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confederation. The fifth has a full account of the important events of the War for Independence, and the sixth gives a concise history of the Republic, from its formation to the present time. The Supplement is composed of the most important State Papers connected with that formation, such as the Stamp Act, and papers put forth by the Stamp Act Congress; the papers presented to the consideration of the world by the First and Second Continental Congresses ; the Declaration of Independence; the Articles of Confederation; and the Federal Constitution, with the admirable Farewell Address of Washington. These documents, thus grouped and preserved, will be found valuable as embodying the principles of our government. The original draft, with the amendments, of the Declaration of Independence, is given; and, in foot-notes, every charge made against the king of Great Britain, in that manifesto, is proven from History. The Federal Constitution is also accompanied by important commentaries.

The system of concordance interwoven with the notes throughout the entire work, is of great importance to the reader. When a fact is named which bears a relation to another fact elsewhere recorded in the volume, a reference is made to the page where such fact is mentioned. A knowledge of this relationship of separate events is often essential to a clear view of the subject, and without this concordance, a great deal of time would be spent in searching for that relationship. With the concordance the matter may be found in a moment. Favorable examples of the utility of this new feature may

be found on page 289. If strict attention shall be given to these references, the whole subject will be presented to the mind of the reader in a comprehensive aspect of unity not to be obtained by any other method.

The engravings are introduced not for the sole purpose of embellishing the volume, but to enhance its utility as an instructor. Every picture is intended to illustrate a fact, not merely to beautify the page.

Great care has been taken to secure accuracy in all the delineations of men and things, so that they may not convey false instruction. Geographical maps have been omitted, because they must necessarily be too small to be of essential service. History may be read for the purpose of obtaining general information on the subject, without maps, but it should never be studied without the aid of an accurate Atlas.

The author has endeavored to make this work essentially a FAMILY HISTORY, attractive and instructive; 'and the Publishers have generously co-worked with him in producing a volume that may justly claim to be excellent in every particular. With these few observations concerning the general plan and merits of the work, it is presented to the public, with an entire willingness to have its reputation rest upon its own merits.

ILLUSTRATIONS.

176

207

PAGE

67. Penn's HOUSE..

162

68. PLAN OF CHARLESTON IN 1680.

166

69. EARLY NEW ENGLAND HOUSE.

70. DUTCHMAN, 1660.

176

71. PLAN OF FORT DU QUESNE.

186

72. PORTRAIT OF BRADDOCK.

186

78. BURIAL OF BRADDOCK.....

187

74. PLAN OF FORT EDWARD....

190

75. PORTRAIT OF SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON.

190

76. PLAN OF FOET WILLIAM HENRY.

191

77. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL ABERCROMBIE. 191

78. PLANS OF FORTS AT OSWEGO...

192

79. BLOCK HOUSE..

192

80. MAP OF LAKE GEORGE AND VICINITY,

194

81. PORTRAIT OF LORD AMHERST.....

196

82. PLAN OF TICONDEROGA....

196

83. RUINS OF TICONDEROGA.

197

84. PORTRAIT OF LORD Howe.

197

85. PLAN OF CROWN POINT.

200

86. PLAN OF FORT NIAGARA.

200

87. GENERAL WOLFE....

201

88. MILITARY OPERATIONS AT QUEBEC..

202

89. MONUMENT TO WOFLE AND MONTCALM. 202

90, PATRICK HENRY BEFORE THE VIRGINIA ASSEM-

BLY .....

91. PORTRAIT OF JAMES OTIS.

207

92. PORTRAIT OF BENJAMIN WEST..

210

93. PORTRAIT OF DAVID RITTENHOUSE,

211

94. PORTRAIT OF PATRICK HENRY..

214

95. A STAMP....

215

96. PORTRAIT OF CADWALLADER COLDEN.

216

97. PORTRAIT OF WILLIAM PITT.

217

98. PORTRAIT OF JOIN DICKENSON.

219

99. PORTRAIT OF SAMUEL ADAMS

221

100. PORTRAIT OF LORD NORTH..

224

101. FANEUIL HALL....

225

102. SNAKE DEVICE.

226

103. PORTRAIT OF CHARLES THOMSON

227

104. CARPENTER'S HALL...

228

105. John HANCOCK...

230

106. PLAN OF BUNKER HILL BATTLE..

285

107. BUNKER HILL MONUMENT.

285

108. PORTRAIT OF JOSEPH WARREN.

287
109. PORTRAIT OF PHILIP SCHUYLER.

