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As a part of the war history of Missouri, the military hospitals of St. Louis claim at least a brief mention. After the battle of Wilson's Creek it became apparent that the government provision for hospitals was entirely inadequate to the emergency. A voluntary organization, called the Western Sanitary Commission, was formed, consisting of James E. Yeatman (now of the Merchant's National Bank), Rev. Wm. G. Eliot, D. D., (now Chancellor of Washington University), George Partridge, (recently Vice President of Trustees of State Blind Asylum), Carlos S. Greeley and John B. Johnson. Their purpose was to receive and distribute hospital supplies furnished by the people, and in every practicable way aid and co-operate with the military authorities in the care of the sick and wounded. The first woman regularly mustered into the United States service as a hospital nurse, in Missouri, was Mrs. F. R. H. Reid, M. D., from Wisconsin, (now resides at Des Moines, Iowa). She was the woman coadjutor of U. S. Surgeon, Dr. Mills, in opening and starting the. first large volunteer hospital, which was known as the Chestnut street hospital; and afterward she took the same part in the Fourth street hospital; and also with Dr. Melchior in the Marine hospital; also in a temporary post hospital at Sulphur Springs.
To give an idea of the largeness of the hospital work, we quote from a circular printed at St. Louis, Nov. 22, 1861,* which says: "There are ten military hospitals in St. Louis alone, with a maximum capacity for 3,500 patients. The number of patients varies every day, but on Wednesday, November 20th, they reported patients under treatment as follows:
House of Refuge hospital, (Sisters of Charity nurses]! 475
Fifth and Chestnut streets hospital, 464
Good Samaritan hospital, (for measles,] 173
Fourth street hospital, 328
Jefferson barracks hospital 72
Arsenal hospital, 16
Camp Benton hospital, 106
Pacific hospital, [depot for the hospital cars] 30
Duncan's Island hospital, [for small-pox: cases all convalescent,] 4
Convalescent barracks, [known as Camp Benton,] 800
"(This does not include the company, regiment and brigade hospitals, of which there are several.) The average mortality has been about four per cent. A hospital car, properly fitted up and manned, passes daily over the railroad to the interior, to bring in the sick and wounded. The arrangements for decent burial, registration of deaths, identification, etc.,
* Prepared and published by H. A. Reid, Associate Member for Wisconsin of the "O. S. Sanitary Commission.
are very complete. The body of any soldier who may die in any of the hospitals may be identified, and removed for other obsequies or burial by relatives or friends. There are no hospital chaplains; but nurses are instructed by the sanitary commission, that every patient who asks for it, will be visited by a clergyman of his own choice, at any hour."
There were hospitals also at Jefferson City, Rolla and Ironton at this time. This circular contained a classified list, prepared by Mrs. Reid, of over a hundred different articles needed for the care, comfort and welfare of the soldiers in hospital, beyond what the general government could furnish; the whole document was reprinted by state authority at Madison, Wisconsin, and widely circulated. In a letter dated St. Louis, Jan. 14, 1862, Mr. Yeatman said: "Wisconsin has contributed most largely towards supplying comforts for the sick in camps and hospitals in this department, second to but one other state—Massachusetts."
There was a prison hospital for sick Confederate prisoners, to whom supplies were furnished from the stores of the sanitary commission, the same as to the Union soldiers; and wounded Confederates were cared for in the general hospitals the same as those of the Federal troops. The writer hereof was an eye-witness to this fact; and is glad to record it as a testimony of the true Christian spirit of the sanitary commission and the magnanimity of the Federal authorities.
THE WAR-TIME STATE GOVERNMENT.
The civil authority of the state remained vested in the state convention from July, 1861, until July, 1863. This provisional body held the following sessions:
1861—Jefferson City, February 28 to March 4. St. Louis, March 6 to March 22. Jefferson City, July 22 to July 81.
St. Louis, October 10 to October 18.
1862—Jefferson City, June 2 to June 14.
1863— Jefferson City, June 15 to July 1, when it adjourned sine die. The course of affairs had now become so far settled and pacified that
civil proceedings were again possible, and the regular fall elections were held this year, 1863. On the 13th of February, 1864, the general assembly convened, and passed an act to authorize the election of sixty-six members to a state convention, "to consider such amendments to the constitution of the state as might by it be deemed necessary for the emancipation of slaves;'' to preserve in purity the elective franchise to loyal citizens, and for the promotion of the public good."
This convention met in St. Louis, January 6, 1865; and on the 11th of
* President Lincoln's emancipation proclamation, January 1,1863. only applied to slaves within such states or parts of states as were then controlled by the Confederate power.
the same month it passed, by a vote of sixty ayes to four noes, an ordinance emancipating all slaves within the state, and providing that it should take effect immediately. The convention also framed a new constitution, in many respects quite different from the old one. The final vote in convention on the new instrument stood thirty-eight for, to thirteen against it. The convention adjourned April 10, sine die. In June the people voted on the new constitution, and the vote stood 43,670 for, to 41,808 against it.
