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MASSACHUSETTS AND MISSOURI SCHOOL RATES.
Massachusetts is taken almost universally as the standard of measurement for other states. The state reports of Massachusetts and Missouri, for 1879, show that in the former there was applied to the education of every child of school age the sum of $13.71—in the latter, $4.37. But it must be remembered that school age in Massachusetts is between five and fifteen years; in Missouri between six and twenty; a difference of four years in school.
The report of the secretary of the Massachusetts board of education, for 1879, states the "per centage of valuation appropriated for public schools," as two and seventy-two one hundredths mills. In Missouri it was over five mills. That is, every tax-paying Missourian paid nearly twice as much for the maintenance of public schools on the same amount (of value) of property as the tax-payer of Massachusetts.
~Z?u „^ NAME OP INSTITUTION. WHERE LOCATED. DENOMINATION.
1871 Central College Fayette M. E. Church South.
1856 Christian College Canton Christian.
1859 College Christian Brothers. St. Louis Roman Catholic.
1873 Drury College Springfield Congregational.
1868 Hannibal College Hannibal M. E. Church South.
1865 Lewis College Glasgow Methodist Episcopal.
1870 Lincoln College Greenwood United Presbyterian.
1853 McGee College College Mound... Cumb. Presbyterian.
1867 St. Joseph College St. Joe Roman Catholic.
1832 St. Louis University St. Louis Roman Catholic.
1844 St. Paul College Palmyra Protestant Episcopal.
1844 St. Vincent College Cape Girardeau. .Roman Catholic.
1857 Washington University... St. Louis Non-Sectarian.
1852 Westminster College Fulton Presbyterian.
1853 Wm. Jewell College Liberty Baptist.
1869 Woodland College Independence .... Christian.
1835 St. Charles College St. Charles M. E. Church South.
1852 Central College Fayette """
1843 Arcadia College Arcadia """
1839 Concordia College St. Louis Evangelical Luth'ran
1844 St. Vincent College Cape Girardeau. .Roman Catholic.
Theological School of West-
1869 Vanderman School of The-
In addition to the above, the Baptists have: Stephens College, Columbia* Mt. Pleasant College, Huntsville; Baptist Female College, Lexington; La Grange College, La Grange; Baptist College, Louisiana; Liberty Female College, Liberty; St. Louis Seminary for Young Ladies, Jennings Station; Fairview Female Seminary, Jackson; Booneville Seminary for Young Ladies, Booneville; North Grand River College, Edinburg; Ingleside Academy, Palmyra.
The Christian connection has Christian University, at Canton, in Lewis county.
The Congregationalists have Thayer College, at Kidder, in Caldwell county.
The German Evangelicals have Missouri College, in Warren county. The Methodist Episcopals (North) have Johnson College at Macon City.
The Presbyterians have Lindenwood Female College, at St. Charles.
A good feeling prevails amongst these different schools. Each attends to its own work in its own way, caring for the patronage of its own people and the community at large, as a good neighbor of every other worker. A most liberal and impartial legislative policy is pursued, by dealing with all alike before the law, whether in the maintenance of vested rights or in the matter of taxation. By constitutional provision all property actually used for school and religious purposes may be exempted from taxes, and the same constitution most explicitly interdicts all discrimination, and also all favor or partiality.
FOUNDED. NAME LOCATION.
1872 Law College of State University Columbia.
1867 Law Department of Washington University St. Louis.
FOUNDED. MAKE. LOCATION.
1869 Kansas City College of Phvsicians and Surgeons. .Kansas City.
1873 Medical College of State University Columbia.
1840 Missouri Medical College St. Louis.
1841 St. Louis Medical College"
1858 Homeopathic Medical College of Missouri"
1865 Missouri Dental College"
1864 St. Louis College of Pharmacy"
1670 Agricultural and Mechanical College (State University) Columbia.
1871 Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy (State
1857 Polytechnic Department of Washington University. Louis.
Catholic 216 2C4 200,000
Protestant Episcopal 65 50 25,000
Lutheran Independent Evangelical 25 20 1,000
"English Evangelical 6 6 • 1,000
"German" 78 68 3,633
Presbyterian, O. S. North 210 151 11,143
» South 135 73 7,662
Cumberland 361 169 15,823
United 10 12 700
Reformed ^3 4 165
Congregational '1 47 3,747
Baptist 1.385 823 86,999
Christian, about 500 500 70.000
Methodist Episcopal, South 559 648 53.382
« North 359 420 42,888
"« African 58 59 4,954
African Methodist Episcopal, Zion )
Colored" '" Ubout 116 118 9.908
Methodist, Protestant and Free Methodist Episcopal Church )
Unitarian < n
Total 4,160 3,437 539,004
Note.—Church members of the Catholic and Protestant Episcopal Churches Include all persons baptized into the church. The others count only communicants in good standing.
Our state legislature has made ample and discreet provision for the protection of a home-place from sale on execution. The home and property rights of married women, widows and orphans, are guaranteed by statute as far as is practicable. A limit has also been fixed to the amount of indebtedness which may be incurred by the people in voting bonds to railroads, or other enterprises in which they may feel a friendly interest, but in aiding which, too generally, so many western communities have burdened themselves and their posterity with debts and taxation that are grevious to be borne.
