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Yellow and red ochres, ferruginous clays, and sulphate of baryta, all valuable in the manufacture of mineral and fire-proof paints, are found in great abundance all through the iron districts. Near St. Genevieve there is a bank of saccharoidal sand which is twenty feet in height, and miles in extent. The mass is inexhaustible. Two analyses give the following results:

Silica 98.81 99.02

Lime 0.92 0.98

The sand is very friable, and nearly as white as snow. It is not oxydized or discolored by heat, and the glass made from it is clear and unstained. One firm in St. Louis has annually exported more than 3,500 tons of this sand to the glass manufactories of Wheeling, Steubenville and Pittsburg.

GEOGRAPHY OF MISSOURI.

LOCATION AND AREA.

The state of Missouri (with the exception of the Pan-Handle, in the southeast corner, which extends 34 miles further south), lies between the parallels 36 degrees 30 minutes and 40 degrees 30- minutes north latitude, and between longitudes 12 degrees 2 minutes, and 18 degrees and 51 minutes west from Washington. Its southern boundary line, extended eastward, would pass along the southern boundaries of Tennessee and Virginia. The line of the northern boundary, extended in the same direction, would pass north of the centers of Illinois, Indiana and Ohio, and near the centers of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Extending these lines westward, they would embrace the entire state of Kansas, and a considerable portion of Nebraska on the north and of the Indian Territory south.

The length of the state north and south is 282 miles; its extreme width, east and west, is 348 miles, and the average width, which is represented by a line drawn due west from St. Louis, is 235 miles.

The area of the state is 65,350 square miles, or 41,824,000 acres. In size it is the eighth state in the Union, and is larger than any state east of or bordering upon the Mississippi, except Minnesota. It occupies almost.the exact center of that portion of the United States lying between the Rocky Mountains and the Atlantic, and is midway between the British possessions on the north and the Gulf of Mexico south.

The following list shows what other large cities of our own and foreign countries lie on the same latitude with the largest cities in our state: The latitude of 38 to 39 degrees north, embraces Annapolis, Maryland; Washington and Georgetown, D. C.; Alexandria, Va.; Portsmouth, Ohio; Lexington, Frankfort and Louisville, Ky.; Madison, New Albany and Evansville, Ind.; St. Louis and Jefferson City, Missouri; Sacramento and Vallejo, California; Yarkand, China; Tabreez, Persia; Smyrna, Turkey; Messina and Palermo, Sicily; Lisbon, Portugal.

The latitude of 39 to 40 embraces the cities of Philadelphia, Dover, Wilmington, Baltimore, York, Gettysburg, Columbus, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, Terre Haute, Springfield, Quincy, Hannibal, Kansas City, St. Joseph, Leavenworth, Denver; Virginia City, Nevada; Marysville, California; Tientsin, Pekin and Kashgar, in China; Bokhara in Turkestan; • Erzroom in Turkey; Valencia in Spain.

The meridian of 90 to 91 degrees west longitude, takes in Grand Portage, Minnesota; Mineral Point, Wisconsin; also Dubuque, Davenport, Rock Island, Galesburg, St. Louis, Memphis, Vicksburg and New Orleans.

Missouri is half as large again a» New York, and more than eight times the size of Massachusetts. It would make a score of German principalities. Larger than England and Wales, or Scotland and Ireland, it is equal to one-third of the area of France.

SURFACE FEATURES

As explained in the chapter on geology, there occurred away back in the earliest geological ages, some subterranean force which pushed up through the crust of the earth, a series of knobs and irregular ridges and hills in a region extending from St. Genevieve, in a southwest direction, to Shannon and Texas counties, taking in some portions of Madison, St. Francois, Washington, Iron and Reynolds counties. After this, these knobs and ridges were islands in the ocean, which covered the rest of Missouri and adjoining states. On the bottom of this ocean the solid strata of limestone, sandstone, and other rocks, were formed. In course of time the rest of the country was raised above' the ocean, and the surface presented a broad, undulating plateau, from which projected the hills and ridges above named. The rains descended upon this plateau, and the waters collected into branches, creeks and rivers, and flowed away to the ocean, as now; and during the succeeding cycles, the channels and valleys of the streams were worn into the rocks as they now appear. These facts respecting the formation of our state, give some idea of its surface features. It may be described as a broad, undulating table-land or plateau, from which projects a series of hills and ridges extending from St. Genevieve to the southwest, and into which the branches, creeks and rivers have worn their deep broad channels and valleys. In that portion of the state north of the Missouri river, the northwest part is the highest, and there is a general descent to the south and east, as shown by the course of the Missouri river and its north side tributaries. In the eastern part of this region there is a high dividing ridge which separates the small east-flowing tributaries of the Mississippi from those flowing southward into the Missouri; the St. Louis, Kansas City and Northern railroad follows this highland from Warren and Montgomery counties to Coatsville on the north line of the state, in Schuyler county; and railroad surveys show that in a straight line across the state, the Missouri river at the city of Weston, in Platte county, is 320 feet higher than the Mississippi at Hannibal.

South of the Missouri the highest part is a main ridge extending from Jasper county through Lawrence, Webster, Wright, Texas, Dent, Iron, « St. Francois and Perry counties, striking the Mississippi river at Grand Tower. This ridge constitutes what is called the Ozark range, which for three-fourths of its course across Missouri is not mountainous, or composed of peaks, but is an elevated plateau of broad, level, arable land, and divides the northward flowing tributaries of the Missouri from the waters which flow southward into the lower Mississippi. It is a part of that great chain of ridge elevations which begins with Long's Peak, about fifty miles northwest of Denver, in Colorado; crosses the state of Kansas between the Kansas and Arkansas rivers; crosses Missouri through the counties above mentioned; passes into Illinois at Grand Tower and thence into Kentucky opposite Golconda; and is finally merged into the Cumberland Mountains. This ridge probably formed the southern shore of that vast inland sea into which the upper Missouri and Platte rivers emptied their muddy waters for a whole geological age, and deposited over the states of Iowa, Missouri, Kansas and Nebraska, their sediment from the Cretaceous and Tertiary beds of the mountain regions in Dakota, Montana, Wyoming, etc., and the "Bad Lands" of northwestern Nebraska. This great sea or lake had its chiefs outlet at Grand Tower,* where for thousands of years its waters plunged over the rocky limestone ledges and flowed off to the Gulf of Mexico, which then extended nearly or quite up to the mouth of the Ohio river at Cairo. But as it gradually wore down the rocks of this southern high ridge barrier, of course the channel through this narrow pass became gradually deeper and deeper, and as gradually drained off the mighty lake, leaving four great states covered chiefly with a kind of sediment which Prof. Swallow has termed " bluff

* Dr. Shumard in his report on a geological section from St. Louis to Commerce,—p. 151, says: "The Grand Tower rises from the bed of the Mississippi, an isolated mass of rock, of a truncated-conical shape, crowned at the top with stunted cedars, and situated about fifty yards from the Missouri shore. It is eighty-five feet high, and four hundred yards in circumference at the base. During high water, the current rushes around its base with great velocity. * * About half a mile below the Tower, near the middle of the river, is a huge mass of chert. * In the next two miles the Missouri shore is bounded by hills from 75 to 200 feet in altitude." It is rocky and bluffy for six miles or more along here, some of the elevations reaching 330 feet.

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