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public instruction upon those subjects as may be deemed interesting and useful." Provision is then made for printing fourteen thousand copies (two thousand in the German language), for distribution to all who will use them.

OUR STAPLE CROPS.

First of all the crops grown in the state, in amount and value, is Indian corn. There is not a county in the state in which it is not successfully and profitably grown. The broad alluvial bottoms along our great rivers yield immense crops of this valuable cereal, and our fertile prairies are but little, if any, behind them in their yield.

Next in importance among the cereals is wheat, which grows and yields well in every part of the state. Except in a few northern counties, spring wheat is but little grown, the main attention being bestowed upon the winter varieties, which are especially a favorite crop upon the loess and clay loams, and upon the oak uplands of the state. The well known fact that the best flour to stand transportation and exposure in hot and humid climates, is made from wheat grown toward the southern border of the wheat zone, has made Missouri flour a favorite for shipment to South American markets. Flour made in Missouri, from Missouri wheat, won the Medal of Merit at the World's Exposition, at Vienna, in 1873. The average yield and the certainty of the wheat crop in Missouri, give the state a high rank among the states producing this cereal.

Oats grow and yield well in the state, producing heavy straw, plump and heavy grains; but the crop does not figure very largely in our markets, being mainly grown for home consumption.

Tobacco, of two or three varieties, grows well, and Missouri tobacco enjoys a fine reputation for excellence. The state embraces some of the best tobacco lands in the country. It is a staple in nearly every county in the state, and some of the counties make it a leading crop. Missouri ranks sixth in its production.

Cotton, except in small patches for home use, is raised only in the southern counties of the state. Stoddard, Scott, New Madrid, Pemiscot, Dunklin, Mississippi and Lawrence, all raise more or less for shipment, and, in some of the counties named, it is an important crop.

Potatoes grow well, and on most of our soils yield large crops. They are of fine quality generally.

Sweet Potatoes grow upon our sandy soils to great size and excellence, and our farmers raise a great abundance for home use, and the city markets are always well supplied.

Sorghum, and other varieties of the Chinese sugar cane, are extensively grown, and many thousands of gallons of syrup are annually made for home use. Recent improvements in manufacturing sugar from these syrups bid fair to increase the value and importance of this branch of husbandry.

Broom Corn is extensively grown in Missouri, and the brush being longer and finer than that grown in the eastern states, commands a much better price in market.

Buckwheat, Castor Beans, White Beans, Peas and Hops, are all successfully grown and made profitable crops.

Garden Vegetables are produced in great profusion and variety, and the more arid regions of western Kansas and New Mexico, and the mining districts of Colorado, afford an ever-increasing market for these and other agricultural products from our state. Watermelons, muskmelons, etc., grow to great perfection, and are shipped in large quantities from some portions of the state to cities farther north.

The U. S. forestry statistics of 1875, give Missouri 21,707,220 acres of land in farms; 20,116,786 acres not in farms; of wood land in farms there were 8,965,229 acres, and the total woodlands in. the state was reported as 19,623,619 acres.

There is a curious bit of agricultural history which illustrates the rapid development of the western country, and at the same time shows, by the inevitable logic of events already transpired, the magnificent position of Missouri as the greatest wheat center on the globe. In 1849 the center of the wheat product of the United States was the meridian of 81 ° west of Greenwich, passing north and south through the eastern border counties of Ohio. In 1859 that line had moved westward a little more than two degrees of longitude, and passed through the eastern border counties of Indiana, the city of Fort Wayne being on the line. In 1869 the wheat center had moved not quite two degrees further west, and was that year a few miles west of Chicago and Milwaukee; and the center of our National corn crop was on the same line at this time. In 1877 this line had moved still further west, and was now represented by a line drawn on a map of the United States from Marquette, on Lake Superior, down through Janesville, Wisconsin, and through Mendota, LaSalle, Vandalia and Cairo, in Illinois. The corn center will not move much if any further west; but the wheat center, by reason of the rapid development of this crop in Minnesota, Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas, is now, in 1881, as far west as St. Louis; and it will not be likely to migrate further than Jefferson City at any time in the future, because there is no important wheatgrowing territory further west still unoccupied. The new settlements westward must be chiefly by mining and manufacturing peoples, hence, consumers rather than producers of the great cereal crops.

