arrived in 1713; Kaskaskia, Illinois, was then the provincial headquarters, and source of supplies for Upper Louisiana, which was also sometimes called Illinois; but New Orleans was the nominal seat of government for the whole Louisiana territory. The old town of Mine-la-Motte, in Madison county, commemorates this first governor. Crozat expected to find inexhaustible mines of gold and silver in this territory, and spent immense sums of money in vain efforts to attain his object. Practical miners were sent everywhere that the natives reported any glittering substance to exist. The explorers found iron, zinc, copper, lead, mica, pyrites, quartz crystals, etc., in great abundance, but no gold, silver or diamonds; and after five years of disastrous failure and disappointment, in 1717, Crozat returned his luckless charter to the king.

Next, in 1716 an adventurous Scotchman named John Law, got up a grand scheme for making everybody rich without work, and induced the French king and court and people to engage in it. This wild financial venture is known in history as the " Mississippi bubble," the "South Sea bubble," etc. The charter of Louisiana and monopoly of all its trade was given to a corporation, called the "Company of the West," whose capital stock was to be 100,000,000 francs, with power to issue stock in small shares, and establish a bank, etc. Shares rose to twenty times their original value, and the bank's notes, though essentially worthless, were in circulation to the amount of more than $200,000,000. Law himself sunk $500,000 in the scheme; but it bursted, as bodiless as a bag of wind; while he, the originator and manager of it, had to escape from Paris for his life, and died poor at Venice in 1729. In 1731 the charter of Louisiana was again returned to the crown. However, the excitement over this great scheme for making fabulous wealth out of nothing, had brought many adventurous Frenchmen into the territory as gold-hunters, who failing in that, worked some of the lead mines, and sent their products back to Europe.

In 1720 or 1721, an enterprising Frenchman named Renault took charge of a large lead mining enterprise. He brought M. La Motte, who was a professional mineralogist, with about two hundred expert miners and metallurgists, and five hundred negroes, to develop the mineral wealth that actually did exist. He made his headquarters at Fort de Chartres, on the Illinois side, ten miles above St. Genevieve, and sent out exploring and working parties to locate mining camps west of the Great River. Mine-la-Motte, in Madison county, was one of the first of these locations; also Potosi and Old Mine in Washington county; and many others. In 1765 a few families located at Potosi. Much of the mining was surface work—hence, scattered and transitory; and their smelting operations were merely to melt the ore in a wood fire and then clear away the ashes and gather up the lumps of lead. This was carried to the river on pack-horses or on rude ox-carts, and thence shipped to New Orleans by fleets of drifting keel-boats, which returned laden with foreign goods. Many of the immigrants of this period also engaged in agriculture, especially in Illinois, so that there really began to be a settled occupation of the country, as a final outcome of the greatest speculative delusion known to history. Lippincott's Gazetteer of the World says: * Fort Orleans, near where Jefferson City now stands, was built by the French in 1719"; this was a temporary safeguard for John Law's crazy gold-hunters, but did not make a permanent settlement. Kaskaskia, now in Randolph county, Ills., was settled by the French in 1673, and was for about a century the metropolis of the vast territory sometimes called "Upper Louisiana," sometimes "Illinois," and sometimes the "Northwestern Territory." And in 1735 some emigrants from Kaskaskia, moved across the Great River and made a settlement at what is now St. Genevieve, Missouri, which was the first permanent white settlement made and maintained within the State; the previous adventurers in search of mineral wealth had located mining camps at several points, but had not established any permanent town or trading post.

