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cealed about his person, with which he stabbed Adams seventeen times, inflicting ghastly wounds and causing his death almost instantly.

The deed was committed in the presence of citizens, whom the homicide kept at bay, flourishing his weapon and threatening violence to any who should dare to approach him. He continued to stab the prostrate and helpless Adams, till a gentleman from the crowd struck him on the back of the neck with a large rock, at which he rose with all the rage of an infuriated demon, and demanded to know who struck him; no one responded. Brandishing his bloody weapon in the air, and uttering oaths and threats, he defied arrest, till the intrepid Alexander Harwood, who carried a sword-cane, stepped in front of him, with weapon drawn, and commanded him to surrender, or be pierced through and through. Then, for the first time, White seemed to realize the enormity of what he had done, and was seized by the passion of fear. Trembling in every muscle, the butcher-knife fell from his nerveless hands, and he quietly submitted to arrest.

White was a shoe maker and lived in Elkhorn; Adams was a farmer, residing in the neighborhood of that village. They had previously had a fight at Elkhorn, and in the breast of each rankled the spirit of revenge.

On the evening of the homicide, both men had been in Richmond throughout the day. Adams, it is said, followed after White, insisting that they should "fight it out," while the latter, professing a desire to avoid further difficulty, but really, it was believed, watching an opportunity to gain an advantage, told his pursuer to keep away from him, as he did not wish to "fight."

White was tried, condemned and hanged; and this was the last legal execution in Ray county.

James Robinson was killed in the streets of Richmond about the year 1844, by one William Balser. A quarrel arose in a crowd near where the Wasson House now stands, in which a rough, named Tanner, was the most conspicuous participant. He was, however, a notorious coward, and upon his refusal to fight, when a braver man than he, at last, offered him battle, the crowd gathered around and began jeering him; he then retreated, followed by the party, among whom were James Robinson and William Balser, the former preceding the latter in the pursuit. Balser, for what, or whether for any provocation is unknown, struck Robinson about the back of the head or neck, either with his fist or open hand; whereupon the latter turned upon his assailant, and, stabbing him but once in the abdomen, with a pocket-knife, inflicted a wound, which, in the course of the ensuing night, proved fatal. For this act, Robinson was sent to the penitentiary for ten years.

About the year 1855, a man named Wingo was a wagon-maker in Richmond. Richard Allen, a worthy and respected farmer, who resided a few miles southeast of Richmond, was one day riding by the shop of Wingo, when the latter, with a double-barrelled shot-gun in his hand, stepped in the street in front of Allen and caused him to halt. Wingo told Allen he had been talking about him (Wingo)—slandering him—and commanded him to recant; but the latter denied the accusation, and Wingo discharged the contents of one barrel of his gun into the head of the defenseless Allen, making a horrible wound, of which he soon died. Wingo started to run, but had gone only a short distance when he was apprehended by a crowd of pursuing citizens. He was taken to jail, and confined till Judge Dunn called a special term of the circuit court for the purpose of trying him. On being brought into court, he was asked if he was ready for trial; he replied that he was not, and also refused to have any counsel, protesting that he needed none. The sheriff then started to return him to jail, and upon reaching the outer steps, was overpowered by a number of citizens, who, forcibly taking Wingo from him, threw a rope around his neck, and dragged him (part of the way over a newly macadamized street) on his face and hands, to a place a few hundred yards north of Colonel Child's present residence. There he was hanged by the neck to the limb of a tree. It was thought by some, however, that life was extinct before he was hung up.

Wingo's body remained dangling in the air till the next morning, when it was taken down and buried. He was a very quarrelsome, desperate, and dangerous man, and the community was well rid of him.

In connection with Wingo's seizure by the citizens, the following ludicrous incident occurred:

Old man Woolard was a man whom everybody liked, though he had been somewhat wicked, but he had recently joined the Presbyterian Church, and his friends observed, with much satisfaction, that he had completely reformed. Wingo was to Mr. Woolard a source of great annoyance, having frequently threatened his life, and otherwise caused him considerable trepidation; in fact, kept him in constant dread. Coming up just as the party were in the act of dragging the culprit from the court house yard, the old man exclaimed in a loud but trembling voice: "Boys, if I must swear, hang him, him, hang him /"

VERY UNGENTLEMANLY.

The first steamboat ascended the Missouri river as far as Council Bluffs, in September, 1819.

A crowd of curious countrymen, from various parts of our county, gathered at Old Bluffton, on a Sunday afternoon, to see the boat pass. Their horses were hitched near the river to limbs of trees and saplings. In due time the boat came along and paused at Old Bluffton. When ready to start, the captain caused the whistle to be blown, at which every horse took fright, broke loose, and ran away. One irate old gentleman, whose bridle was broken to pieces, angrily exclaimed: "The captain of that boat is no gentleman! He's no gentleman! He's a grand scoundrel! There goes my critter with a brand new bridle that cost me two-andthre'pence! He's no gentleman; if he had of been, he'd a called out to the people: 'Take care ot your critters, men, take care of your critters! I'm about to blow my whistle!'"