The conclusion of the whole matter, then, is that St. Louis is now, and will for several decades continue to be, practically on the center line of the aggregate product of wheat and corn in the United States, proportioned from east to west limits of the national domain. And this fact assures Missouri of pre-eminent commercial rank among the grand sisterhood of states.

The following table shows the number of pounds weight which constitute a lawful bushel in Missouri, of the different articles named, as established in 1879:

Articles.

Wheat

Corn, shelled.
Corn in ear..
Corn Meal...

Rye

Oats

Barley

Irish Potatoes

Sweet Potatoes

Beans, White 60

Castor Beans 46

Bran 20

Clover Seed 60

Timothy Seed 45

Hungarian Seed 48

Hemp Seed 44

Flaxseed 56

Millet Seed 50

Red-top Seed or Herd's Grass 14

Osage Orange Seed 36

Sorghum Seed 42

Kentucky Blue Grass Seed... 14

No. lbs. No. lbs.

per bu. Articles. per bn.

60 Orchard Grass 14

56 Buckwheat. 52

.... 70 Onions 57

50 Top Onion Sets 28

... 56 Peas, whole, dry 60

.... 32 Split Peas 60

48 Dried Apples 24

... 60 Dried Peaches 33

.... 56 Malt 38

Salt 50

Coal 80

Peanuts, dry Southern 22

Cotton Seed 33

Parsnips 44

Common Turnips , 42

Carrots 50

Rutabagas 50

Green Peas, unshelled 56

Green Beans, unshelled 56

Green Apples 48

Green Peaches 48

Green Pears 48

The standard bushel for coke and charcoal is to contain 2,680 cubic inches; apple barrels, length, 28£ inches; chines, f of an inch at ends; diameter of head, 17J inches; inside diameter at the center of the barrel, 20i inches.

HORTICULTURE.

The state horticultural society was organized in January, 1859, and has kept up its annual meetings in spite of all difficulties. Each congressional district of the state is classed as a separate horticultural district, and is represented in the society by a vice-president, who is expected to keep himself posted on the interests of this industry in his district, and make report (or procure some one to do it), at the annual meeting. The officers of this society for 1880, were: President, Hon. Norman J. Colman, St. Louis; Vice Presidents: 1st congressional district, H. Michel, St. Louis; 2d, Dr. C. W. Spaulding, Cliff Cave; M, J. Rhodes, Bridgeton; 4th, H. D. Wilson, Cape Girardeau; 5th, W. S. Jewett, Crystal City; 6th, M. S. Roundtree, Springfield; 7th, E. Brown, Sedalia; 8th, Z. S. Ragan, Independence; 9th, J. Madinger, St. Joseph; 10th, W. H. Miller, Chilicothe; 11th, G. Husmann, Columbia; 12th, J. Hawkins, Hannibal; 13th, W. Stark, Louisiana.

Apples.—All the standard varieties of the temperate zone are raised in their highest perfection in the state of Missouri; but in such a large area of country as our state comprises, and with such a great variety of soils, and other conditions, each different kind has its locality of best success. It is therefore not possible to indicate what varieties are best for the state; each district will have its favorites. At the national exhibit, in 1878, Missouri showed one hundred and forty plates of apples. Distinguished pomologists assert that ten counties in north Missouri can show apples in as great'variety and perfection as any ten other states in the Union.

