« ForrigeFortsett »
atmosphere, 360; description of
clouds, '366; snow-crystals, 417; on
directions of wind in relation to
moon's changes, 651, 652.
Gulf Stream, temperature of, 233 ; its
influence on climate of Great Britain,
Guyot's Meteorological and Physical
les, 60, 88.
Ellis, W., on moon influence on cloud,
English Channel, cause of gales there,
Espy on clouds, 363; on charting storms,
501 ; charts of American storms, 538.
Etesian winds, 497.
Evaporation, 308; heat lost by, 312;
temperature of, 329; as affecting
sandy, peaty, and heavy soils, 315,
Everett's, Professor J. D., observations
on complete saturation of the air, 319;
underground temperature at Green-
Explosions in mines in relation to the
Extreme temperatures, their value,
FAHRENHEIT's thermometer, 8, 120.
Farquharson, Rev. J., 353.
Fitzroy's, Admiral, storm-warnings, 23,
665 et seq. ; temperature of the sea,
228; barometer, 41.
Fleming's rain-gauge, 395.
Fogs of radiation, 347; where most pre-
valent, 355; locally distributed, 351 ;
on the coast, 354 ; accompanying
storms, their importance meteorologi.
Forbes, Principal, on underground tem-
perature, 17, 254, 256 ; on an interrup-
tion of temperature, 299; on colours
of clouds, 631.
Forests, retardation of their daily maxi-
mum and minimum temperatures,
with the effect on climate, 180; as
affecting mists and rain, 180, 352; on
winter temperature, 218.
Fortin's barometer, 35.
Fournet's Rainfall of France, 19.
Franklin's experiment on atinospheric
electricity, 579; suggests lightning-
conductors, 594 ; theories for decrease
of rainfall with the height, 398.
Frost, frequency of occurrence as an
element of climate, 166; degree in
which it penetrates into different
soils, 170; may be predicted by the
Galton, Francis, anti-cyclones, 475; on
small barometric disturbances, 521.
Gases, law of independent pressure, how
modified in the atmosphere, 307.
Glaisher, 17; barometric range for
Greenwich, 72; corrections for heat
and rain temperatures to reduce
to mean temperature, 152; experi-
ments on terrestrial radiation, 196,
199; on long and short grass, 200;
temperature at different heights dur-
ing. 212; hygrometric tables, 331 ;
balloon ascents in relation to humidity
of atmosphere, 336; to currents of
HADLEY propounds theory of trade-
Hail, 432; where most common, 469.
Hailstones, different forms, 433.
Hailstones of Orkney, 28th July 1818,
596, 599; of France, 596, 598; of Cate-
let, 7th May 1865, 597.
Hansteen, 17; on auroras, 605, 609.
Harmattan, 494 ; probable cause, 569.
Harrison, Park, on moon's influence on
clouds and temperature, 650, 652.
Hartnup, John, on velocity of the wind
at Liverpool, 1st February 1868, 530.
Heights measured by thermometer,
119; measured by barometer, 62.
Henispherical-cup anemometer, 440.
Henley's quadrant electrometer, 580.
Henry, Joseph, 564.
Hermetic barometer, 45.
Herschel, Alexander, on meteors, 641.
Herschel, Sir J., observation on effect
of forests on rain, 352; on rotation of
wind in storms, 549, 564; on atmos-
pheric electricity, 586; on an oak-tree
struck by lightning, 592; on height of
aurora, 607; on temperature of stellar
spaces, 642; on moon's influence, 649.
Hicks's maximum and minimum ther-
Hoar-frost, 202; crystals of, 418.
Home, D. Milne, experiments on drain-
Howard's nomenclature of clouds, 369.
Howson's barometer, 42.
Humboldt's isothermal lines, 16; re-
mark on borary oscillation of barome-
ter in tropics, 63; current, tempera-
ture of, 234.
Humidity, absolute, how distributed,
336; relative, of the air, how calcu-
lated, 332 ; low, observed at Djeddah,
338; Corrimony, 337.
Hurricane of Calcutta, 5th October 1864,
541 ; of Guadaloupe, 6th September
1865, 540; West Indian, of 1st October
1866, 640; barometric fluctuations,
540, 541 ; wave of sea accompanying,
Hurricane, moisture of air, 513; track
of centre, see Plate VIII.'; rate of its
progressive motion, 546; direction of
wind, 543 ; veering of wind, 548; ba-
rometer and winds at St Croix, and
H.M.S. Buzzard, 570.
Hurricanes, West Indian, time of occur-
Hygrometers, invention of, 9; of ab-
sorption, 321 ; condensation, 324;
Hygrometry of the atmosphere, 319.