"WHERE IGNORANCE IS BLISS, has FOLLY TO BE WISE."

The dearborn, a vehicle no longer known by that name, was a kind of light, four-wheeled carriage, generally covered with white canvas, and much used by emigrants at an early day; but there lived on "timber ridge," in this county, a pioneer family, none of whom had ever seen a dearborn, nor a ship either, though the mother fancied she knew how the latter looked, and described it to her daughter, a maiden in her teens. One day a dearborn, covered as above, came in sight of the girl who was in the yard, whereupon she ran into the house, exclaiming, "Oh, mother, mother, there's a shit! it's a comin' right here! it's a ship! it's a ship! look mother, it's a ship!"

VERY LIKELY.

Mr. James Hughes, a worthy and prominent citizen of Richmond, on one occasion, at an early day, was traveling across the county, probably on an errand of business, or, it may be of pleasure; at any rate, he desired to ascertain the hour, and for that purpose called at the house of a lady, who he happened to know had recently purchased a clock from a well-known peddler, at that time canvassing the county. Riding up to the fence, Mr. H. politely inquired—"What time is it madam?" Looking at the brand new clock, the lady quickly responded—"Well, I don't know 'xactly, mister, but it's some whar 'twixt the " striking."

STATISTICAL.

At the January term, 1822, of the county court, John Harris, sheriff of Ray county, settled with the court as follows:

Dr. Cr.

To amount of fine imposed on Love Snowden by circuit

court at its October term, 1821 .$10.00 $

By amount of his account rendered 13.15

Balance in favor of sheriff, $ 3.15

Amount of county tax collected in 1822, by John Scott, collector, $52.88 William Downey, for assessing the county of Ray in 1823,

received $36.00 Amount of state and county revenue collected in Ray county, for

the year 1823 .$120.05

County tax collected for the year 1827... $172.00

November, 1829, William S. Miller, for erecting jail in town of

Richmond, received $378.00

Tax collected in Ray county for the year 1828 $276.30

State and county tax collected in Ray county, for the year 1833.$708.05£

Amount paid for erecting brick court house, in the town of

Richmond, in 1833, $3,350.00

WEALTH.

Valuation of the county per census of 1870 $10,000,000.00

Taxation, 1876—total tax $1.30 per $100.

Taxation, 90 cents per $100; school tax, 40 cents per $100.

INDEBTEDNESS.

Railroad debt $200,000.00

Interest on railroad debt 48,288.00

Bonded debt, exclusive of railroad debt 23,101.38

RAIRLOADS.

Twenty-five miles of track of the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific railroad passes through the southern part of the county, traversing southeast part of township fifty-two, and northwest corner of township fifty-one, range twenty-six; and township fifty-one, of ranges twenty-seven, twentyeight and twenty-nine.

Twenty-eight miles of track of the St. Joseph branch of the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific railroad, passes diagonally across the county, from southeast to northwest, traversing townships fifty-one, fifty-two and fiftythree, of ranges twenty-seven, twenty-eight and twenty-nine.

LIVE STOCK.

, The number of live-stock in Ray county, in 1876, according to the state

census of that year was:

Horses 7,893

Mules 3,018

Jacks , 45

Jennets 67

Cattle 16,400

Sheep ,... .11,103

Hogs 43,935 PRODUCTS.

1876—Bushels of wheat 166,339

Bushels of corn • .2,164,366

Bushels of oats 40,430

Bushels of barley 1,293

Bushels of rye 28,802

Pounds of tobacco 520,896

Pounds of wool :24,856

Pounds of sugar 3,715

Tons of hay 16,913

Tons of hemp 13*

Gallons of whisky J 100

Gallons of wine 300

Gallons of molasses 46,354

ABSTRACT OF ASSESSMENT RETURNS

of Ray county, for the year 1878, of 1879 taxes, as fixed by state board of equalization:

Lands

Number of acres 354,683

Valuation $2,632,436

Average per acre 7.42

Town Lots

Number 3,450

Valuation $ 261,850

Average value per acre 75.89

Total value of real estate 2,894,276

Live Stock

Horses 8,389

Valuation $ 268,987

Mules 3,836

Valuation l $ 147,033

Asses and jennets 5,609

Valuation $ 5,609

Neat cattle 22,098

Valuation $ 276,886

Sheep 1*,217

Valuation $ 16,565

Hogs 58,278

Valuation $ 101,974

All other live stock

Valuation $ 233

Financial

Money, bonds and notes $ 620,291

Brokers and exchange dealers 10,000

Corporate companies 12,964

All other personal property 350,790

Total personal property 1,811,332

Total taxable wealth 4,715,608

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