The laws of Missouri reserve from execution, in the hands of every head of a family living in the country, a homestead, consisting of one hundred and sixty (160) acres of land, not exceeding $1,500 in value; to every head of a family, in cities of over 40,000 inhabitants, a homestead consisting of not more than eighteen square rods of ground, and of a valuation not exceeding $3,000; and in cities and towns of less than 40,000 inhabitants, a homestead, consisting of not more than thirty square rods of ground, and of the value of not more than $1,500. Thus it is seen that a farmer's homestead in Missouri consists of one hundred and sixty acres of land and the improvements thereon, not exceeding in value $1,500; the homestead of the residents of the smaller towns is of the same value; while that allowed to the inhabitants of St. Louis, St. Joseph and Kansas City, where land is more valuable, and the cost of living greater, is fixed at $3,000.
The homestead is in the nature of a lien or charge, in favor of the wife and children, upon certain property of the husband, defined in extent, and limited in value. A declaration of what this property is may be recorded in the office of the recorder of deeds, and notice is thus imparted to all persons having dealings with the owner, that this particular property is not subject to execution, and that they ought not to give credit on the faith of it. The state, under this head, provides that: "Any married woman may file her claim to the tract or lot of land occupied or claimed by her and her husband, or by her, if abandoned by her husband, as a homestead. Said claim shall set forth the tract or lot claimed, that she is the wife of the person in whose name the said tract or lot appears of record, and said claim shall be acknowledged by her before some officer authorized to take proof or acknowledgment of instruments of writing affecting real estate, and be filed in the recorder's office, and it shall be the duty of the recorder to receive and record the same. After the filing of such claims, duly acknowledged, the husband shall be debarred from, and incapable of selling, mortgaging and alienating the homestead in any manner whatever, and such sale, mortgage or alienation is hereby declared null and void; and the filing of any such claims as aforesaid with the recorder shall impart notice to all persons of the contents thereof, and all subsequent purchasers and mortagors shall be deemed, in law and equity, to purchase with notice; provided, however, that nothing herein contained shall be so construed as to prevent the husBand and wife from jointly conveying, mortgaging, alienating, and, in any other manner, disposing of such homestead, or any part thereof."
Such a law, while securing the benefits of a homestead to the debtor, works no injustice to the creditor. He sees that the debtor has certain property recorded as his homestead. He never gives credit on the faith that this property will be subject to his execution; but he looks simply to the other property of the debtor, or to the state of his business and his character for honesty. It may be added that the supreme court of this state has construed the homestead laws liberally, with the view of carrying out the benevolent purposes of the legislature. If the debtor is ignorant or timid, when the sheriff comes with an execution to levy, and fails to claim his right of homestead, his family are not, therefore, to be turned out of doors. The sheriff' must summon appraisers and set the homestead apart, whether the debtor claims it or not; and if he does not do this, his sale will pass no title to the purchaser so far as the debtor's homestead is concerned. If the debtor makes a conveyance of property embracing his family homestead, for the purpose of hindering or defrauding his creditors, this does not work a forfeiture of his homestead right; his wrongful act is not thus to be appealed to in prejudice of his wife and children. If the cruelty of the husband drives the wife from the homestead, this does not put an end to her interest in the homestead. She may return and claim it after his death, and his administrator must set it apart for her.
EXEMPTIONS OF PERSONAL PROPERTY.
Pursuing the same wise and benevolent policy, the statutes provide that the following personal property shall be exempt from attachment and execution when owned by the head of a family: "1. Ten head of choice hogs, ten head of choice sheep, and the product thereof in wool, yarn or cloth; two cows and calves, two plows, one axe, one hoe, and one set of plow gears, and all the necessary farm implements for the use of one man. 2. Two work animals of the value of one hundred and fifty dollars. 3. The spinning-wheel and cards, one loom and apparatus, necessary for manufacturing cloth in a private family. 4. All the spun yarn, thread and cloth manufactured for family use. 5. Any quantity of hemp, flax and wool, not exceeding twenty-five pounds each. 6. All wearing apparel of the family, four beds, with usual bedding, and such other household and kitchen furniture, not exceeding the value of one hundred dollars, as may be necessary for the family, agreeably to an inventory thereof, to be returned, on oath, with the execution, by the officer whose duty it may be to levy the same. 7. The necessary tools and implements of trade of any mechanic while carrying on his trade. 8. Any and all arms and military equipments required by law to be kept. 9. All such provisions as may be on hand for family use, not exceeding one hundred dollars in value. 10. The bibles and other books used in a family, lettered gravestones, and one pew in a house of worship. 11. All lawyers, physicians, ministers of the gospel and teachers, in the actual prosecution of their calling, shall have the privilege of selecting such books as shall be necessary to their profession, in the place of other property herein allowed, at their option; and doctors of medicine, in lieu of other property exempt from execution, mav be allowed to select their medicines." In lieu of this property, each head of a family may, at his election, select and hold exempt from execution any other property, real, personal, or mixed, or debts or wages not exceeding in value the amount of three hundred dollars.
The legislature of the state has wisely considered that the debtor ought