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lying bituminous shale is about four inches thick, and the under clay one foot, making quite a limited space between the roof and floor. An analysis of the coal, by Mr. Chauvenet, gives:

Water 72.11

Volatile 30.30

Fixed carbon 37.30

Ash 9.90

Color of ash gray

The North Missouri mines * * * are at the lower end of Camden. The shaft is sixty feet deep and the platform sixteen feet above the railroad track. From the bottom entries are extended in various directions: 280 yards north, 500 northwest, 190 west, and 100 east. * * The coal, nineteen to twenty-one inches thick, is black, brilliant, with a little clay three inches from the top, and a few knife edges of iron pyrites in the upper part. The lower one inch is shaly, with three inches black under clay resting on fire-clay. The coal is jointed, with calcite plates in the joints. In the bed of the ditch below the railroad, opposite the shaft, are thin beds of limestone, equivalent to No. 23 (three feet shales and thin beds of limestone abounding in Ch. Smithii(}) and containing S-pr. earneratus, Pr. costatus, Hemipronites crassus and Athyris subtilitd) of Lexington section, some of them forming very pretty slabs, covered with fossils, viz: Hemipronites crassus, chonetes, producti, etc. A few feet above it is limestone corresponding to No. 21 of Lexington section; the top of the latter being twenty-one feet below the mouth of the shaft, indicating the position of the coal to be quite low.

SECOND RAY COUNTY MINES.

These mines, about one-quarter of a mile above the north Missouri mines, and also on the railroad, are owned by Thomas Collins. The shaft is fifty feet deep. From the top of the shaft to the railroad track is twenty feet. The driftings extend far into the hill. Intersecting them is a passage for ventilation, which terminates at an air shaft near the main shaft, and seems to give thorough ventilation. Coal measured at various places in these mines was eighteen, twenty-two, twenty-three and twentyfour inches; average, about twenty-three. From one to one and one-half feet of bituminous shales on top, and one to two feet of fire-clay beneath; an average of about four and a half feet between bed-rock and cap-rock. The height of main entry is four feet near its mouth, and farther in, three feet. Cap-rock, seven to eight feet thick. A very fair coke was made from Collins' coal, of which the following is the analysis by Mr. Chauvenet:

Water. 3.25

Volatile 4.85

Fixed Carbon 83.37

Ash 8.50

The shafts at Camden are sunk from a terrace on the hillside. A quarter of a mile above Collins' mines, the Lexington coal is seen, near the grade of the railroad, having risen thirty feet from Collins' shaft. This may explain the fact of more water being in the north Missouri mines than in the second Ray county mines, the water passing between the eastward dipping strata, from the second Ray county to the north Missouri mines.

A little farther west, I observed cropping out in a gully, nine feet nine inches below the railroad, three feet of ash blue limestone, referable to No. 32 (fifteen inches limestone; pyritiferous; color blue; hard; one bed; shelly on top; contains small univalves on the surface,) of Lexington section, and resting on four feet of slate and shale, with six inches of coal below. One hundred and fifty feet west, the coal is five feet above the railroad, and for the next three hundred feet the rise is four feet. A quarter of a mile west of Camden the rocks dip about one in twelve.

Eight hundred and twenty feet farther, a shaft sunk forty feet struck limestone, No. 21 of Lexington section, indicating a dip of fifty-eight feet in eight hundred and twenty feet, or one to fourteen.

SWANWICK SHAFT.

The shaft of Thomas Huyson is eighty-six feet deep to top of coal, of which he furnishes me the following:

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( No. 1—Surface. 46 feet, 1 No. 2~— Shaly sandstone, red, blue and gray. ( No. 3—16 feet of red shales.

f No. 4—6 feet being layers of sandstone separated by soft blue clay.

No. 5—22 feet blue slate. No. 6—4£ feet rock (reported flint). No. 7—3 feet blue clay. No. 8—4 to 5 feet impure limestone. No. 9—2d inches to 2 feet coal. No. 10—6 to 18 inches under clay. No. 11—6 to 8 feet hard limstone. The slate over the coal is almost entirely wanting here; the limestone generally resting directly on the coal, but the under-clay correspondingly thickens— a fortunate provision of nature—as,o therwise there would not be room enough to mine. The section from hill top here is the following: No. 1—5 feet slope.

No. 2—4 feet limestone, weathering brown, and ringing under the hammer; mntains Athyris, Spr. cameralus, chatctes milleporaceus and Crinoid stems.

No. 3—8 feet slope.

No. 4—2 feet of rough, nodular limestone; weathers with a ferruginous crust, and contains many remains of fossils.

No. 5.—124 feet sloping gently to top of shaft.

Around the hill and associated with limestone (probably the same as No. 4), I found amber-colored crystals of heavy spar; also a little iron ore. In the limestone I observed Spr. Kentuckensis and Sfr. lineatus.

Section 178 is seen one mile northwest of Richmond.

No. 1—3 feet bluish-drab, rough looking limestone, weathering drab.

No. 2—8 feet slope.

No. 3—Tumbled masses of fine-grained, dove-colored limestone. No. 4—100 feet. Less than 40 feet below the top abounds soft brown sandstone. At 50 feet are tumbled masses of gray limestone. No. 5—Red shales.

No. 6—About 45 feet to the Lexington coal.

The upper members of the section can be compared with the Swanwick section.

An analysis of the Swan wick coal by Mr. Chauvenet, gives:

Color of ash—light brown, white, nearly white.

The Swanwick coal is remarkable for a large percentage of water. It does not coke well.

