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BUREAU OF STATISTICS
UNION SCALE OF WAGES AND HOURS
OF LABOR IN MASSACHUSETTS
JUN 5 1914
UNION SCALE OF WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN MASSACHUSETTS, 1913.
This report shows the union scale of wages and hours of labor for the organized trades in Massachusetts on October 1, 1913, and is the fourth annual presentation of data of this nature. The data shown herein were obtained as the result of a special inquiry made in October, 1913, at which time schedules of inquiry were mailed to every local trade union in the Commonwealth, known to be in existence at that time. Returns were received through correspondence from 1,093 unions, or 78 per cent of the total number in Massachusetts. Data were obtained by special agents from about 200 additional unions, so that altogether about 92 per cent of the local unions in the Commonwealth furnished information concerning wages and hours for use in preparing this report.
This report deals chiefly with time-rates, which are in nearly all cases minimum rates and not actual or maximum rates. Trade unions which fix rates of wages usually establish one rate as a standard minimum for all of their members engaged in a specific occupation, such a rate being ordinarily applied to the work upon which the member is engaged rather than to the member as an individual. Members are allowed, however, to receive more than the minimum rate, such excess over the minimum being usually determined by individual negotiation, but any member who works for less than the minimum rate is in most instances liable to punishment for violation of union rules.
Time-rates of wages are calculated in various ways but generally by the hour, day, or week. In the building trades wages are generally calculated by the hour or by the day, while in many factories and mills. a weekly rate prevails. For the purpose of comparing the rates paid for like periods, in the various occupations, the rates per hour, day, and week are shown in the following tables, although in many instances the unions reported rates for only one of these periods. The rates which
1 In some instances where the unions reported no scale but gave the average or prevailing rates, these latter figures were used.