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ically, of Ray county, is such as to give it every advantage possessed by any county in upper Missouri, and its soil is fully equal to the best. Indeed, it is the opinion of many persons, who know the county and the state well, that there is more rich land in Ray than in any other county in Missouri. It is finely watered, well diversified with prairie and timbered lands; and for the growing of hemp, tobacco, wheat and corn, as well as for purposes of stock raising, it cannot be surpassed, and time will show it to be the "Bourbon" of Missouri.

The town of Richmond, situated on a high dividing ridge, nearly in the center of the county, seven miles from the Missouri river at Camden, and ten miles from Lexington, is proverbial for health. It is on the main state road from St. Louis to Liberty, Weston and St. Joseph, and all the Platte country; has a tri-weekly mail coach passing through it, and is on the main road from the Grand River country to Lexington, southwest Missouri, Arkansas and Texas.

If the people of Ray county are true to their own interests, and will build up and endow the proposed college; if they will foster their own mechanics and merchants, and their own printer; if they will have good schools at home, and not send their children away to be educated; and if the people of Richmond will go to work and beautify the natural advantages which the town possesses, and its merchants and mechanics deal liberally with the farmers; the day is not far off when a residence in Richmond, and a farm in Ray county will be sought after with eagerness.

We shall say more in future numbers of the Mirror in regard to the duties of our citizens and the future of our county.

JOHNSON MEETING.

The Conservator March 24.1866.]

Pursuant to a call of the friends of President Johnson, a very large meeting of the citizens was held during the sitting of the circuit court at Richmond, Missouri, March 10, 1866, for the purpose of endorsing the president in his reconstruction policy, and the veto of the Freedmen's Bureau Bill.

At one o'clock, the meeting was called to order and on motion of Hon. W. A. Donaldson, George Warren was called to the chair, and on motion of Hon. G. W. Eunn, Col. A. A. King was appointed secretary.

The chairman, taking the stand, announced the object of the meeting, when, on motion of Honorable G. W. Dunn, the chair appointed the following committeemen to draft resolutions expressive of the feelings and political opinions of those in the meeting, viz: Honorable George W. Dunn, Governor A. A. King, Honorable W. A. Donaldson, Doctor A. B. Ralph, and Honorable H. P. Settle.

While the committee was retiring, Governor King was called back by the audience, and responded in an able speech, which was the fruitful source of much good, by showing to those that opposed the administration, the danger into which they would take our liberties, if successful.

At the conclusion of his speech, the committee reported the following resolutions, which were read and unanimously adopted:

Resolved, That we have undiminished confidence in the ability, integrity, and patriotism of President Johnson, and we will continue to give a cordial support to his administration.

Resolved, That President Johnson's inflexible devotion to the constitution and the Union, now, as in all times past, entitles him to the earnest support of the friends of civil and religious liberty throughout the Union.

Resolved, That we cordially approve President Johnson's veto of the freedmen's bureau bill, his policy of reconstruction, and his defiant opposition to the policy of Sumner, Stevens, and others, who persist in declaring that the Union has been dissolved.

Resolved, That the Union has not been dissolved, nor can it be dissolved; it was not dissolved by secession, because secession was unconstitutional and void. It was not dissolved by the armed attempt to take some of the states out of the Union, because the rebellion has been completely overthrown by our gallant armies; and it cannot be dissolved by those who assert that the Union has been dissolved, while President Johnson and his friends, constituting a large majority of the people of the United States, continue true to the Union and the constitution.

Resolved, That we are in favor of repealing the provisions of the new constitution of the state, that conflict with the wise policy of President Johnson's administration, and with the principles of civil and religious liberty transmitted to us by our ancestors, the establishment and preservation of which cost so much blood and treasure.

Resolved, That the friends of President Johnson's administration will organize in accordance with the suggestions of the state central committee, contained in a circular signed by General E. B. Brown, chairman of the committee, by formation of liberty clubs, composed of all who agree with the policy of the national administration.