289

110. PLAN OF THE WALLS OF QUEBEC.

242

111. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL MONTGOMERY.

242

112. CULPEPPER FLAG........

243

113. UNION FLAG.......

245

114. BILL OF CREDIT OR CONTINENTAL MONEY 245

115. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL LEE..

248

116. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL MOULTRIE.

249

117. STATE HOUSE, PHILADELPHIA..

250

118. PORTRAIT OF BENJAMIN Rush..

251

119. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL PUTNAM.

258

120. PLAN OF THE BATTLE ON LONG ISLAND.. 254

121. PLAN OF FORT WASHINGTON.

256

122. RETREAT OF THE AMERICANS FROM LONG ISLAND 257

123. THE JERSEY PRISON-SHIP...

259

124. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT TRENTON.

263

125. PORTRAIT OF ROBERT MORRIS..

264

126. PORTRAIT OF SILAS DEANE..

266

127. PORTRAIT OF BENJAMIN FRANKLIN..

267

128. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT PRINCETON.

269

129. PORTRAIT OF LA FAYETTE..

278

130. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT THE BRANDYWINE... 273

131. CHEVAUX-DE-FRISE

132. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT GERMANTOWN...... 275

[graphic]
[graphic]

PAGE

1. ILLUMINATED FRONTISPIECE.

2. Sioux INDIANS..

9

8. POETRAIT OF RED JACKET.

4. A WIGWAM.

13

5. WAMPUM

13

6. INDIAN HIEROGLYPHICS.

13

7. INDIAN WEAPONS..

14

& CALUMETS.

14

2. Indian BURAL-PLACE.

16

10. INDIAN TOTUM.

15

11. PROFILE OF BLACK HAWK..

18

12. Uncas's MONUMENT..

21

13. PORTRAIT OF SAMUEL KIRKLAND.

25

14. SOUTHERN INDIANS....

80

15. COLUMBUS BEFORE THE COUNCIL OF SALAMANCA 34

16. POETRAIT OF AMERIGO VESPUCCI.

34

17. NORTIMAN.

34

18. NORMAN SHIP.

85
19. OLD TOWER AT NEWPORT.

85

20. PORTRAIT OF COLUMBUS.

86

21. PORTRAIT OF ISABELLA...

88

22. THE FLEET OF COLUMBUS.

89

23. BANNEE OF THE EXPEDITION

40

24. BALBOA.

42

95. PORTRAIT OF DE Soto...

44

26. PORTRAIT OF SEBASTIAN CABOT

46

27. PORTBAIT OF VERAGAZZI..

47

28. CARTIER'S SUP....

48

29. ARMS OF FRANCE..

48

30. FRENCH NOBLEMAN, 1540

49

$1. RALEIGH'S EXPEDITION AT ROANOKE.