Ash-blue limestone, which may be hydraulic, abounds two miles northeast of Richmond, and similar rocks are found at most of the coal banks near Richmond and Camden.

Paint Stuffs.—About fifty feet above the Lexington coal in Lafayette and Ray counties is found about five or six feet of light-red shales streaked with green; and also at Lexington, at several places near Richmond, and on the Missouri bluffs near the east county line of Ray county. The above are pure red ochre clays and will make a good dark-red paint.

At Hughes' mines, near Richmond, sulphuret of zinc occurs in limestone overlying the coal.

The south and east boundary of the upper coal measures is as follows: Entering the state near the southwest part of Cass county, passing eastwardly, near Harrisonville, thence, northeast across the mounds between Big Creek and Camp branch, thence northeast to the middle of township forty-six, range twenty-nine, thence north to Chapel Hill in Lafayette county, thence via Oak Grove and Pink Hill, Jackson county, to Blue Mills or Owens landing on the Missouri river. Crossing the river the line passes down to the vicinity of Albany, Ray county, thence it trends off to the north part of Ray county and the line of Caldwell and Livingstone counties, thence northwardly along the ridge on the west side of

TOP. MIDDLE. BOTTOM.

Water

Volatile

Fixed carbon
Ash

10.00 12.55 11.20

37.85 37.05 38.50

48.30 46.65 46.70

'3.85 5.75 3.60

the east fork of Grand river to the line of Grundy and Mercer counties, and thence northwardly to the Iowa state line.

There are several other coal mines in the county, of which we have been unable to obtain an account. Among them, we mention a new mine of J. S. Hughes & Co. on St. Joseph branch of the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific; and the shaft of J. W. Shotwell & Co., on same railroad, in the suburbs of Richmond, sunk in the fall of 1880.

INCIDENTS.

In one (November) day Holland Vanderpool killed five deer. It was near Crooked river; he dragged them one by one to that stream; made a bark canoe, and floated them home.

In addition to the mortar and pestle, mentioned in another place, corn was reduced to meal by means of a handmill, made by the settlers, as follows: A circular stone was placed on anothee similar stone, except that the latter, called the "bed rock," was smooth. Through a small hole in the center of the upper stone, the corn was dropped, one grain at a time. A lever, four to six feet in length, was inserted into a cavity in the edge of the rock. By means of this lever the stone was turned and the corn ground. The nether mill-stone was stationary.

In the course of time horse power was used for operating the mill; and this was considered a wonderful advance in the matter of making breadstuff.

The mill just described antedates any other in the settlement, and for a long time was the only " null " in use.

Winnat Vanderpool had a pet bear and a pet panther which played in the yard and were fondled by the children.

On the present site of Richmond, one day, in the year 1818, Winant Vanderpool and John Stone killed five bears.

Isaac Martin built the first horse mill; and the first brick house erected in Ray county was built by Jonathan Keeney, at Albany.

Store bills were paid off with wild honey, beeswax, coon, deer, otter and other skins of wild animals. Taxes were paid with fox and wolf scalps.

Soon after Richmond was founded, Billy Bales, a new-comer, went to Richmond and told Charles Morehead, a merchant, that he wanted to buy some honey; and in reply to the question, "What is it worth?" was answered, "Twenty-five cents a gallon." "I'll take all you got," rejoined Bales. He was invited into the cellar, where, on finding 2,000 gallons, he said, "I only want a keg!"

The day after Holland Vanderpool was married, he and his wife rode horseback to Richmond to get their household goods. From a merchant named Slothard they purchased the necessary supply, and started home. Mr. V. carried the table-ware in a bucket, placed on the horse in front of him. When just out of town, the toe of Mr. V.'s horse striking a root, the.animal fell; the rider and the dishes went over his head; the former was bruised; the latter brpken to pieces.

Mr. V. lived in a log hut with one room; the latch-string hung on the outside, and at his hovel

"The richest were poor, and the poorest dwelt in abundance."

People were very neighborly in those days, and visited each other frequently. Visitors and all slept on the floor.

One night Mr. Vanderpool and his wife were alone in their cabin. The former was asleep on the loom bench; the latter busy at her wheel. Mr. V. was suddenly awakened by his wife, who, greatly frightened, said a bear was trying to get into the house; that she had seen its paw through the latch-hole in the door. Mr. V., taking his gun and a butcher-knife in hand, opened the door—to be greeted by a negro woman, who, fleeing from her master, Jere Crowley, sought shelter from the snow storm. The weather was very cold and the snow deep. The woman's clothes were frozen stiff. Mr. Crowley was not the least unkind to the negress; she had a mania for running away.

The pioneer was a hard worker. He had to fell huge trees; clear his land, maul rails, built fences. Wives made their husbands pads of feathers to wear on the shoulders while carrying green rails and heavy timbers.

Sometimes crops were raised without having been fenced; corn, cotton, pumpkins, oats and watermelons were cultivated on the open prairie.

In the year 1822, a man from New England, who was engaged in buying furs, pelts, etc., from citizens of Ray county, for which he exchanged pins and needles, became enamored of a fair, bucolic damsel, living in the vicinity of the present town of Hardin. The Yankee sought and won the maiden's hand and heart. At the appointed time, the nuptial knot was tied by an old man, who was a justice of the peace. After the ceremony, the "coon skin man"—as the peddler was called—paid the justice for his trouble in pins and needles, and the twain, made one, went on their way rejoicing.

Ever afterward, the justice was known as the "pin and needle 'squire."

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