Ice, its manufacture in Bengal, 210.
Interruptions of temperature determined
by the wind, 297, by distribution of
pressure, 298; not by meteors, 643;
use in forecasting weather, 646.
Ireland, climate of (see British Islands;
its influence on Great Britain, 273;
its importance on a system of storm-
Isabnormals, thermie, 275.
Isobarometric charts, Plates I., II.,
Isocheimals, or lines of equal winter
temperature. See Isothermals for Jan-
Isotherals, or lines of equal summer
temperature. See Isothermals for
Isothermal charts, Plates IV., V., VI. ;
British islands for July and January,
JAMES's, Col. Sir H., tables of pressure
and velocity of wind, page 364.
Jelinek, Dr Carl, 17, 87, 502.
Jevons's theory for decrease of rainfall
with the height, 398.
Johnston's, Dr A. K., Physical Atlas,'
KAEMTZ on height of, on frequency of
auroras, 606; clouds, 367.
Keith's, Dr George, observations on
temperature of North Sea in August
King, barometer admirably adapted for
registering small barometric fluctua-
tions, 446, 600.
Kuppfer, 17, 87.
LAND and sea breezes, 447.
Lang, Andrew, 540.
Lakes, their influence on climate, 208,
Laughton, J. Knox, on the permanent
and periodic winds, 476.
Le Verrier, 24.
Liais, observations on polarisation of
the atmosphere, 639.
Lightning, 589; duration of flash, 589.
Lind's anemometer, 443.
Lloyd, Dr H., 564.
Lommel, Dr E., on colours of clouds,
Loomis, Professor, 506, 536; on low
barometer in storms, 565; on auroras,
606, 607, 608.
Low barometer, its probable cause, 567;
its influence in storms, 572.
Lowe, E. J., snow- crystals, 417; on
height of auroras, 607.
M'CLINTOCK'S, Capt., observations on
the aurora, 609.
Mackerel sky, 381.
Magnetism, terrestrial, in relation to the
sun and to the aurora, 610; to storms,
Magnus, Professor, experiments on dia-
thermancy of dry and moist air,
Mann, Dr, on climate of Natal, 561.
Marine barometer, 36.
Marriotte's law, 383.
Martin on decrease of temperature with
height in cold weather, 212
Maury's ocean-charts, 21, 242, 564.
Maximum thermometers, 125.
Mean temperature, importance of re-
solving into the extremes which com-
pose it, 159, 160; vague meaning of,
Meldrum, Charles, region of calms in
Indian Ocean in January, 110; on
rainfall of Mauritius, 405; on storms
of Indian Ocean, 553 to 563; a revolv-
ing storm, 566 ; on notification of
storms at Mauritius, 659 to 662.
Mercury, freezing-point of, 116.
“Merry dancers," 605.
Milne's, Admiral Sir A., observation on
temperature of Gulf Stream, 243.
Minimum thermometer, 129.
Mist and fog, how caused, 346.
Mist on hills, 356.
Mitchell's, Dr A., evapometer, 309; on
cold weather of May, 294; prognostics,
Moffat's, Dr, ozone periods in relation
to weather and disease, 614.
Mohn, Professor, 502, 677.
Moisture of the atmosphere, Chap.
VIII., page 145.
Monsoons, 466; their effect on rainfall of
Moon's influence on weather, 648 et
Neutral point of barometers, 34; of
atmospheric polarisation, 635, 636,
Newton, Professor, 641.
Nile, its inundation dependent on baro-
metric pressure, 470.
Northers or Nortes, 496.
OCEAN. See Sea.
Olinstead on the November meteors,
Ombrometer, or Rain-gauge, q. v.
Ord, Dr, observations on density of the
Osler's anemometer, 442.
Phillip's maximum thermometer, 126.
Phillip's observations on rain, 397.
Plantamour, Professor E., on the distri-
bution of temperature in Switzerland
during the winter of 1863-64, 215.
Plants, their destruction by frost, how
Pluviometer, or Rain-gauge, q. v.
Poey's table of hurricanes, 551.
Polarisation of the atmosphere, 633 ;
prognostics from, 653.
Poor man's barometer, 45.
Prediction of storms. See Storms and
Proctor's, James, evapometer, 309.
Prognostics from amount of moisture in
the air, 322; the cirrus cloud, 373; the
cumulus cloud, 377; the stratus cloud,
379; cirro-cumulus cloud, 381; cirro-
stratus, 383 ; cumulo-stratus, 385 ;
colours of clouds, 630, 632; rainbows,
621; silent lightning, 589; polarisation
of the atmosphere, 653. See Weather
Puna winds, 485.
