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La-Motte, in this district, was discovered in 1720, by Francis Renault and M. La Motte, and has been worked more or less ever since.

II. The Central Lead District, comprises, as far as known, the counties of Cole, Cooper, Moniteau, Morgan, Miller, Benton, Maries, Camden, and Osage. Much of the mining done here, again, has been near the surface, the lead first being found in clays, in caves, and in masses in clay but a few inches below the surface. Shafts, however, sunk in the magnesian limestone, find rich deposits in lodes and pockets.

III. The Southern Lead District, comprises the counties of Pulaski, La Clede, Texas, Wright, Webster, Douglas, Ozark, and Christian.

IV. The Western Lead District embraces Hickory, Dallas, Polk, St. Clair, Cedar, and Dade counties. Some rich deposits have been found in this district, especially in Hickory county.

V. The Southwestern Lead District comprises Jasper, Newton, Lawrence, Stone, Barry, and McDonald. Here very extensive mining has been done, more especially in the two counties first named, which have, for the last few years, produced more than one-half of the pig-lead mined in the state.

For several years past more than one-half the lead production of the United States has been from Missouri mines. Besides the numerous smelting works supported by them, the manufacture of white lead, lead pipe, sheet lead, etc., contributes materially to the industries and commerce of the state.

COPPER.-Several varieties of copper ore exist in Missouri mines. Deposits of copper have been discovered in Dent, Crawford, Benton, Maries, Greene, Lawrence, Dade, Taney, Dallas, Phelps, Reynolds and Wright counties. Some of the mines in Shannon county are now profitably worked, and mines in Franklin county have yielded good results.

ZINC.-Sulphuret, carbonate and silicate of zinc are found in nearly all the lead mines of south western Missouri; and zinc ores are also found in most of the counties along the Ozark range. What the lead miners call - black-jack,” and throw away, is sulphuret of zinc. Newton and Jasper counties are rich in zinc ores; and Taney county has an extensive vein of calamine, or carbonate of zinc.

COBALT.—Valuable to produce the rich blue colors in glass and porcelain, and for other purposes in the arts, is found in considerable quantities at Mine-La-Motte.

MANGANESE.—Used in glass manufacture and the arts; it is found in St. Genevieve and other counties.

NICKEL.Found in workable quantities at Mine-La-Motte.

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BUILDING STONE.

Missouri abounds in solid, durable materials for buildings; she has quarries of red and gray granites, and very fine limestones, sandstones and marbles. In Crawford, Washington and Franklin counties there are workable beds of “onyx marble," a stalagmite formation found in caves, and very rich and valuable for mantles, table-tops, vases, ornaments, etc. This marble is not found anywhere else in the United States, and has been imported from Algiers and Mexico, at great cost. As an illustration of the high repute abroad, and substantial home value of Missouri products in the stone line, we give a case in point.

The new state capitol at Des Moines, Iowa, which will cost $3,000,000, and is said to be the largest and finest public edifice in the United States outside of Washington city, is built mostly of materials from Missouri, except the rough masonry and brickwork. The Missouri stones and their cost is as follows: St. Genevieve buff sandstone..

$ 147,289.83 Carroll county blue limestone...

139,238.54 Fourteen red granite columns, 18 feet, 44 inches long, 2

ft. 3 in. diameter, turned and polished at St. Louis... . 8,144.50

Total paid by Iowa to Missouri on this one building..$ 294,672.87 Other examples of Missouri building stone will be of interest.

The Archimedes limestone is used for the U. S. custom house in St. Louis. The encrinital limestone is used for the State University building, and court house at Columbia. The Trenton limestone is used in the court house at St. Louis. A stratum called “cotton rock” in the magnesian limestone formation, is used for the state house and court house at Jefferson City. Encrinital marble is found in Marion county, and other varieties occur in Cooper, Cape Girardeau, St. Louis, Iron and Ozark counties. In the bluffs on the Niangua, a marble crops out twenty feet thick, which is a fine-grained, crystaline, silico-magnesian limestone, of a light drab color, slightly tinged or clouded with peach blossom. Some of the beautiful Ozark marbles have been used in ornamenting the national capitol at Washington.

