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the key to southwestern Missouri and northern Arkansas, where Price and McCulloch were operating.

November 2.—Fremont was removed from command and Gen. Hunter placed in his stead.

November 2.—A sharp fight occurred on Bee Creek, between Weston and Platte City, in Platte county; the Confederate loss is given as 13 killed and 30 missing; Federal loss not known.

November 7.—Gen. Hunter evacuated Springfield and fell back to Rolla. This same day the battle of Belmont occurred; Federal loss, 84 killed, 388 wounded, and 285 taken prisoners. Pollard's "Southern History" says the Confederate loss in this battle was 632. But the National HandBook reports the Confederate losses as 261 killed, 427 wounded, and 278 missing.

November 18.—Gen. H. W. Halleck arrived at St. Louis and took command, in place of Gen. Hunter.

November 21.—Gen.Halleck issued an order that no fugitive slaves should be permitted to enter the lines of any camp, nor of any forces on the march. (President Lincoln had some time before this annulled Gen. Fremont's order declaring certain slaves free.)

November 27.— Gen. J. M. Schofield placed in command of Missouri Federal troops.

November and December.—During these months there occurred several irregular conflicts of no great importance, but still deemed worthy of casual mention in Horace Greely's History of the War, because they served to show how the Missouri people were divided among themselves, and thereby suffered the more. The village of Warsaw was burned Nov. 19, and Platte City, Dec. 16, by guerillas; a small fight occurred at Salem, Dec. 3, at Rogers' mill Dec. 7, and at or near Glasgow, Potosi, Lexington, Mount Zion, and Sturgeon, on Dec. 28th.

December j.—Col. Freeman with a regiment of Confederate cavalry, made a night attack on Federal troops under Col. Bowen, near Salem, in Dent county, and was defeated, with a loss of 16 killed, 20 wounded and 10 prisoners. Federal loss, 3 killed, 8 wounded, 2 missing. Col. Freeman had suffered a sore defeat near Springer's mill, in the east part of the county, in August; but no further particulars could be obtained.

December 15.—Gen. Pope captured 300 recruits and 70 wagons loaded with supplies, going from Lexington to join Gen. Price, who was then at Osceola with 8,000 men.

December 18.—Col. J. C. Davis, of Pope's army, surprised a Confederate camp at Milford, and captured 3 colonels, 17 captains, 1,300 soldiers, 1,000 stand of arms, 1,000 horses, besides all their tents, baggage and supplies. Federal loss, 2 killed, 17 wounded.

December 20.—By a concerted night attack, the Hannibal & St. Joe railroad was broken, and bridges destroyed for about a hundred miles.'

OPERATIONS IN 1862.

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March j.—Price and McCulloch/at Boston Mountain, Arkansas, were joined by Maj. Gen. Van Dorn, Confederate commander of the TransMississippi department, and by Gen. Pike, with a brigade of Indians from the Indian Territory. This army now numbered about 20,000, all under Gen. Van Dorn.

March y-8.—Battle of Pea Ridge. Although Pea Ridge is really in Arkansas (just over the line), the battle was fought by the Confederates to regain a foothold in Missouri, and it properly belongs to the history of Missouri military operations. The Federal forces under Gen. Curtis engaged in this battle were 10,500 men and 49 cannon. Gen. Van Dorn's army is variously given by different southern authorities, all the way from 16,000 to 30,000. The Federal loss was 203 killed, 972 wounded, 176 missing. Count Paris' history states that the Confederates "left more than one thousand men in killed and wounded upon that long-contested battle-field." The Confederate Generals McCulloch and McIntosh were mortally wounded in this battle, and Gen. Buckner was captured. The Confederates lost 1,100 killed, 2,500 wounded, and 1,600 taken prisoners.

August 6.—Battle of Kirksville. Col. Porter, with 2,000 or 3,000 Confederates, mostly raw recruits who had been destroying bridges, was attacked by Col. McNeil with 1,000 cavalry and 6 cannon. Battle lasted four hours. Confederates retreated, with loss of 180 killed and 500 wounded, and some wagon loads of arms and other supplies. Federal loss, 28 killed and 60 wounded.

