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BOOK I.

v1Ew of THE PROGRESS OF sociFTY, WITH ITS EFFECTs on

THE PRINCIPLE OF POPULATION.

CHAPTER I. Introductory remarks ......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - page 1 Infant state of the science relating to the principle of population ........ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ib. Essay by Mr. Malthus, the first regular treatise upon it... 3 Statement of the subject, as viewed by the author and by those from whom he differs........................ 4. Duty and importance of fully investigating it.......... 8 CHAPTER II. Statement of the opinions lately promulgated on the principle of population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Geometrical and arithmetical rates in the natural increase of population and subsistence respectively.......... . 12 Checks to population which are presumed to be necessary in consequence of those different rates of increase.... 13 Objections to this hypothesis.............. - - - - - - - - - - 16 Best mode of ascertaining the truth............ ... ... 20 CHAPTER III. Fundamental propositions of this treatise.............. 21 Statement of those propositions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ib. Process by which the author has endeavoured to establish them in the following chapters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 23 CHAPTER IV. Of the natural tendency of population in the early stages of society. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Summary of the providential course of society in its earlier stages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ib. — illustrated by reference to the South Sea islands...... 30 to the hunting tribes of North America. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 to the pastoral tribes of Asia 42

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state of society. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -------

Immense quantity of surplus produce in this state of -

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vanced stages of society ...... • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 107

A theoretical objection to the hypothesis maintained in
this treatise yet remains to be removed...... • . . . . . . ib.

CHAPTER WILL

preceding chapters...... * * * * * * * * * * * * * * e e e s - e. e. e. e. e. 127

View of society in its highest stages best illustrated by a
reference to the commonwealth of Britain.......... ib.

Illustrations from a reference to the present condition of

society in China. .... • * * * * * * * * * * e e s e e o e o e s e e s e e s e 129

Observations upon the authorized practice of infanticide

in that country......................... e e o e o 'o - e. 132

Actual state of China very far from establishing the ne-

cessity of infanticide, as a means of preventing the pres-

sure of population against subsistence.............. 143

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Consequences to be deduced from the first principle, viz.
“that population has a natural tendency to keep within

population and the production of food ... . . . . . . . . . . . 190

Various opinions entertained by different writers on this

question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 191

Opinions of Dr. Paley.................. a - * * * * * * * * * * 192

of Dr. Adam Smith....... e o e s a • * * * * * * * * * * 193

of Sir James Stewart ............ e e s - e a . . . . 194

–- of Mr. Malthus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

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