53

32. PORTRAIT OF ŞIR WALTER RALEIGH.

55

89. RALEIGH'S Sups......

55

84. ExGLISH GENTLEMAN, 1580.

57

35. PORTRAIT OF HENRY HUDSON

59

86. THE HALF-Moon.

59

87. BriLDING JAMESTOWN..

61

33. PORTRAIT OF CAPTAIN JOIN SMITH..

61

89. PORTRAIT OF POCAHONTAS

66

40. SEAL OF NEW NETHERLAND.

41. A PCRITAN..

75

42. THE MAYFLOWER.

77

43. GOVERNOR CARVER'S CHAIR..

79

44. PORTRAIT OF CECIL, LORD BALTIMORE

81

45. HOOKER'S EMIGRATION TO CONNECTICUT. 83

46. First MEETING-HOUSE IN CONNECTICUT.

86

47. PORTRAIT OF ROGER WILLIAMS..

90

48. PORTRAIT OF WILLIAN PENN......

95

49. THE ASSEMBLY HOUSE, PENNSYLVANIA

97

50. OGLETHORPE ON THE SITE OF SAVANNAH. 101

51. EMBARKATION OF THE PILGRIMS......

104

52. PORTRAIT OF JAMES EDWARD OG LETHORPE. 104

53. CareCH TOWER AT JAMESTOWN..

112

54. First COLONY SEAL, MASSACHUSETTS.

117

55. PORTRAIT OF JOHN WINTHROP.

117

56. FIEST MONEY COINED IN THE UNITED STATES.. 122

57. PORTRAIT OF KING PHILIP.

124

53. PALLISADED BUILDING....

127

59. POBTRAIT OF CAPTAIN CHURCH.

128

60. PORTRAIT OF COTTON MATHER.

183

61. Williams's HOUSE, DEERFIELD.

135

62. PLAN OF THE SIEGE OF LOUISBURG.

187

63. PORTRAIT OF PETER STUYVESANT....

142

64. CITY OF NEW YORK IN 1664.

144

65. STUYVESANT SURRENDERING FORT AMSTERDAM

TO THE ENGLISH..

145

66. THE CHARTER OAK.

..... 156

PAGE

133. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL ST. CLAIR..

276

134. PORTRAIT OF KOSCIUSZKO.

277

185, PORTRAIT OF JOSEPI BRANT.

278

136. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL BURGOYNE.

278

187. A TREATY...

278

188, BURGOYNE SURRENDERING HIS SWORD TO
GATES.

279
189. PLAN OF OPERATIONS AT BEMIS'S HEIGHTS.... 281
110. PortrAIT OF FRANCIS HOPKINSON..

284

141. PLAN OF ENCAMPMENT AT VALLEY FORGE 285

142. PORTRAIT OF SIR HENRY CLINTON ..

287

143. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT MONMOUTI.

288

144. PORTRAIT OF COUNT D'ESTAING...

289

145. PORTRAIT OF BARON STEUBEN.

291

146. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL LINCOLN.

294

147. PLAN OF STONY POINT.

148. PortraIT OF GENERAL WAYNE..

298

149. PORTRAIT OF DANIEL BOONE..

299

150, PORTRAIT OF GEORGE ROGERS CLARKE..

300

151. CLARKE's EXPEDITION ACROSS THE DROWNED

LANDS."

301

152. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL SULLIVAN

304

153. PLAN OF THE SIEGE OF SAVANNAH

805

154. PORTRAIT OF COUNT PULASKI.

805

155. PORTRAIT OF John PAUL JONES.

807

156. A GUN-BOAT AT BOSTON..

307

157. PORTRAIT OF ADMIRAL HOPKINS.

308

158. CIPHER ALPHABET.

809

159, PORTRAIT OF GOVERNOR RUTLEDGE.

310

160. PortraIT OF COMMODORE WHIPPLE,

310

161. PLAN OF THE SIEGE OF CHARLESTON

311

162. PORTRAIT OF David RAMSAY...

812

163. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL GATES.

814

164. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL SUMTER..

815

165. PLAN OF BATTLE AT SANDERS'S CREEK. 315

166. PORTRAIT OF BARON DE KALB...

816

167. PORTRAIT OF COLONEL TARLETON

316

168. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL Marion.

81

169. PORTRAIT OF LORD CORNWALLIS.

818

170, MARION'S ENCAMPMENT ON THE PEDEE.

321

171. PORTRAIT OF GOVERNOR TRUMBULL.

823

172. Portrait OF BENEDICT ARNOLD..

825

178. THE CAPTORS' MEDAL....

327

174. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL GREENE..

831

175. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL MORGAN.

831

176. PORTRAIT OF COLONEL WASHINGTON.

832

177. PORTRAIT OF COLONEL HENRY LEE..

883

178. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT GUILFORD.

833

179. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT HOBKIRK'S HILL. 834

180. PORTRAIT OF REBECCA MOTTE..

335

181. PLAN OF FORT NINETY-Six.

836

182. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL PIOKENS.

836

183. PORTRAIT OF COUNT DE ROCHAMBEAU.

389

164. PORTRAIT OF Count DE GRASSE.....

310

185. PLAN OF THE SIEGE OF YORKTOWx..

841

186. PortraIT OF BENJAMIN THOMPSON (COUNT

RUMFORD)..

346

187. PORTRAIT OF JAMES JACKSON

817

188. PortrAIT OF GEORGE CLINTON .

350

189. PORTRAIT OF John MARSHALL.

351

190. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL MIFFLIN.

