCIAL REFORM
ALL SOCIAL-REFORM MOVEMENTS AND ACTIVITIES, AND THE ECO-
Jane Addams, Percy Alden, M.P., Dr. S. J. Barrows, E. W. Bemis, Ph.D., Hon. W. J. Bryan, Rt. Hon.
Kidd, Prof. S. M. Lindsey, Edwin Markham, John Mitchell, Frank Parsons, Edward
R. Woodruff, Hon. Carroll D. Wright, Prof. C. Zueblin
FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY
NEW YORK AND LONDON
This edition of the ENCYCLOPEDIA OF Social Reform is not a revision of the old edition, but a completely new book, save for a few purely historical or economic articles, the subjects of which need no new treatment—altho many even of these are either revised or completely rewritten. All else is absolutely new and it is believed that the work is very much more comprehensive and complete.
The two main requisites of an encyclopedia are reliability and serviceableness. The first of these has been sought in this encyclopedia by having every article written by some specialist on its particular subject. Statements of reform have been written by a believer in the reform; together with this, however, or by reference to a corresponding article on the opposing side, a statement of the opposing view will be found. Historical, bibliographical, biographical, and statistical articles have been prepared and carefully revised by adequate authorities, mainly university professors and economic specialists.
Biographical articles, in the case of all living persons, have been, wherever possible, submitted to those persons. Articles on foreign countries have been either written by or submitted for revision to residents in those countries.
Serviceableness has been sought by making the work, while, as shown above, accurate and scholarly, yet popular and not technical. The encyclopedia is for general workers and students. It has been prepared by specialists for those who are not specialists. Its references to books are therefore in the main only to books available to English readers. Articles have been arranged as to length and quality with this idea of serviceableness in view. Articles upon the best-known men are therefore often the shortest and sometimes such men are even omitted. This is not because they did not contribute to social reform, and often to a much larger degree than many who are considered, but because the general reader does not need the story of their life. The space allotted to articles, therefore, has considered the needs of the reader more than the absolute importance of the subject.
To the more important articles are appended brief bibliographies of the best available books upon the subject. There has been no attempt to make these exhaustive, but they will serve to guide the student in his search for more complete information.
The subject of social reform is so vast, and may be made so inclusive, that almost any subject might have been included here; but the encyclopedia aims to distinguish sharply between subjects that belong mainly to the individual and those that belong mainly to society. A few subjects, such as religion, science, etc., that concern both the individual and society, are treated only in their social aspects. The aim, however, has been to give on all the broad range of social reform the experience of the past, the facts of the present, the proposals for the future. The biographical portions will be found to be especially full. Of living persons the encyclopedia treats only those having national recognition, and has thus been compelled to pass by many earnest and often more useful and successful workers in local fields. In statistics we have gone to the best sources, but it must be remembered that statistics and statements in social reform are somewhat like the endeavor to count blossoms in springtime. Even while the count is going on, new blossoms are continually appearing, while not seldom a sudden chill wind carries some blossoms which have been counted, to the ground before the tally is complete. It is springtime in social reform, and spring can never be put into any book.
Wherever possible we have made use of governmental and official figures, even while figures could be found slightly more recent, but less reliable. In cases like those of political returns, not usually reported by governments, we are indebted to year books, such as “The Statesman's Year Book," "Hazell's Annual,” “The World Almanac,” the "Reformer's Year Book,” “The Daily Mail Almanac,” Coglan's "Statistical Account of Australia and New Zealand,” to German, French, and
other year books. To the large number of economic and sociological magazines, books, and sources quoted in this work we give credit in the text.
We desire to express our great indebtedness to the very large number of writers, scholars, and authorities who' have contributed valuable articles, or have done the sometimes equally valuable work of revision. For the large majority of these it has been a gratuitous labor of love which alone has made this work financially possible. The names of our main contributors and revisers we give below, but the list is not a complete one. To a much longer list of society secretaries and others we are indebted for valuable assistance and material.
Especial acknowledgment is due to our assistant editor, RUDOLPH M. BINDER, Ph.D., and to FRANK H. Vizetelly for valued aid and suggestion, both in the preparation of material and in seeing the work through the press.
W. D. P. BLISS. New York City, March, 1908.
PRINCIPAL CONTRIBUTORS OR REVISERS OF ARTICLES
ABBOTT, LEONARD D.
DUNNING, WM. A., Ph.D.