August 1o.—Federals attacked 1,200 Confederates under Col. Poindexter while crossing the Chariton river. After a running fight of three or four days, Col. Poindexter's troops were all killed, captured or dispersed, and himself taken prisoner.

August Ii.—Col. Hughes captured the Federal garrison of 312 men of the 7th Missouri cavalry, stationed at Independence.

August Ij.—Battle of Lone Jack, in Jackson county. Col. Coffey and Col. Hughes, with 4,500 men, attacked the Federals under Major Foster, wounding him, capturing his two cannon, and compelling him to retreat to Lexington. The victorious Confederates were in turn pursued by

"By order of Gen. Sterling Price, it [the North Missouri Railroad] was partially destroyed in June and July, 18(51; and on the 20th of December. 1861, for a hundred miles, every bridge and culvert was broken down, and a perfect wreck made of everything that could be destroyed. In September and October, 1864, two trains of cars and seven depots were burned, and several engines injured."—Annual Report State Commissioner of Statistics, 1866; p. 258.

stronger bodies of the National troops, and rapidly retreated toward Arkansas.

September 24..—Gen. Curtis placed in command of all Union troops in Missouri.

October 1.—Battle of Newtonia, in Newton county. Gen. Salomon, of Wisconsin, was defeated by Confederate cavalry. Losses not known. Gen. Hindman was advancing from Arkansas with 13,000 to 20,000 Confederates, poorly armed. Gen. Schofield came up with 10,000 troops to attack him at Newtonia, but he retreated back into Arkansas, closely pursued by the Federals.

December 7.—Battle of Prairie Grove, Ark. This, being just over the line, was practically a Missouri battle; it was fought between the same armies which had been so long contending for the mastery in this state. Our own state Generals, Marmaduke, Parsons and Frost, were in command, under Gen. Hindman. The Federal commanders were Generals Blunt and Herron. Federal loss, 495 killed, 600 wounded; the Confederates lost 1,500 in killed and wounded, and suffered a defeat.

Events In 1863.

"January 8.—Battle of Springfield. General Brown with 1,200 Missouri State militia, was attacked by Gen. Marmaduke with 1,870 Confederate troops. The battle lasted eight hours. Federal loss, 14 killed, 145 wounded, 5 missing. Confederates lost, 41 killed and 160 wounded, 80 of the latter being left as prisoners.

January 11.—Battle of Hartsville. Firing commenced at 11a. M., and continued until 4:30 P. M. Confederates under Generals Marmaduke and Porter lost 300 killed and wounded, and 29 taken prisoners. Among the killed were Gen. McDonald and Col. Porter, besides six other officers. The Federals were under Col. Samuel Merrill, (afterward Governor of Iowa), and lost 7 killed, 64 wounded and 7 missing. The Confederates retreated back into Arkansas.

March 28.—Steamboat "Sam. Gaty" captured by Confederates at Sibley's landing, near Independence.

April 26.—The Federal garrison at Cape Girardeau under Gen. McNeil was attacked by Gen. Marmaduke with 10,000 men, and a battle of five hours ensued, in which the assailants lost 60 killed and over 300 wounded. They retreated back into Arkansas, being pursued to the state line by Missouri militia, and a few more were killed or captured.

May Ij.—Gen. Schofield was placed in command in Missouri, succeeding Gen. Curtis.

August 13.—Col. Coffey, Confederate, attacked the 6th Missouri cavalry under Col. Catherwood, at Pineville, in McDonald county, and was repulsed, with loss of 200 killed, wounded and prisoners, besides his wagons, munitions and cattle.

October zj.—Battle near Arrow Rock, Saline county. Confederates reported 2,500 in number, under Cols. Shelby and Coffey, were attacked by Missouri state militia under Gen. E. B. Brown, and defeated with a loss of 300 in killed, wounded and prisoners, besides all their artillery and baggage. Fight lasted five hours. Federal loss not known, though reported as "also large."