The next settlement that can be historically traced to its origin was that of St. Louis. A Frenchman named Pierre Liguest Laclede,* who lived in New Orleans in 1762, organized the " Louisiana Fur Company," under a charter from the director-general of the province of Louisiana; this charter gave them the exclusive right to carry on the fur trade with the Indians bordering on the Missouri river, and west of the Mississippi, "as far north as the river St. Peter" (the same that is now called the Minnesota river, and empties into the Mississippi at Fort Snelling). Laclede seems to have formed a definite plan and purpose to establish a permanent trading post at some point in Upper Louisiana, for he made up a company of professional trappers, hunters, mechanics, laborers, and boatmen, and with a supply of goods suitable for the Indian trade, they left New Orleans in August, 1763, bound for the mouth of the Missouri river. The manner of navigating these boats against the current of the Mississippi for a distance of 1,194 miles, was of the most rude, primitive and laborious sort. Sometimes when the wind was favorable they could sail a little; but the main dependence was by means of push-poles and towropes. The boats were long and narrow, with a plank projecting six or eight inches on each side. The boat would of course keep near the shore; a man at each side, near the bow of the boat, would set his pole on the river bottom, then brace his shoulder against the top of the pole with

'Campbell's Gazetteer of Missouri says this man's family name was Liguest; B. Gratz Brown gives it in Johnson's Cyclopedia as Lingueste; but the man himself appears to have written his name Laclede, of the firm of Laclede, Moxan & Co., who constituted the historic "Louisiana Fur Company."

all his might, and as the boat moved under him he would walk along the narrow plank until he reached the stern, and the boat had thus been propelled forward the distance of its length; then he would walk back to the bow, dragging his pole along in the water, set it on the bottom and push again as before. And thus it was that the rugged pioneers of civilization in the new world for more that a hundred years navigated the Mississippi, Ohio, Missouri, Illinois, Wisconsin, and some other rivers, with what were in later years called keel-boats. But sometimes, for a rest, or when the beach was favorable, a gang of men would go ashore with a long rope attached to the boat, and thus tow it along against the current, or they would tie the forward end to a tree or snag and let those on the boat pull in the rope and thus draw the boat along—meanwhile those on shore going ahead with another rope, making another tie—and so on; this was called "warping"; but when it was necessary to cross the stream they had recourse to oars or paddles. It took Laclede three months in this way to get from New Orleans up to St. Genevieve, or Fort de Chartres, the military post on the east side a few miles further up the river, where he arrived on the third of November. Here he left his goods and part of his company, but taking a few picked men, he himself pushed on to the mouth of the Missouri. He seems to have had a sort of prophetic forecast that this was the right spoVo locate the future trading post for all that vast region of country which was drained by the two principal great rivers of the new world. At the mouth of the Missouri he found no site that suited him for a town, and he turned back down the Mississippi, carefully exploring the west bank until he reached the high, well protected and well drained location where the city of St. Louis now stands. This was the nearest spot to the mouth of the Missouri which at all met his idea, and he began at once to mark the place by chopping notches in some of the principal trees. This was in December, 1763. He then returned to the fort and pushed on his preparations for the new settlement, saying enthusiastically to the officers of the fort that he had "found a situation where he was going to plant his colony; and the site was so fine, and had so many advantages of position for trade with all this region of country, that it might in time become one of the finest cities in America"

Early in February, 1764, a company of thirty men, in charge of Auguste Chouteau, set out from Fort de Chartres and arrived at the chosen spot on the 14th. The next day all hands went to work clearing the ground and building a storehouse for the goods and tools, and cabins for their own habitation. In April Laclede himself joined them and proceeded to lay out the village plat, select a site for his own residence, and name the town Saint Louis, in honor of his supposed sovereign, Louis XV. This very territory had been yielded up to Spain in 1762, but these loyal Frenchmen in naming their new town after the French king never dreamed that they were then and for nearly two years had been Spanish subjects, instead of French; the unwelcome news had reached New Orleans in the same month, April, but did not arrive at St. Louis until late in the year; and when it came the inhabitants were appropriately wroth and indignant, for they hated Spain with a fighting hatred. However, the change made very little practical difference to the town or its people. In 1763 all the French possessions on the east side of the Mississippi river, and also Canada, had been ceded to England, but it was late in 1764 before the English authorities arrived to take possession of Kaskaskia, or Fort de Chartres, and other military posts; and when they did come, many of the French settlers moved over to St. Louis, giving it a considerable start, both in population and business. The Indians, too, being generally more friendly toward the French than the English, came over to St. Louis to trade their peltries, instead of going to Kaskaskia, as they had formerly done; and this fact gave the new town a powerful impulse.

