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Irish absentees, and other benevolent persons, exhorted to establish a similar society in London............. page 349 The communication of religious and moral knowledge; charity in individuals; but positive political duty on the part of governments......... • * - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 352 Especially a legislative provision for the increase of church establishments in proportion to the increase of population 353 Unhappy consequences of neglecting this duty.......... 354 Exposes a church to great and severe trials............ 355 Which are only to be overcome by its purity and spirituality ib. The general increase of public schools in proportion to that of population, also a duty of government ............ 356 Objections which have impeded their establishment examined and explained . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - -... 357 Real effects arising from the general spread of moral and religious instruction, and of imparting a degree of general information to the lower orders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - 358 By no means favourable to despotic and immoral governments . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 361 Highly so to free and rational governments, and therefore to the United British Kingdom ........... ... ...... ib.

CHAPTER III.

On economical systems of charity, by which the poor assist in providing for themselves .................. 363 Preceding arguments on charity by no means exclude the propriety of these systems ........... - - - - - - - - - - - - - ib. Various plans suggested for enabling the poor to assist in providing for themselves......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 364 They have been principally confined to Great Britain.... ib. And are of two descriptions; viz. Friendly Societies and Saving Banks .......... • - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 365 Investigation of the primeiples upon which the rules of friendly societies are usually founded, and of the degree in which they have attained their professed objects ... 366 Extraordinary conclusion of Sir Frederick Eden respecting

Friendly Societies ............. - - - - e. e. e. e - - - - - - - - - 369 Observations upon it ........ ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ib. General result of Friendly Societies........ . . . . . . . . . . 370 Banks for the savings of the poor .................... 372 Reference to the work of Mr. Duncan, of Ruthwell, on

the subject ..................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ib. Of the Right Honourable George Rose........ - - - - - - - - ib.

Of Barber Beaumont, Esq. ........................ 376 c 2

General conclusions with respect to the exercise of charity

Unfair to compare the sums spent in charity in different
countries, without also comparing their respective condi-
tions of society. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Progress of the demands for charity, and of the means for

On the propriety of affording a free and equal option of

marriage to all classes of the community ............

The option of marriage may be afforded to the lower orders
upon moral considerations only, without direct reference
to political expediency............. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Difficulties attending the opposite opinion

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424

425

Their prospects of marriage and utility in single life.....

Curious facts with respect to the comparative proportions
of males and females, in existence at different periods
of life, and in different states of society........ - - - - -

Conclusions respecting the virtue and happiness of women,

and also respecting the positions advanced by Mr.

Hume, Mr. Bruce, and others, concerning polygamy,

and the law of nature on the question of marriage....

Further reasons for concluding that public virtue and hap-

piness are not necessarily deteriorated by the progress of

society . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

The moral and political blessings necessary to that pro-
gress are in a great degree sufficient to secure the pos-
session of public virtue and happiness...............

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2. As to morals. . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - page 456 Illustrated by reference to some English Laws.......... 457 3. As to the Rational liberty and security of property.... 458 In what they essentially consist. . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . ib. Duties of statesmen and governments thereupon ........ 459 Conclusions to be drawn from these three considerations... 460 Whether they may suggest some improvements in the system of education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 462 Lord Bacon's opinion.............................. 468 Opinions of most political writers, with the exception of Mr. Malthus....... . . . . . . . . . . . * * - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 464. Conclusions thereupon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ib. Propriety of introducing a new principle into the science of political economy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466 Probable consequences. . . . . . . . . . . . to * * - - - - - - - - - - . . . . 467 CHAPTER IX. Brief recapitulation of the third book.............. ... 468 Summary of Chapter i... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ib. Its application to the nature and extent of charity, in the second, third, and fourth chapters........ . . . . . . . . . 469 Effects produced by the progress of society on the demand for the exercise of charity, and on the means of meeting it in the fourth and fifth chapters................ ib. Conclusions upon the free option of marriage in the sixth chapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ ... 470 Upon the general principle of compensation in the seventh chapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ... . 471 Upon the influence of religion, morals, &c. in the eighth chapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 0 s - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - e. ib. Practical inferences.............................. ... 472 CHAPTER X. On the rational hopes that may be entertained of a progressive improvement in the condition of mankind..... 473 This is one of the most interesting points of view in which the question can be contemplated........ - - - - - - - - - - ib. Conclusions respecting it, upon the hypothesis of Mr. Malthus... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 474 On the power and happiness of states ........ - - - - - - - - 475 On the comfort and happiness of individuals............ 476 Especially of the lower orders. .......... - - - - - - - - - - ... 478 Future expectations to be derived from this view........ 480

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