The following are some of the most notable new features embodied in the organic law of the state, and will readily explain why there was such a large vote against its adoption: It established an oath of loyalty to the United States; and those who would not take the oath it excluded from the right to vote or hold any civil office whatever, or act as a teacher in any public school, or to solemnize marriage as a clergyman, or to practice law in any of the courts. It limited the amount of land which any church or religious society might hold to five acres of land in the country, or one acre in town or city; provided for taxing church property; and declared void any will bequeathing property to any clergyman, religious teacher or religious society as such. There was a section designed to prevent the state from giving public property, lands or bonds, to railroad companies. It provided that after January 1, 1876, no one could become a lawful voter who was not sufficiently educated to be able to read and write.
July 1, 1865, the governor, Thomas C. Fletcher, made proclamation that the new constitution had been duly ratified by a lawful majority of the people, and was thenceforth the organic law of the state. A few amendments have been since adopted; but in all important points it remains the same to this day.
PART IL--- PHYSICAL AND INDUSTRIAL.
GEOLOGY AND MINERALS.
The geological history of Missouri commences at the very bottom of the scale, or, in what may be termed the fire-crust period of geologic time. (See chart on page 67). Dana's "Manual of Geology" is the great standard work all over the United States on this subject. In his chapter on Archaean Time he gives a map and brief sketch of our North American continent as it existed at that remote period, which was, according to a calculation made for the Royal Society of London in 1879,* about 600,000,000 years ago. And as this is where Missouri first comes to light, we quote Prof. Dana's account of the very meagre areas and points of our continent which stood alone above the primeval ocean that then enveloped the entire globe with its bubbling, seething, sputtering wavelets—an enormous caldron of boiling, steaming silicioUs lye, rather than water. Dana says: j
"The principal of the areas is The Great JVorthern, nucleal to the continent, lying mostly in British America, and having the shape of the letter V, one arm reaching northeastward to Labrador, and the other northwestward from Lake Superior to the Arctic. The region appears to have been for the most part out of water ever since the Archaean era.f To this area properly belong the Adirondack area, covering the larger part of northern New York, and a Michigan area south of Lake Superior, each of which was probably an island in the continental sea before the Silurian age began.
"Beside this nucleal area, there are border-mountain lines of Archaean rocks: a long Appalachian line, including the Highland Ridge of Dutchess county, New York, and New Jersey, and the Blue Ridge of Pennsylvania and Virginia; -a long Rocky Mountain series, embracing the Wind River mountains, the Laramie range and other summit ridges of the Rocky Mountains. In addition, in the eastern border region, there is an Atlantic coast range, consisting of areas in New Foundland, Nova Scotia and eastern New England. In the western border region, a Pacific coast range in Mexico; and several more or less isolated areas in the Mississippi basin, west of the Mississippi, as in Missouri, Arkansas, Texas, and the Black Hills of Dakota."—Dana's Manual, p. 150.
*See Popular Science Monthly, May, 1879, p. 137.
fThe "Archaean era," as used by Prof. Dana, in 1874, (the date of his latest revision) included both the "Azoic Age," and "Age of Zooliths," as shown on the chart, p. 67. When Prof. Dana wrote, it was still an open question whether the "eozoon" was of animal or mineral origin; but the highest authorities are now agreed that it was animal; and Prof. Reid has, therefore, very properly given it a distinct place in his "Zoic Calendar."
AGE OF ANGELS.
Including the Rock Scale of Geological Periods and the "Zoic Calendar of Creation." Compiled from the works of Agassiz, Lyell, Huxley, Haeckel, Dana, LoConte, and other first rank authorities In Science at the present time. By Hiram A. It Bid, Secretary State Academy of Sciences at Des Moines, Iowa [Published by permission of the Author.]
i TO jj READ FROM THE BOTTOM UPWARD.
Explanation. — The side line at the left shows what portions of geological time are comprehended in the terms "eozolc," "paleozoic," etc. The first column shows the periods or ,lA?es'< of geological time during which the different successive types of animal life predominated, or were the highest types then in existence. And these two divisions form the "Zoic Calendar of Creation.''
The second column shows the great general groupings of rock strata,in which are found the fossil remains of the corresponding animal types named in the first column. But, at tne "Age of Reptiles" occurs a grand divergent, for it was during this age that animal life pushed out into its most wonderful developments; and there came into existence strange and marvelous forms of swimming reptiles, four-footed and two-footed walking reptiles, and two-footed and four-footed flying reptiles
Here also the true birds began to appear, though with reptilian peculiarities; and likewise the marsupial animals, which are a transitional type, between reptiles that produce their yOUg by laying eggs and the true mammals, that bring forth their young well matured and then suckle them.
The third column shows the lesser groupings of rock beds as classified by our American geologists; bat many minor subdivisions and local groups are omitted for want of space. At the top of this column are shown the geological periods of first appearance of races of man. so far as now aulbenttcated by competent scientific authorities.*
The fourth column shows the number of feet in thickness of the different groups of rock layers as indicated oy the braces.
This Chart is the most comprehensive and thorough in its details, and yet the most systematiccally and graphically presented to the eye, of anything in its line that has ever yet been published. Here is the whole story of geology and the ascent of life condensed into the space of a few inches, yet so plainly set forth as to readily fix itself in the memory like an outline map. Scientific terms in newspapers and magazines often catch the reader at a disadvantage: but a reference to this chart will at once show the relative place or period in creational progress to which the best authorized geological terms apply. Ii reaches, like a Jacob's ladder, from the lowest inklings to the highest ideals of life on the earth, as taught by modern science and the Christian Bible.
800 to 000
6,000 to 10,000