Perhaps no better proof can be given of the general excellence of Missouri fruits than the fact that at the meeting of the American porno- logical society, in September, 1878, medals were awarded to Missouri for the best displays of apples, pears and wines, and also one for the best general display of fruits.. These honors were gained in competition with every state in the union, represented by their choicest fruits, and at an exhibition held at Rochester, New York, which had long been regarded as the very center of the fruit growing interests of the country. The fruits exhibited on that occasion were from different parts of the state. St. Joseph, Independence, Morrison, Columbia, Hermann, St. Louis county, Boone county, and other districts were represented, and shared the honors of our great victory.

The varieties that appear to have received most favor at the meeting of our state agricultural society, in 1880, were Ben Davis, Winesap, Jonathan, Dominie, Rawle's Janet, Milam, Northern Spy, Carthouse, Newtown Pippin, Summer Pippin, Red June, Early Harvest, Red Astrachan, Late Summer, Dutchess of Oldenburg, Early Pennock, St. Lawrence, Maiden Blush, Rambo, Grimes' Golden, Limber Twig, Little Romanite.

Peaches.—The southeastern portion of the state, along the line of the Iron Mountain railroad, and the western portion, where the marly deposits are so rich and extensive, are pre-eminently the peach districts, and in these regions the peach seems almost indigenous, never failing to produce abundant crops; and yet fruit-growers in these districts say that they are never able to supply the demand, Nebraska, Kansas and Colorado taking all from the western region, and St. Louis having to draw upon other states for her supplies. Peaches may be relied upon as a profitable crop in all that part of the state south of the Missouri river, and, indeed, are largely grown much further north, St. Joseph exporting large amounts.

In some localities the trees have occasionally been winter-killed, when not in suitable soil or not sheltered; but, on the whole, Missouri may fairly be set down as a peach-growing state. Mr. R. Lynn, of Rockport, in the northwest part of the state, says he has raised three good paying crops of peaches in seven years, the first crop being the third year from planting; his best crop was in 1878.

Pears.—Pears do well throughout the state, especially in the region of Clay, Jackson and Cass counties. The trees attain a great size and age—a diameter of from twelve to fifteen inches is common; and there are trees a short distance south of St. Louis over two hundred years old, and still bearing full crops. The pear, although the most luscious fruit grown in northern latitudes, is also one of the most difficult to raise successfully—hence it is a matter of reasonable pride and gratification that this fruit has done so well in our state. At the national pomological exhibition, of 1878, there were from this state: From the Missouri Valley horticultural society, Kansas City, twenty varieties of pears; from Jacob Rhodes, Bridgeton, nine varieties; from J. Madinger, St. Joseph, six varieties; from W. Stark, Louisiana, two varieties. Some of the finest specimens at the exhibition were grown near St. Louis, on stocks of the white thorn.

Grapes.—For several years the chief fruit-growing interest of our state seemed to center on the grape—at least, it was more discussed and advocated in fashionable circles, than all the other fruits put together. The anti-prohibition sentiment rallied around the grape-growing industry for the manufacture of native wines, as the great panacea for all the ills and horrors of intemperance. But aside from any matter of sentiment in the case, it does seem as though we excel all other states of the Union in the variety and richness of our grapes, both of native and cultivated varieties.

From Prof. Swallow's report on the country along the lines of the southwestern branch of the Missouri Pacific railroad, published in 1859, we learn that seven different native grapes have been found in Missouri. 1. Vitis Labrusca, commonly called "fox grape." The Isabella, Catawba, Schuylkill and Bland's seedling, are cultivated and popular varieties derived from this wild grape. 2. Vitis Aestivalis, or "summer grape." This is found in all parts of the state. 3. Vitis Cordifolia; winter grape, or "frost grape " as it is more commonly called. 4. Vitis Riparia, or "river grape,"grows along streams and is quite large. 5. Vitis Vulpina;called also Muscadine. It grows mostly in the south part of the state, and is a large fine fruit. The cultivated grape called Scuppernong is derived from this wild variety. 6. Vitis Bipinnata; found in Cape Girardeau and Pemiscot counties. 7. Vitis Indivisa; found in central and western counties.

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