From this time forward new settlements began to spring up within our present boundaries. New Bourbon was settled in 1789. In 1762 a hunter named Blanchette built a cabin where the city of St. Charles now stands, and lived there many years; but just when the place began to be a town or village does not appear to be known." However, in 1803, St. Charles county was organized, and then comprised all the territory lying north of the Missouri and west of the Mississippi; thus taking in all of north Missouri, and the entire States of Iowa, Minnesota, Dakota, and on west to the Pacific ocean. This was the largest single "county" ever known in the world, and St. Charles city was the county seat.

In 1781 the Delaware Indians had a considerable town where New Madrid now stands; and that year Mr. Curre, a fur trader of St. Louis, established a branch house here. In 1788 a colony from New Jersey settled here, and laid out a plat for a large city, giving it the name of New Madrid, in honor of the capital of Spain. But they never realized their high hopes of building up a splendid city there.

Among the historic incidents of early settlement worthy of mention at this point, is the case of Daniel Boone, whose hunter life in Kentucky forms a staple part of American pioneer history. Boone came to this territory in 1797, renounced his citizenship in the United States, and took the oath of allegiance to the Spanish crown. Delassus was then the Spanish governor; and he appointed Boone commander of a fort at Femme Osage, now in the west part of St. Charles county. He roamed and hunted over the central regions of Missouri the rest of his life, and it was for a long period called the "Boone's Lick country," from some salt licks or springs which he discovered and his sons worked, and which were choice hunting grounds because deer and other animals came there to lick salt. Col. Boone died Sept. 26, 1820, in St. Charles county, but was buried in Marthasville in Warren county, as was his wife also. Their bones were subsequently removed to Frankfort, Kentucky.


In 1801 the territory west of the Mississippi was ceded back to France by Spain; in 1803 President Jefferson purchased from the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, the entire territory of Louisiana, for $15,000,000; the formal transfer was made at New Orleans, December 20,. 1803. On the 26th of March, 1804, Congress passed an act dividing this vast accession into two parts, the lower one being named the "Territory of Orleans," with its capital at New Orleans; the upper division was called the "District of Louisiana," with its capital at St. Louis. This latter district comprised the present State of Arkansas and all from that north to nearly the north line of Minnesota, and west from the Mississippi river to the Rocky Mountains. Don Carlos Dehault Delassus had been the last Spanish governor at St. Louis, and no change was made after its re-cession to France, until in March, 1804, when he delivered the keys and the public documents of his governorship to Capt. Amos Stoddard, of the United States army, who immediately raised the first American flag that ever floated west of the Mississippi river, over the government buildings at St. Louis. There it has floated proudly and uninterruptedly ever since, and there it will float until St. Louis becomes the central metropolis and seat of empire of the entire North American continent.

It should be mentioned here that the war of the American Revolution did not involve any military operations as far west as the Mississippi river; hence the little French fur-trading village of St. Louis was not affected by the clash of arms which was raging so desperately through all the States east of the Ohio river. But the success of the colonies in this unequal conflict gave them control of all south of the river St. Lawrence and the great lakes, as far west as the Mississippi river; and when Napoleon had sold to the new republic the extensive French possessions west of the Mississippi, he remarked that this accession of territory and control of both banks of the Mississippi river would forever strengthen the power of the United States; and said he, with keen satisfaction, "I have given England a maritime rival that will sooner or later humble her pride."

On the 3d of March, 1805, Congress passed at act to organize the Territory of Louisiana; and President Jefferson then appointed as territorial governor, Gen. James Wilkinson; secretary, Frederick Bates; judges, Return J. Meigs and John B. Lucas. Thus civil matters went on,

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