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A SYLLABUS OF PLANE GEOMETRY.
DEF. 2. One magnitude is said to be a measure or part of
another magnitude when the former is contained an exact number of times in the latter.
The following property of multiples is axiomatic :-
The converse necessarily follows, so that
or <mB, so is A>= or <B (Euc. Ax. 2 & 4).
mA — тв = m (A - B) (A being greater than B) (Euc. v. 5.) 5. mA + 12 A = (m + n) A
(Euc. V. 2.) 6. mA – 11A = (m – 12) A (m being greater than 1) (Euc. v. 6.) 111.11 A = mn. A = nm.A = n.mA
(Euc. v. 3) DEF. 3. The ratio of one magnitude to another of the same
kind is the relation of the former to the latter in
Obs. This inter-distribution of multiples is definite for two given magnitudes A and B, and is different from that for A and C, if C differ from B by any magnitude however small. See
DEF. 4. The ratio of two magnitudes is said to be equal to
that of two other magnitudes (whether of the same or of a different kind from the former), when any equimultiples whatever of the antecedents of the ratios being taken and likewise any equimultiples whatever of the consequents, the multiple of one
A SYLLABUS OF
antecedent is greater than, equal to, or less than that of its consequent, according as that of the other antecedent is greater than, equal to, or less than that of its consequent.
Or in other words :
DEF. 5. The ratio of two magnitudes is greater than that of
two other magnitudes, when equimultiples of the antecedents and equimultiples of the consequents can be found such that, while the multiple of the antecedent of the first is greater than or equal to that of its consequent, the multiple of the antecedent of the other is not greater or is less than that of its consequent.
Or in other words :
DEF, 6. When the ratio of A to B is equal to that of P to Q, the four magnitudes are said to be proportionals or to form a proportion. The proportion is denoted thus :
A:B:: P: which is read, “A is to B as P is to Q." A and Q are called the extremes, B and P the means, and Q is said to be the fourth proportional to A, B and P. The antecedents A, P are said to be homologous, and
so are the consequents B, Q. DEF. 7. Three magnitudes (A, B, C) of the same kind are
said to be proportionals, when the ratio of the first
and B, and B the mean proportional between A and C. DEF. 8. The ratio of any magnitude to an equal magnitude is
said to be a ratio of equality. If A be greater than B, the ratio A:B is said to be a ratio of greater inequality, and the ratio B:A a ratio of less inequality. Also the ratios A :B and B : A are said
to be reciprocal to one another. THEOR. I. Ratios that are equal to the same ratio are equal to
(Let A:B ::P : Q and X : Y::P:Q, then A : B :: X : Y. For the multiples of A being distributed among those of B as the multiples of P among those of Q, and the same being true of the multiples of X and Y, the multiples of A are distributed among those of B as the multiples of X among those of Y.]
THEOR. 2. If two ratios are equal, as the antecedent of the first
is greater than, equal to, or less than its consequent, so is the antecedent of the other greater than, equal to, or less than its consequent.
A SYLLABUS OF
[Let A:B :: P:Q, then as A >= or <B, so is P> = or < Q. This is contained in Def. 4, if the multiples taken be the magni. tudes themselves.]
THEOR. 3. If two ratios are equal, their reciprocal ratios are
those of P.] THEOR. 4. If the ratios of each of two magnitudes to a third mag
nitude be taken, the first ratio will be greater than,
A:C>= or<B:C, as A> = or <B
Hence the proposition is proved.]
true, since the "Rule of Conversion” is applicable.
Theor. 5. The ratio of equimultiples of two magnitudes is equal
to that of the magnitudes themselves.
(Let A, B be two magnitudes, then mA : mB :: A:B.
mA : mB :: A:B.] THEOR. 6. If two magnitudes (A, B) have the same ratio as two
whole numbers (m, n), then nA = mB: and conversely
m : n.]
whence if A be a multiple, part, or multiple of a part of B, P is the same multiple, part, or multiple of a
part of Q. Theor. 7. If four magnitudes of the same kind be proportionals,
the first will be greater than, equal to, or less than
Then if A=C, A:B :: C:B, and therefore C:D::C:B,
whence B <D.] THEOR. 8. If four magnitudes of the same kind be proportionals,
the first will have to the third the same ratio as the
second to the fourth.