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found in paying quantity as yet, although they are known to exist in some of our mining districts, in combinations with other minerals. Our state board of immigration has published many well prepared and judicious papers on the various advantages and resources of our state, which carefully avoid making any extravagant or overdrawn statements. They give the real facts as accurately as they could be ascertained up to 187980, and form the most reliable body of knowledge on many matters of state interest, that is now accessible; and from this source we gather the more essential points.

Coal.—The Missouri coal fields underlie an area of about 26,000 square miles. The southern outcrop of the coal measures has been traced from the mouth of the Des Moines through the counties of Clark, Lewis, Shelby, Monroe, Audrain, Boone, Cooper, Pettis, Henry, St. Clair, Bates, Vernon and Barton, into the Indian Territory, and every county northwest of this line is known to contain more or less coal. Outside of the coal fields given above, coal rocks also exist in Ralls, Montgomery, Warren, St. Charles, Callaway and St. Louis counties, and local or outlying deposits of bituminous and cannel coal are found in Moniteau, Cole, Morgan, Crawford, Lincoln and Callaway counties.

The exposed coal in Missouri includes upper, middle and lower coal measures. The upper coal measures contain about four feet of coal, in two seams of about one foot each and other thin seams and streaks. The area of their exposure is about 8,400 square miles.

The middle coal measures contain about seven feet of coal, including two workable seams, twenty-one and twenty-four inches thick, respectively, and one of one foot, which is worked under favorable circumstances, and six thin seams. The exposure of the middle measures covers an area of over 2,000 square miles.

The lower measures cover an area of about 15,000 square miles, and have five workable seams, varying in thickness from eighteen inches to four and a half feet, and thin seams of «ix to eleven inches.

Iron.—It has been said by experts that Missouri has iron enough "to run a hundred furnaces for a thousand years;" and the ores are of every variety known to metallurgical science. Iron Mountain is the largest body of specular iron and the purest mass of ore in the world. It was forced up through the crust of the earth in a molten state during the Azoic Age of geology. The different ores of the state are classed as red hematite, red oxide, specular or glittering ore, brown hematite or limonite, hydrous oxide, magnetic ore, and spathic or spar-like ore (carbonate of iron). Many other names are usqd to indicate different combinations of iron with other minerals. Some of the iron deposits, instead of coming up in a fused mass from the bowels of the earth, as Pilot Knob, Shepherd Mountain and Iron Mountain evidently did, were formed by the steam that attended those fiery upheavals, carrying its load of gaseous matter until it condensed and settled down at different points, and gradually cooled or crystalized. This would occur sometimes in water and sometimes in the air, thus producing the great variety of ferruginous or irony compositions which we now find and utilize. And this mineral steam method of depositing iron and other products from subterranean gases must have occurred in Missouri at different periods of geologic time, and not all during the Azoic. The red ores are found in 21 counties; the brown hematite or limonite iron ores extend over 94 counties, and in 31 of them it occurs, in vast quantity.

Shepherd Mountain is 660 feet high. The ore, which is magnetic and specular, contains a large percentage of pure iron. The hight of Pilot Knob above the Mississippi river is 1,118 feet. Its base, 581 feet from the summit, is 360 acres. The iron is known to extend 440 feet below the surface. The upper section of 141 feet is judged to contain 14,000,000 tons of ore. The elevation of Iron Mountain is 228 feet, and the area of its base 500 acres. The solid contents of the cone are 230,000,000 tons. It is thought that every foot beneath the surface will yield 3,000,000 tons of ore. At the depth of 180 feet, an artesian auger is still penetrating solid ore. Dr. Litton thinks that these mountains contain enough iron above the surface to afford for two hundred years an annual supply of 1,000,000 tons. The ore is almost exclusively specular. It yields 56 per cent, of pure iron. The iron is strong, tough and fibrous.

