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regarded as intended to be anything like a complete guide to what may be done in this way. This is a part of the subject which I have as yet studied but very slightly indeed ; but I hope that it may afford a few useful hints as to the kind of way in which this desirable object may be carried out, to those who may have the inclination and the leisure to attend to it more fully than I have been able to do.

All the woodcuts in this chapter are drawn to the scale of half an inch to a foot, excepting those which are on the same scale as the plans and elevations—that is, a twelfth of an inch to a foot. They are almost entirely formed of the common bricks which are to be found in every brickyard. Except in one or two instances which are specially mentioned, I have not given any designs but such as may be constructed with the ordinary square

bricks, and bricks with a half round end, Fig. I, or with one corner bevelled off,

Fig. 2. These can be procured anywhere. Fig. 2. But many other patterns of bricks may

Fig. 1.

be made as easily as these so as to give greater variety to the patterns which can be produced in the brickwork ; and tiles with a moulded edge can also be made at a trifling cost in a common tile machine by anyone who has command of a brickyard, and may with advantage be applied to many purposes, such as window sills, cornices, or corbels for carrying spouting, or string-courses, or plinths where such are used.

CHIMNEYS.

One principal feature in any house, and especially in a cottage--one which more than any other may be made to add to the effect of the design, by attention to its form and proportions—is the stack or stacks of chimneys. These may be constructed in a great many different ways, so as to produce a great variety of effect. The chinineystack may consist of a solid stack of brick, or of stone, or of separate brick shafts of a great variety of form, of two of these combined, or any of these

Fig. 3.

together with some of the infinite variety of forms of chimney-pot which are to be had ready-made. Of all these the most effective is a stack of

detached, or partially detached, brick shafts. A few specimens of these are given below, which may be made of common bricks. By using bricks moulded for the purpose, a very great variety of patterns may be produced.

Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 are the elevations and

plans of stacks containing two flues, formed of common bricks, and in which the shafts are detached. There is a practical ad

vantage in the tall detached brick shafts. The wind blows through them, and there is less liability in them than in others to that occasional cause of fires smoking which alone cannot be remedied by the proper construction of the fire-grate and lower part of the

fue, that which arises from gusts of wind in stormy weather beating against the roof

Fig. 4.

or chimney-stack and eddying down the chimney, and which is sometimes, appropriately enough, called an overblow. This cause of a chimney's smoking the tall detached brick shaft is less liable to than any other description of chimney; but it necessarily forms a very bulky stack, and, especially in so small a building as a cottage, can only be used with a very high-pitched roof, without looking top-heavy.

Fig. 5 is the elevation and plan of a stack of four flues, in which

the shafts are not detached. Two

Fig. 5.

of the fues are here placed
diamond-wise. Where any of the
shafts are thus placed it is per-
haps better, both for practical
reasons, and for appearance sake also, to make a
broach for the shaft as in Fig. 4, than to set
them on a square-topped stack as in Fig. 5.
Fig. 6 shows the front and side view and plan
of a stack of four flues, and also the side view and
plan of a similar stack containing eight flues. The

lines across them

are supposed to be courses
of black

or other

coloured bricks; the

lower of these bands

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may very well be re-
placed by black or

other coloured bricks
Fig. 6.

arranged in some pattern, as is often to be seen done, sometimes so as to produce a good effect, but more frequently doing quite the contrary, in the present day.

Figs. 7, 8, and 9 are elevations and plans of stacks of chimneys containing eight flues. In the plans of cottages which are given in this book, by far the greater number of chimney-stacks

contain two, four, or eight flues, and I have, therefore, given examples of a few ways of constructing these of common bricks; but it must be remembered that the

Fig. 7.

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