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SECTION 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State Legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. 30, 80, 100 (note 2).

SECTION 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or iny claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void. 30, 122 (note 1).

SECTION 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

ARTICLE XV. SECTION 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 30, 75.

SECTION 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

INDEX.

Adams, John, sedition law passed during his presidency, 229.
Adams, J. Q., on adoption of constitution, 26; elected president by

house, 86, note 1.
Admission of new states, 33, 76, note 2, 185.
Albany congress of 1754, 4.
Alien and sedition laws, 40, note 2, 229,
Aliens, non-naturalized, may have franchise, 72.
Amendment of the constitution, 15, 28, 31 (note), 52, 262.
Amendment of state constitutions, 292.
Amendments, ratification of thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth, 31,

note.
Annapolis convention of 1786, 15.
Appropriations, 131, and note.
Appropriations, statistics of, 135.
Articles of confederation, 3, 8.
Arthur, Chester A., becomes president, 83; negotiates commercial

treaties, 204, note.
Arrests, 257.
Assembly, right of, 230.
Attainder, bills oi', 223.
Attempts at federation, 4.
Bank of the United States, 126, note 2.
Bearing arms, right of, 230.
Benevolent institutions (state), 284.
Bible in public schools, 309.
Bill of rights, 29, 50, 267.
Bills of attainder, 223.
Brevet rank, 197.
Cabinet, has no executive power, 83; no constitutional existence, 90;

no legal or political responsibility, 90
Cabinet in the states, 288.
Calhoun, John C., on nullification, 40.
Capitation taxes (state), 299.

Charters, 233.
Checks and balances, system of, 60.
Church and state, 225, 314.
Citizens of the separate states, 248.
City government, 329.
Civil rights, 257.
Civil service reform, 106, note, 208, note, 256, 275, 290.
Cleveland, Grover, opposes coinage of silver, 124, note.
Clinton, George, opposes ratification of the constitution, 25.
Coins and coinage, 124, note.
Colleges and universities, 313.
Common law in America, 161.
Commerce, 136.
Comity between states, 242..
Committees of congress, 109.
Committees of the whole, 111, note 1.
Compulsory education, 306.
Concurrent jurisdiction of state and federal courts, 212.
Concurrent powers in general, 56; as to taxation, 120; as to trade and

commerce, 142, 147.
Condemnation, 253, 261, note 1.
Confederation, articles of, 3, 8.
Conflicts of authority, in general, 58.,
Congress (Albany) of 1754, 4; (New York) of 1765, 5; (Philadelphia)

of 1774, 5; (do.) of 1775, 6.
Congress, election of its members, 71; its sessions, 81; organization,

81; powers over its own members, 103; judicial functions, 103;
privileges and immunities of members, 104; their salaries, 105;
procedure, 108; committees, 109, note; general powers, 116; finan-
cial tasks, 130; regulates immigration, 148; naturalization, 149;
postoffices, 150; its power to build post-roads, 150, note 3; regu-
lates weights and measures, 150; patents and copyrights, 151; its
criminal jurisdiction, 153; treason, 154; impeachment, 158; pow-
ers as to foreign relations, 163, 199, note 1; war powers, 164, 194;
militia, 171; District of Columbia, 172; national property, 174;
territories, 175; admission of new states, 185; controls suspen-
sion of habeas corpus, 196; decides whether state government is

republican in form, 238.
Congressional elections, 71.
Conscription, 167.
Constitution, ratification of, 24; amendment of, 52, 262; rules for its

interpretation and construction, 55, 116.

Constitutions (state), in general, 266; their constituent parts, 207.
Constitutional conventions (state), 264.
Contracts, 231.
Controversies between states, 219.
Conventions, constitutional (state), 264.
Conventions, national, 87.
Conventions of 1780 (Hartford), 13; of 1786 (Annapolis), 15; of 1787

(Philadelphia), 16, 43.
Copyrights, 152.
Copyrights, international, 153.
Criminal law, congressional powers concerning, 154.
Criminal procedure, 258.
Corporations, municipal, 324.
Court-martials, 197, note 3.
Courts, federal, jurisdiction of, 211; practice and pleading in, 221.
Courts, state, 291.
Courts, territorial, 98, note.
Counties, 325.
County officers, 326.
Dartmouth College case, 235.
Debt, public, 117; statistics of, 126, note 2.
Debts of states, 279.
Declaration of Independence, 7.
Demonetization of silver, 124, note.
Department of justice, organization and work of, 95, note.
Departments, the executive, 95, and note
Direct taxes, 73, note 2.
District of Columbia, 172.
Division of powers, 67.
Divorce, national law of, suggested, 243.
Due process of law, 252.
Duties on exports, 118, and note.
Duties on imports, statistics of, 121, note 2.
Education, compulsory, 306.
Election of president and vice-president, 85.
Election, presidential, of 1876, 88.
Elections, congressional, 71, 77.
Elective judiciary (state), 292.
Electoral college, 87.
Electoral commission of 1876, 88.
Electoral votes disputed, Missouri in 1821; Michigan in 1827; Wis-

consin in 1857; Louisiana in 1873; Florida, South Carolina and
Louisiana in 1877, 81.

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