QUETELET, A., 17, 87; on an interruption
of temperature, 299.
Quetelet, Ad., meterology of Belgium,
Rankin's, Dr W., observation on density
of the sea, 249.
Rao's, G. V. Jagga, rain-gauge, 395.
Reaumur's thermometer, 122.
Regnault's table of elastic force of va-
pour, page 362.
Renou on the rain-cloud, 393.
Return shock, 593.
Robinson's anemometer, 440.
Ross, Sir J. C., case of serein, 394.
Rostaing, Captain de, on Fitzroy's
Rubinson's observations on polarisation
of the atmosphere, 638.
Russell, R., remark on northers, 496 ;
pressures at great heights, 500; chart-
ing storms, 501; direction of course
of American storins, 538; Ireland as
an outpost in warning of storms,
Rutherford's maximum thermometer,
Rutherford's minimum thermometer,
RADIATION of heat, 175; SOLAR, first dis-
cussed by Halley, 13; its effect on
earth's surface estimated by black-
bulb thermometer, 187; on land, 177;
on water, 183.
Radiation, why small in insular climates,
344; why great in elevated situations
and at the poles, 343; TERRESTRIAL,
191; first discussed by Lambert, 13;
how estimated, 197 ; its effects on dif-
ferent substances, 199; circumstances
Rain, general causes of, 392; specific
conditions required, 393: in relation
to atmospheric pressure, Chap. XI.
Rainbow, solar, 617; lunar, 620; extra-
ordinary. 619; supernumerary, 617.
Rainfall diminishes with the height
above the ground, theories to account
for, 398 ; cases of heavy falls, 400; re-
lation to storms, 514, in the region
of calms, 403 ; the tropics, 402, 407;
Hindostan, 404, 406; Europe, 408;
Mediterranean, 413; America, 414.
Rain-gauges, 395; size of, 396; position
Rainless regions of the globe, 399.
Rainy days, 401.
SABINE, General, on relation of terres-
trial magnetism to the sun, 610; on
St Elmo's fire, 595.
St Martin's sumnier, 647.
Sanctorio, inventor of the air-thermo-
Saturation of the air, 319.
Saussure's hygrometer, 9, 321; on forms
of clouds, 376.
Schönbein on ozone, 613.
Scoresby's, Capt., observations on solar
radiation, 344; classification of snow-
Sea, density of, 245; causes of difference
in, 250; as affected by rains, 249.
Sea temperature, 223 ; at the surface,
226; daily range of, 205; round Scot-
land, 227; in different parts of the
globe, 228 ; depth at which it is uni-
formly 39°, 223
Sea and land, their daily range of
temperature in Scotland compared,
Secchi, 611; Bulletino Meteorologico,
Shooting stars, 641.
Simoom, 489; cause of high temperature,
Siphon barometer, 39.
Sirocco, 492; cause of high temperature,
Smyth, Professor C. Piazzi, 87.
Snow, 417; influence on mean tempera-
ture of the soil, 253; limit of its fall,
420; cause of its colour, 421; red
and green, 422 ; how measured, 424;
natural snowballs, 425; use of, as a
protection to the soil in winter, 172,
Soils - sandy, light, and heavy-how
affected by drainage, 313; by frost,
Solar radiation, where best observed,
South-east wind, as a prognostic, 656.
Springs in relation to mean temperature,
Stephens on velocity of clonds, 391; on
crystals of hoar-frost, 418.
Stevenson's, T., box for thermometers,
136; barometric gradient, 531.
Stevenson, W., on motion of cirrus
cloud, 479, 654 ; 564.
Stewart, Balfour, freezing-point of mer.
cury, 116; on auroras and terrestrial
Storms, Chap. XII., page 239; of Eu-
ROPR, 502, form and extent, 504 ; di-
rection of progressive motion, 505;
rate they travel, 510; general path,
512; relation to monthly barometric
range, 512; relation to tenperature
and moisture, 513; relation to rain
and cloud, 514 ; relation to wind, 515;
veering of the wind, 535; their spiral
rotation in relation to theory, 567;
regions of the globe where they chiefly
occur, 681 ; necessity for a more com-
plete investigation of, 25; prediction
of. 22 (see Storin - warnings); of the
MEDITERRANEAN, 509; of AMERICA,
536; of the TROPICS, 540; of South-
ERN Asia, Typhoons, 552; of the
INDIAN OCEAN, 553; of West Indies,
540. See Hurricanes.
Storm-warnings, as practised at Mauri-
tius, 659; Admiral Fitzroy, 22, 23;
large percentage of success, 666, 669;
canses of failures, 667; their practi-
cability, 669; requisites for carrying
them out, 671 et seq.; importance of
Scottish stations, 672; of Stornoway,
Iceland, the Azores, 673.