Resolved, That we regard it as our imperative duty to support the civil authorities of the state in the enforcement of the laws; and we propose to get rid of obnoxious laws whether contained in the new constitution or in the statutes, by having them repealed, and not by violating them, and that we will to the extent of our power, promote peace and order, and a love of the federal constitution and the union of the states among our fellow citizens.

Resolved, That while we claim the right to assemble and express our views of public policy, we accord to our political opponents the same unquestionable right.

Resolved, That we invite the co-operation of all persons, regardless of former political differences, who agree with us in sentiment, in the good work of upholding the constitution and Union, and the principles of civil and religious liberty.

Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be published in the Missouri Republican, Lexington Express, and in the Richmond papers, and that all papers friendly to our cause be requested to copy them.

After the reading of the resolutions, which were unanimously adopted, Judge Ryland, of Lexington, was called upon, and ably defended the president in his usual terse, eloquent and logical reasonings, at the conclusion of which, court hour having arrived, the meeting was adjourned.

Geo. Warren, Chairman.

Austin A. King, Jr., Secretary.

CRIMINAL CAUSES.

The Conservator, June 16,1866.]

On the 12th instant, Isaac Odell and James Duvall were brought before David H. Quesenberry, Esq., a justice of the peace of Richmond township, in this county, under a warrant issued by Elisha Riggs, a justice of the peace of Fishing River township. The warrant simply charged the defendants with preaching, and commanded the constable to bring the defendants before the justice of the peace who issued the warrants, or some other justice of the peace of the county of Ray. Judge Dunn and C. T. Garner, Esq., appeared as counsel for the defendants, and the state was represented by Elijah F. Esteb, Esq, the circuit attorney.

The defendants moved the court to dismiss the cases, for the reason that the warrants charged no criminal offense against the defendants. The cases were ably argued before the justice, the counsel for the defendants taking the position that even if the section in the constitution, upon which the prosecutions were founded, possessed any validity after the decision of the supreme court of the United States (not yet published), holding it null and void, three things were necessary to constitute the offense charged, to-wit: That the party charged was a bishop, priest, elder, minister or clergyman, as required by the constitution; 2d, that as such bishop, priest, elder, minister or clergyman, he preached; and, 3d, that the party so charged preached without taking the oath of loyalty required by the constitution.

The warrants in the cases under consideration only charged the parties with preaching, without charging that they preached as bishop, priest, elder, minister or clergyman, and without charging that they had failed to take the oath of loyalty. They maintained that preaching was not of itself an offense against the constitution and laws of the state; that to constitute the offense punishable under the constitution, the party charged must preach as bishop, priest, elder, minister or clergyman, ana must so preach without having taken the oath of loyalty.

Mr. Esteb, the circuit attorney, replied, in his usual able, fair, and gentlemanly style. The circuit attorney represents the state, and not any political party or religious sect.

Justice Quesenberry sustained the motions, dismissed the cases, and discharged the defendants, holding that preaching, instead of being a criminal offense, is in the highest degree commendable. This decision does honor to the head and heart of the justice, who is a worthy member of a different religious denomination from that of the parties accused. Messrs. Odell and Duvall are elders of the regular Baptist denomination, commonly called "Old Iron-side Baptist."

This result may be mortifying to Drake, Strong, Fletcher, and Babcocke, but the best way to avoid similar mortification in the future, is for them to join the friends of civil and religious liberty in repealing this relic of bigotry and barbarism, which ought never to have been placed in the constitution of a free people.

TOWNS AND VILLAGES.

CITY OF RICHMOND.

The land on which the original town of Richmond is located was donated to the county of Ray, May 5, 1827, by John Woolard, Isaac Thornton, William B. Martin and William Thornton, the proprietors thereof.

The donation was made in consideration of the selection, by a commission legally appointed by the county court, of the site as a place on which to locate the permanent seat of justice of Ray county.