Profs. Schmidt and Pumpelly, in their very learned work on the iron ores of Michigan and Missouri, have classified the iron-bearing region of our state as follows:

Eastern Ore-Region.—1. Ore-district along the Mississippi river. 2. Iron Mountain district. 3. Southeastern limonite district. 4. Franklin county district. 5. Scotia district.

Central Ore-Region.—1. Steelville district. 2. Ore-district on the upper Meramec and its' tributaries. 3. Salem district. 4. Iron Ridge district. 5. St. James district. 6. Rolla district. 7. Middle Gasconade district. 8. Lower Gasconade district. 9. Callaway county district.

Western Ore-Region.—1. Lower Osage district. 2. Middle Osage district. 3. Upper Osage district.

Southwestern Ore-Region.—1. White River district. 2. Ozark county district.

The same authorities have classified the various kinds of iron ores found in Missouri, thus:

Strata of red hematite.

Disturbed or drifted deposits of red

hematite. Deposits of limonite on limestone. Disturbed or drifted deposits of

limonite.

Deposits of specular ore in porphyry.

Deposits of specular ore in sand-
stone.

Disturbed deposits of specular ore.
Drifted deposits of specular ore.

Lead.—The annual lead product of Missouri is said now to exceed that of any other state or country; and it is conceded that its lead deposits are the richest in the world. The lead region all lies south of the Missouri river; the mineral is found chiefly in the magnesian limestone rocks, which are the great lead-bearing rocks of the world; but it is also found in ferruginous clays, in slates, in gravel beds, and in cherty masses in the clays.

Mr. R. O. Thompson, mining engineer, of St. Louis, has written a sketch of the mode of origin of our lead and some other mineral deposits, which is plain, concise, and a clear statement of the teachings of science on this very interesting portion of Missouri's geological and mineralogical history. We quote:

"The Azoic rocks in this region, when the great Silurian system began to be formed, were so many islands, their heads only elevated above the vast sedimentary sea. The beds upon which the limestones and sandstones were deposited consisted of the weatherings of the Azoic rocks, which naturally sought the valleys and became a base for the sedimentary rock. This boundless sea held in solution lime, magnesia, alumina, manganese, lead, copper, cobalt, nickel, iron, and other mineral substances. In this chemical condition gases were evolved and the work of formation commenced. The two gases forming the great creative power, and aiding solidification, were carbonic acid and sulphuretted hydrogen; the former seeking its affinity in lime and forming limestone; the sulphur in the latter naturally combining with the other metals, forming sulphates, or sulphurets. The work of deposition and solidification being in harmony, it is easy to understand how those minerals exist in a disseminated condition in these rocks. The slates that we find so rich in galena, presenting the myriad forms of lingula, must also have been formed in the Silurian Age. The distribution among the magnesian limestones of these decomposing slates can be most easily accounted for. The decomposed feldspar produced by the weathering of the porphyry became in its change a silicate of alumina, and the sulphur, combining with the lead, disseminated the same in the slate as readily as in the limestone."

The Missouri lead region has been divided or classified into five subdistricts, as follows:

I. The Southeastern Lead District, embraces all or parts of Jefferson, Washington, Franklin, Crawford, Iron, St. Francois, St. Genevieve, Madison, Wayne, Reynolds, and Carter counties, with some mines in the western portion of Cape Girardeau county. Mining has been longest carried on in this district, and the aggregate of the production has been very great, although the work has been chiefly surface mining. MineLa-Motte, in this district, was discovered in 1720, by Francis Renault and M. LaMotte, and has been worked more or less ever since.

II. The Central Lead District, comprises, as far as known, the counties of Cole, Cooper, Moniteau, Morgan, Miller, Benton, Maries, Camden, and Osage. Much of the mining done here, again, has been near the surface, the lead first being found in clays, in caves, and in masses in clay but a few inches below the surface. Shafts, however, sunk in the magnesian limestone, find rich deposits in lodes and pockets.

III. The Southern Lead District, comprises the counties of Pulaski, La Clede, Texas, Wright, Webster, Douglas, Ozark, and Christian.