Events In 1864.

January 28.—Gen. Rosecrans arrived at St. Louis and took command of the Department of Missouri.

June —.The Belgian Consul, who was state commander of the secret order of "American Knights," or "Sons of Liberty, " was arrested, with forty of the most prominent members, and held as hostages, because proof had been discovered that they were plotting against the Federal authorities.

September 26.—Gen. Price, with 10,000 men, attacked the Federal garrison at Ironton (near Pilot Knob), in command of Gen. Thomas Ewing, Jr., with 1,200 men. After a day's hard fighting the Federals spiked their fort guns and retreated in the night to Rolla, having lost 200 killed and wounded. The Confederates lost 1,500.

October 7.—Battle or skirmish of Moreau creek, in Cole county, which Gen. Price crossed, and formed his army in line of battle about four miles long around Jefferson City. But finding the Federal garrison intrenched, he marched on west without attacking them. (The Federals had 6,700 men there).

October 22.—Gen. Pleasanton's Federal cavalry defeated Col. Fagan at Independence, capturing two cannon.

October 23.—Battle on the Big Blue creek, in Jackson county, lasting from 7 A. m till 1 P. M. Confederates retreated southward.

October 25.—Battle on little Osage Creek in Vernon county. Gen. Price was defeated, the Federals under Gen. Pleasonton capturing eight cannon, and Generals Marmaduke and Cabell, besides five colonels and 1,000 men, with all equipments, supplies, etc. The fighting had been almost continuous by some part of the troops, all along the march from Independence to the Little Osage; and reports at this point give the Federal loss at 1,000 killed and wounded, and about 2,000 taken prisoners; Confederate loss, 900 killed, 3,800 wounded and prisoners, and ten cannon captured from them.

October 28.—Gen. Price again made a stand at Newtonia, in Newton county, and had a sharp fight with the Federals under Gens. Blunt and Sanborn, bit was defeated and escaped into Arkansas. And this was the last encounter that can be called a "battle" within the bounds of our state. The numbers engaged on either side, and their losses in this last fight are not reported.

MEN AND MONEY FOR THE WAR

Under President Lincoln's first call, April 15, 1861, for 75,000 volunteers, Missouri furnished 10,501 men; and she furnished a total of 108,773 Federal or Union soldiers during the war. The total number of citizens of Missouri who took up arms on the Confederate side cannot be ascertained.

During the war the state issued its indebtedness called "Defense Warrants" and "Union Military Bonds," for equipping and maintaining the militia organizations of the state; the total amount was $7,876,575. All of the defense warrants and one-half of the Union military bonds were made receivable for state taxes; and a special fund was created for the redemption of the balance. The United States paid to the state of Missouri a total of $6,440,323.95, to reimburse her for military expenses incurred.

ST. LOUIS IN THE WAR-TIME.

Notwithstanding the strenuous competition of other cities, the superior advantages of St. Louis for distribution, and a due regard for its own interests, compelled the government to make St. Louis the western base of supplies and transportation. During the war the transactions of the government at this point were very large. Gen. Parsons, chief of transportation in the Mississippi Valley, submits the following as an approximate summary of the operations in his department from 1860 to 1865:

AMOUNT OF TRANSPORTATION.

Cannons and caissons 800

Wagons 13,000

Cattle ' 80,000

Horses and mules 250,000

Troops 1,000,000

Pounds of military stores 1,950,000,000

Gen. Parsons thinks that full one-half of all the transportation employed by the government on the Mississippi and its tributaries was furnished by St. Louis. From September, 1861, to December 31,1865, Gen. Haines, chief commissary of this department, expended at St. Louis for the purchase of subsistence stores, $50,700,000. And Gen. Myers, chief quartermaster of the department, disbursed for supplies, transportation, and incidental expenses, $180,000,000. 4

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