Strachy, Lieut.-Col., on relation of the
temperature to vapour in the atmo-
Skyes, Colonel, on a remarkable case of
great difference of pressure during a
cyclone, 547; on circular rainbows,
Symons's, G. J., British rainfall investi-
gations, 19; rain-gauge, 397 ; defini.
tion of a "rainy day," 401.
Synchronous or synoptic charts indis-
pensable in studying storins, 498;
their construction, 499.
TAYLOR, Professor, 519, 564.
Temperature, mean daily, 140; its rela-
tion to atmospheric pressure, Chap.
VII., page 129; vague meaning of,
157; from maximun and minimum
thermometer, 150; of earth's crust,
secular cooling of, 258; underground,
254 ; of the soil, 252; as affected by
drainage, 313 ; of the atmosphere,
259; daily range of, 141 et seq., 161 ;
interruptions, 293 ; how affected by
physical configuration of earth's sur
face, 213; low, their distribution in
mountainous countries in winter and
during night, 215; increases with
height in cold weather, 212; decrease
with height, 277, 278; of the globe
varies during the year, 276; abnor.
mal, distribution of, 275 ; charts,
value of, 16; of evaporation, 329; of
Gulf Stream, 233, 243; of the sea,
see Sea; of stellar spaces, 642.
Tension of vapour. See Elastic force.
Thermometers, 116 et seq.; invention of,
7; Fahrenheit, Reaumur, and Cen-
tigrade compared, 123, and Table V.,
page 361 ; box, directions for placing,
136, 138; directions for observing the
thermometer, 139; best hours for
observing, 148 ; spirit, method of set-
ting them right when out of order,
131; beights measured by, 119.
Thomas, Capt., 204, 205, 249.
Thomson, Sir William, on secular cool.
ing of the earth, 258.
Thomson's, Dr D. P., Introduction to
Thorlacius, A. O., 502.
Torricelli's experiments, 6, 27.
Torricellian vacuum, 27.
Toynbee's, Capt. Henry, barometric ob.
servations on the Atlantic, 102.
Trade-winds, 11, 451.
Trail, Mr W., a remarkable case of St
Elmo's fire, 595.
Travelling barometer, 36.
Trombes. See Whirlwinds.
Tuz Gul, saltest known lake, 247.
Tweeddale, Marquess of, 313.
Tyas's, Rev. R., How to use the B&-
Tyndall on the vapour of the atmo-
sphere, 15; observations on hail,
UNDERGROUND temperature, 254.
VAPOUR of the atmosphere as affecting
the temperature, 340; relation to
storms, 115, 513, 671, 687.
Vegetation, influence on temperature,
Vent du Mont Blanc, cause of, 217.
Ventnor as a winter and spring resort,
Vernier, mode of setting, in reading
barometers, 35; how to use it, 46.
Volta's electrometer, 580.
Wallace, Alexander, observations on
two thunderstorms, 587, 589.
Ward's, Colonel, observations with rain-
Warm or mild weather of February 1867,
281; November 1867, and September
Water barometer, 29; freezing and boil-
ing points in constructing thermome-
ters, 118; influence of its great spe-
cific heat on climate, 184; fresh and
salt, maximum densities and effects
on climate, 207.
Weather, Chap. XIV., page 330.
Wells's, Dr, Theory of Dew,' 13.
Wheatstone's, Professor, thermometer,
suggested use of, 212; experiment
showing duration of a flash of light-
Wheel barometers, why imperfect, 40.
Whirlwinds, 601; dust, of India and
Williams on making ice in Bengal,
Wilson's, Patrick, 'Memoirs of Great
Winds, Chap. XI., general causes, 446,
447; constant, 451; periodical, 451;
prevailing winds as determined by
differences of mean barometric pres-
sure, 457 et seq. ; in the Arctic re-
gions, 473; as illustrating Buys Bal-
lot's law of the winds, 474 ; variable,
482; direction and force as deter-
mined by the barometer, 515, 524 ;
flow in towards an area of low pres-
sure, and out from an area of high
pressure, 474, 475; velocity in storms,
530; table comparing different scales
of force, page 211, and Table VIII.,
Winter climates, best situations for re-
Yablonoi or Stanovoi Mountains, their
relation to the atmospheric pressure
of Asia, 105.
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