IV. The Western Lead District embraces Hickory, Dallas, Polk, St. Clair, Cedar, and Dade counties. Some rich deposits have been found in this district, especially in Hickory county.

V. The Southwestern Lead District comprises Jasper, Newton, Lawrence, Stone, Barry, and McDonald. Here very extensive mining has been done, more especially in the two counties first named, which have, for the last few years, produced more than one-half of the pig-lead mined in the state.

For several years past more than one-half the lead production of the United States has been from Missouri mines. Besides the numerous smelting works supported by them, the manufacture of white lead, lead pipe, sheet lead, etc., contributes materially to the industries and commerce of the state.

Copper.—Several varieties of copper ore exist in Missouri mines. Deposits of copper have been discovered in Dent, Crawford, Benton, Maries, Greene, Lawrence, Dade, Taney, Dallas, Phelps, Reynolds and Wright counties. Some of the mines in Shannon county are now profitably worked, and mines in Franklin county have yielded good results.

Zinc.—Sulphuret, carbonate and silicate of zinc are found in nearly all the lead mines of southwestern Missouri; and zinc ores are also found in most of the counties along the Ozark range. What the lead miners call "black-jack," and throw away, is sulphuret of zinc. Newton and Jasper counties are rich in zinc ores; and Taney county has an extensive vein of calamine, or carbonate of zinc.

Cobalt.—Valuable to produce the rich blue colors in glass and porcelain, and for other purposes in the arts, is found in considerable quantities at Mine-La-Motte.

Manganese.—Used in glass manufacture and the arts; it is found in St. Genevieve and other counties.

Nickel.—Found in workable quantities at Mine-La-Motte.

BUILDING STONE.

Missouri abounds in solid, durable materials for buildings; she has quarries of red and gray granites, and very fine limestones, sandstones and marbles. In Crawford, Washington and Franklin counties there are workable beds of "onyx marble," a stalagmite formation found in caves, and very rich and valuable for mantles, table-tops, vases, ornaments, etc. This marble is not found anywhere else in the United States, and has been imported from Algiers and Mexico, at great cost. As an illustration of the high repute abroad, and substantial home value ot Missouri products in the stone line, we give a case in point.

The new state capitol at Des Moines, Iowa, which will cost $3,000,000, and is said to be the largest and finest public edifice in the United States outside of Washington city, is built mostly of materials from Missouri, except the rough masonry and brickwork. The Missouri stones and their cost is as follows:

St. Genevieve buff sandstone $ 147,289.83

Carroll county blue limestone 139,238.54

Fourteen red granite columns, 18 feet, 4A inches long, 2

ft. 3 in. diameter, turned and polished at St. Louis.... 8,144.50

Total paid by Iowa to Missouri on this one building.. $ 294,672.87

Other examples of Missouri building stone will be of interest. The Archimedes limestone is used for the U. S. custom house in St. Louis. The encrinital limestone is used for the State University building, and court house at Columbia. The Trenton limestone is used in the court house at St. Louis. A stratum called "cotton rock" in the magnesian limestone formation, is used for the state house and court house at Jefferson City. Encrinital marble is found in Marion county, and other varieties occur in Cooper, Cape Girardeau, St. Louis, Iron and Ozark counties. In the bluffs on the Niangua, a marble crops out twenty feet thick, which is a fine-grained, crystaline, silico-magnesian limestone, of a light drab color, slightly tinged or clouded with peach blossom. Some of the beautiful Ozark marbles have been used in ornamenting the national capitol at Washington.

Lithographic limestone is found in Macon county.

EARTHS, CLAYS, OCHRES, ETC.

Kaolin, or decomposed feldspar, is a clay for making porcelain ware, and is found in and shipped from southeastern Missouri. Fine pottery clays are found in all the coal bearing regjon. North of the Missouri river many beds of best fire-clay are found, which is extensively manufactured at St. Louis into fire brick, gas retorts, metallurgists' crucibles, etc.

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