852

191. ORDER OF THE CINCINNATI...

852

192. PortRAIT OF BIS OP CARROLL..

354

193. FRANKLIN BEFORE THE CONSTITUTIONAL Cox-

VENTION..

857

194. Portrait OF OLIVER ELLSWORTH.

360

195. PORTRAIT OF ALEXANDER HAMILTON

361

196. PORTRAIT OF RUFUS PUTNAM.....

362

197. INAUGURATION OF WASHINGTON

364

198. PORTRAIT OF GOUVERNEUR Morris.

864

199. PortrAIT OF WASHINGTON..

865

200. PORTRAIT OP ROBERT R. LIVINGSTON.

866

201. PORTRAIT OF TENCH COXE...

369

202. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL Knox.

370

203. WAYNE'S DEFEAT OF THE INDIANS.

875

204. PORTRAIT OF JOHN JAY...

879

205. PORTRAIT OF Fister A MES....

880

206. PORTRAIT OF. Joux ADAMS..

383

207. Portrait of C. C. PINCKNEY.

384

PAGE

208. PORTRAIT OF MARTHA WASHINGTON

887

209. PORTRAIT OF THOMAS JEFFERSON,

389

210. PORTRAIT OF COMMODORE BAINBRIDGE. 891

211. UNITED STATES FRIGATE...

891

212. PORTRAIT OF LIEUTENANT DECATUE.

392

213. MOHAMMEDAN SOLDIER.....

392

214. BURNING OF THE PHILADELPHIA AT TRIPOLI.. 393

215. PORTRAIT OF RUFUS KING.

395

216. PORTRAIT OF AARON BURE.

896

217. PORTRAIT OF ROBERT FULTON

898

218. FULTON'S FIRST STEAMBOAT,

399

219. PORTRAIT OF WILLIAM PINKNEY.

400

220. A FELUCCA GUN-BOAT....

401

221. PORTRAIT OF JOHN RANDOLPI ..

403

222. PORTRAIT OF JAMES MADISON.

405

223. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL DEARBORN.

410

224. PORTRAIT OF STEPHEN VAN RENNSSELAER. 413

225. SLOOP-OF-WAB....

226. PORTRAIT OF GOVERNOR SHELBY.

417

227. PLAN OF FORT MEIGS..

418

228. PLAN OF FORT SANDUSKY

419

229. MAJOR CROGIAN....

420

230. PERRY ON LAKE ERLE..

421

231. PORTRAIT OF COMMODORE PERRY.

423

232. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL PIKE..

425

233. FORT NIAGARA IN 1813...

427

234. PORTRAIT OF CAPTAIN LAWRENCE,

429

235. PORTRAIT OF COMMODORE PORTER.

431

236. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL Brown...

432

237. MAP OF THE NIAGARA FRONTIER.

434

238. PORTRAIT OF COMMODORE MACDONOUGH. 435

239. PLAN OF THE BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS. 439

240. PORTRAIT OF W.C. C. CLAIBORNE.

440

241. JACKSON AT NEW ORLEANS...

441

242. PORTRAIT OF JAMES MONROE..

447

243. CAPTURE OF PENSACOLA..

449

244. PORTRAIT OF EDWARD LIVINGSTON

452

245. PORTRAIT OF JOIN QUINCY ADAMS..

455

246. PORTRAIT OF DEWITT CLINTON

456

247. PORTRAIT OF JOIN O. CALHOUN

458

248. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL JACKSON

460

249. PORTRAIT OF ROBERT Y. HAYNE.

463

250. PORTRAIT OF OSCEOLA.....

466

251. MAP OF THE SEAT OF THE SEMINOLE WAR. 467

252. PORTRAIT OF MARTIN VAN BUREN.

470

253. PORTRAIT OF WILLIAM H. HARRISON.. 474

254. PORTRAIT OF JOHN TYLER....

476

255. PORTRAIT OF JAMES K. POLK..

479

256. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL SCOTT..

485

257. MAP OF THE REGION OF TAYLOR'S OPERATIONS 486

258. PORTRAIT OF JOHN C. FREMONT..

489

259. PLAN OF INTRENCHMENTS AT VERA Cruz. 489

260. MAP OF THE ROUTE OF Scott's ARMY IN MEXICO 490

261. BOMBARDMENT OF VERA Cruz......

491

262. OPERATIONS NEAR MEXICO....

493

263. GENERAL SCOTT ENTERING THE CITY OF MEXICO 495

264. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL TAYLOR..