On the 20th day of July, A. D. 1827, the county court in session at Bluffton, ordered an election, that the proposition to remove the county seat to the place selected by the commissioners, and by its owners donated to the county of Ray, might be submitted to the people for their approval or rejection, as the law required.

On the 20th and '21st of August following, the election was duly held, and resulted in one hundred and eight votes being cast for the proposition and fifty-five against it; and in due course of time, as already fully stated, the county seat was removed, and public buildings erected, etc. Hence, Richmond owes its existence to the fact of the land on which the original town is located having been selected first by commisioners, and then by a majority of the qualified voters of the county as a site for the permanent seat of justice of the county of Ray.

Richmond was, when laid out, the county seat of territory since divided into eight counties, having the following seats of justice, to-wit: Carrollton, Chillicothe, Trenton, Princeton, Bethany, Gallatin, Kingston and Richmond.

Richmond was surveyed and laid out into blocks, lots, streets and alleys by Thomas N. Aubry, Esq., under the direction of William S. Miller, commissioner of the seat of justice, between the 24th of September and the 15th of October, A. D. 1827.

The town site was divided into one hundred lots, and these, with the exception of those reserved for the use of the county, were sold at public vendue, the sale commencing Thursday, October 25th, 1827, and continuing from day to day. The sale was made by beginning with lot No. 100, and selling each alternate lot till lot No. 1 was reached.

When the county court convened in special session, Monday, October 22, 1827, it changed the boundaries of lots 8, 9, 40, 41, 72, 73 and 100, by taking off of each the space of twenty-five feet. The space thus taken off was reserved from sale.

The first jail in Richmond was located on lot No. 62, and the "prison bounds " thereof was as follows: Sixty rods square, with the jail in the centre; said space accurately laid off, and the distances marked by planting in the earth, to the depth of at least eighteen inches, at each of the four cardinal points of the compass, well charred, white-oak posts, nine inches square, rising four feet above the earth's surface. The jail itself, and also the first court house have been described.

Richmond was first incorporated November 19, 1835; and the following gentlemen constituted the first board of trustees: Berry Hughes, C. R. Morehead, H. G. Parks, William Hudgins and Thomas McKinney.

The first county road leading to and from the town of Richmond was established by the county court in November, 1827. It extended to Jack's Ferry, on the Missouri river.

One Anderson Martin was the first town constable of the town of Richmond. The town was again incorporated by act of the general assembly, approved November 9, 1857.

Richmond was laid out in the midst of a broad field of the "bright ever beautiful maize;" that is to say, where Richmond now stands, John Woolard, in 1827, cultivated a field of corn. John Woolard was an unlettered man, somewhat eccentric, but a kind neighbor, a warm-hearted friend, and an enterprising, public spirited gentleman. He has been dead many years, but has sons yet living in the county, who are upright and useful citizens.

Richmond, so named by the county court, Monday, September 24, 1827, is situated in sections thirty and thirty-one, township fifty-two, range twenty-seven, and on the northeast quarter of section thirty-six, township fifty-two, range twenty-eight, on the St.Joseph branch of the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific railway, forty-four miles east of Kansas City, two hundred and thirty seven miles northwest of St. Louis, and sixty-seven miles southeast of St. Joseph.

Richmond is simply a fine old town, whose people are remarkable for urbanity, kindness, and genuine, old-fashioned hospitality; and in which a stranger, no matter whence he comes, so he conducts himself as a gentleman, is soon made to feel himself at home, and in the midst of friends.

It is surrounded by a country exhaustless in natural resources; picturesque and beautiful in surface configuration; rich, productive, and pleasant to see. It is the attractive business and social centre of an intelligent, enterprising, Christian community, and—to borrow the language of Paul, the apostle—it is "a city of no mean importance."

The main or central portion of Richmond stands upon the crown of a graceful swell, and the suburban portions are located upon the slopes of a succession of beautiful wooded hills that nearly surround the central town. The slopes abound in the most attractive building sites that command fine city and open valley views in almost every direction. It has scores of fine cottages, villas, and dignified old mansion homes, represent

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