Lithographic limestone is found in Macon county.

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EARTHS, CLAYS, OCHRES, ETC.

Fine pottery

Kaolin, or decomposed feldspar, is a clay for making porcelain ware, and is found in and shipped from southeastern Missouri. clays are found in all the coal bearing region. North of the Missouri river many beds of best fire-clay are found, which is extensively manufactured at St. Louis into fire brick, gas retorts, metallurgists' crucibles, etc.

Yellow and red ochres, ferruginous clays, and sulphate of baryta, all valuable in the mannfacture of mineral and fire-proof paints, are found in great abundance all through the iron districts. Near St. Genevieve there is a bank of saccharoidal sand which is twenty feet in height, and miles in extent. The mass is inexhaustible. Two analyses give the following results:

Silica..
Lime....

98.81 99.02 0.92 0.98

It is not oxy

The sand is very friable, and nearly as white as snow. dized or discolored by heat, and the glass made from it is clear and unstained. One firm in St. Louis has annually exported more than 3,500 tons of this sand to the glass manufactories of Wheeling, Steubenville and Pittsburg.

GEOGRAPHY OF MISSOURI.

LOCATION AND AREA.

The state of Missouri (with the exception of the Pan-Handle, in the southeast corner, which extends 34 miles further south), lies between the parallels 36 degrees 30 minutes and 40 degrees 30 minutes north latitude, and between longitudes 12 degrees 2 minutes, and 18 degrees and 51 minutes west from Washington. Its southern boundary line, extended eastward, would pass' along the southern boundaries of Tennessee and Virginia. The line of the northern boundary, extended in the same direction, would pass north of the centers of Illinois, Indiana and Ohio, and near the centers of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Extending these lines westward, they would embrace the entire state of Kansas, and a considerable portion of Nebraska on the north and of the Indian Territory south.

The length of the state north and south is 282 miles; its extreme width, east and west, is 348 miles, and the average width, which is represented by a line drawn due west from St. Louis, is 235 miles. The area of the state is 65,350 square miles, or 41,824,000 acres.

In size it is the eighth state in the Union, and is larger than any state east of or bordering upon the Mississippi, except Minnesota. It occupies almost the exact center of that portion of the United States lying between the Rocky Mountains and the Atlantic, and is midway between the British possessions on the north and the Gulf of Mexico south.

The following list shows what other large cities of our own and foreign countries lie on the same latitude with the largest cities in our state: The latitude of 38 to 39 degrees north, embraces Annapolis, Maryland; Washington and Georgetown, D. C.; Alexandria, Va.; Portsmouth, Ohio; Lexington, Frankfort and Louisville, Ky.; Madison, New Albany and Evansville, Ind.; St. Louis and Jefferson City, Missouri; Sacramento and Vallejo, California; Yarkand, China; Tabreez, Persia; Smyrna, Turkey; Messina and Palermo, Sicily; Lisbon, Portugal.

The latitude of 39 to 40 embraces the cities of Philadelphia, Dover, Wilmington, Baltimore, York, Gettysburg, Columbus, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, Terre Haute, Springfield, Quincy, Hannibal, Kansas City, St. Joseph, Leavenworth, Denver; Virginia City, Nevada; Marysville, California; Tientsin, Pekin and Kashgar, in China; Bokhara in Turkestan; Erzroom in Turkey; Valencia in Spain.

The meridian of 90 to 91 degrees west longitude, takes in Grand Portage, Minnesota; Mineral Point, Wisconsin; also Dubuque, Davenport, Rock Island, Galesburg, St. Louis, Memphis, Vicksburg and New Orleans.

Missouri is half as large again as New York, and more than eight times the size of Massachusetts. It would make a score of German principalities. Larger than England and Wales, or Scotland and Ireland, it is equal to one-third of the area of France.

SURFACE FEATURES.