498

265. PORTRAIT OF HENRY CLAY.

500

266, PORTRAIT OF MILLARD FILLMORE

267. PORTRAIT OF DANIEL WEBSTER.

503

263. PORTRAIT OF JOSEPH SMITI..

504

269. MORMON EMIGRATION...

505

270. PORTRAIT OF PROFESSOR MORSE

507

271. PORTRAIT OF Dr. KANE..

510

272. PORTRAIT OF FRANKLIN PIERCE.

514

273. PORTRAIT OF SANTA ANNA...

515

274. AN OCEAN STEAMSHIP

516

275. CRYSTAL PALACE IN New York.

517

276. PORTRAIT OF CAPTAIN INGRAHAM

518

277. PORTRAIT OF JAMES BUCHANAN.

532

278. FOUNDING NEW STATES....

537

279. PORTRAIT OF THOMAS JEFFERSON

589

280. PORTRAIT OF JOHN ADAMS....

589

281. PORTRAIT OF DR. FRANKLIN

389

292. PORTRAIT OF ROBERT R. LIVINGSTON.

589

283. PORTRAIT OF ROGER SHERMAN.

589

284. PORTRAIT OF CHARLES CARROLL,

601

285. PORTRAIT OF JUDGE STORY....

612

[graphic]
[graphic]

HISTORY

OF

THE UNITED STATES.

[graphic]

RED JACKET.

EVERY cultivated nation had its heroic age—a period when its first physical and

moral conquests were achieved, and when rude society, with all its impurities, was fused and refined in the crucible of progress. When civilization first set up its standard as a permanent ensign, in the western hemisphere, northward of the Bahamas and the great Gulf, and the contests for possession began between the wild Aboriginals, who thrust no spade into the soil, no sickle into ripe harvests, and those earnest delvers from the Old World, who came with the light of Christianity, to plant a new empire, and redeem the wilderness by cultivation—then commenced the heroic age of America. It ended when the work of the Revolution in the eighteenth century was accomplished—when the bond of vassalage to Great Britain was severed by her colonies, and when thirteen confederated States ratified a Federal Constitution, and upon it laid the broad foundation of our Republic.'

Long anterior to the advent of Europeans in America, a native empire, little inferior to old Rome in civilization, flourished in that region of our Continent which now forms the south-western portion of our Republic, and the adjoining States of Central America. The Aztec Empire, which reached the acmé of its refinement during the reign of Montezuma, and crumbled into fragments beneath the heel of Cortez, when he dethroned and destroyed that monarch," extended over the whole region from the Rio Grande to the Isthmus of Darien ; and when the Spaniards came, it was gradually pushing its conquests northward, where all was yet darkness and gloom. To human apprehension, this people, apparently allied by various ties to the wild nations of North America, appeared to be the most efficient instruments in the hands of Providence, for spreading the light of dawning civilization over the whole Continent. Yet, they were not only denied this glorious privilege, but, by the very race which first attempted to plant the seeds of European society in Florida, and among the Mobilian tribes,' and to shed the illumination of their dim Christianity over the dreary region of the North, was their own bright light extinguished. The Aztecs and their neighbors were beaten into the dust of debasement by the falchion blows of avarice and bigotry, and nothing remains to attest their superiority but the magnificent ruins of their cities and temples, and their colossal statuary, which has survived the fury of the Spanish iconoclast and the tooth of decay. They form, apparently, not the most insignificant atom of the chain of events which connects the history of the Aboriginal nations of America with that of our Republic. The position of the tribes of the North is different. From the beginning of European settlements, they have maintained, and do still maintain, an important relation to the white people.

- The first inhabitants of a country properly belong to the history of all subsequent occupants of the territory. The several nations of red or coppercolored people who occupied the present domain of the United States, when Europeans first came, form as necessary materials for a portion of the history of our Republic, as the Frenchmen and Spaniards, by whom parts of the territory were settled, and from whom they have been taken by conquest or purchase.

The history of the Indian tribes, previous to the formation of settlements among them, by Europeans,' is involved in an obscurity which is penetrated

1

Page 360.
Page 51.

Page 43. 6 Page 40.

3 Page 29.

4 Page 180. 7 Before the year 1607.

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