As explained in the chapter on geology, there occurred away back in the earliest geological ages, some subterranean force which pushed up through the crust of the earth, a series of knobs and irregular ridges and hills in a region extending from St. Genevieve, in a southwest direction, to Shannon and Texas counties, taking in some portions of Madison, St. Francois, Washington, Iron and Reynolds counties. After this, these knobs and ridges were islands in the ocean, which covered the rest of Missouri and adjoining states. On the bottom of this ocean the solid strata of limestone, sandstone, and other rocks, were formed. In course of time the rest of the country was raised above the ocean, and the surface presented a broad, undulating plateau, from which projected the hills and ridges above named. The rains descended upon this plateau, and the waters collected into branches, creeks and rivers, and flowed away to the ocean, as now; and during the succeeding cycles, the channels and valleys of the streams were worn into the rocks as they now appear. These facts respecting the formation of our state, give some idea of its surface features. It may be described as a broad, undulating table-land or plateau, from which projects a series of hills and ridges extending from St. Genevieve to the southwest, and into which the branches, creeks and rivers have worn their deep broad channels and valleys. In that portion of the state north of the Missouri river, the northwest part is the highest, and there is a general descent to the south and east, as shown by the course of the Missouri river and its north side tributaries. In the eastern part of this region there is a high dividing ridge which separates the small east-flowing tributaries of the Mississippi from those flowing southward into the Missouri; the St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern raflroad follows this highland from Warren and Montgomery counties to Coatsville on the north line of the state, in Schuyler county; and railroad surveys show that in a straight line across the state, the Missouri river at the city of Weston, in Platte county, is 320 feet higher than the Mississippi at Hannibal.

South of the Missouri the highest part is a main ridge extending from Jasper county through Lawrence, Webster, Wright, Texas, Dent, Iron, St. Francois and Perry counties, striking the Mississippi river at Grand Tower. This ridge constitutes what is called the Ozark range, which for three-fourths of its course across Missouri is not mountainous, or composed of peaks, but is an elevated plateau of broad, level, arable land, and divides the northward flowing tributaries of the Missouri from the waters which flow southward into the lower Mississippi. It is a part of that great chain of ridge elevations which begins with Long's Peak, about fifty miles northwest of Denver, in Colorado; crosses the state of Kansas between the Kansas and Arkansas rivers; crosses Missouri through the counties above mentioned; passes into Illinois at Grand Tower and thence into Kentucky opposite Golconda; and is finally merged into the Cumberland Mountains. This ridge probably formed the southern shore of that vast inland sea into which the upper Missouri and Platte rivers emptied their muddy waters for a whole geological age, and deposited over the states of Iowa, Missouri, Kansas and Nebraska, their sediment from the Cretaceous and Tertiary beds of the mountain regions in Dakota, Montana, Wyoming, etc., and the “Bad Lands” of northwestern Nebraska. This great sea or lake had its chiefs outlet at Grand Tower,* where for thousands of years its waters plunged over the rocky limestone ledges and flowed off to the Gulf of Mexico, which then extended nearly or quite up to the mouth of the Ohio river at Cairo. But as it gradually wore down the rocks of this southern high ridge barrier, of course the channel through this narrow pass became gradually deeper and deeper, and as gradually drained off the mighty lake, leaving four great states covered chiefly with a kind of sediment which Prof. Swallow has termed “ bluff

* Dr. Shumard in his report on a geological section from St. Louis to Commerce,-p. 151, says: “The Grand Tower rises from the bed of the Mississippi, an isolated mass of rock, of a truncated conical shape, crowned at the top with stunted cedars, and situated about fifty yards from the Missouri shore. It is eighty-five feet high, and four hundred yards in circumference at the base. During high water, the current rushes around its base with great velocity. * * About half a mile below the Tower, near the middle of the river, is a huge mass of chert. * In the next two miles the Missouri shore is bounded by hills from 75 to 200 feet in altitude.” It is rocky and bluffy for six miles or more along here, some of the elevations reaching 330 feet.

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