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atmosphere, 360; description of
clouds, '366; snow-crystals, 417; on
directions of wind in relation to

moon's changes, 651, 652.
Gulf Stream, temperature of, 233 ; its

influence on climate of Great Britain,

233, 262.
Guyot's Meteorological and Physical

les, 60, 88.

Ellis, W., on moon influence on cloud,

619.
English Channel, cause of gales there,

528.
Espy on clouds, 363; on charting storms,

501 ; charts of American storms, 538.
Etesian winds, 497.
Evapometer, 309.
Evaporation, 308; heat lost by, 312;

temperature of, 329; as affecting
sandy, peaty, and heavy soils, 315,

317.
Everett's, Professor J. D., observations

on complete saturation of the air, 319;
underground temperature at Green-

wich, 255.
Explosions in mines in relation to the

barometer, 526.
Extreme temperatures, their value,

158.

FAHRENHEIT's thermometer, 8, 120.
Farquharson, Rev. J., 353.
Fitzroy's, Admiral, storm-warnings, 23,

665 et seq. ; temperature of the sea,

228; barometer, 41.
Fleming's rain-gauge, 395.
Fogs of radiation, 347; where most pre-

valent, 355; locally distributed, 351 ;
on the coast, 354 ; accompanying
storms, their importance meteorologi.
cally, 357.
Forbes, Principal, on underground tem-

perature, 17, 254, 256 ; on an interrup-
tion of temperature, 299; on colours

of clouds, 631.
Forests, retardation of their daily maxi-

mum and minimum temperatures,
with the effect on climate, 180; as
affecting mists and rain, 180, 352; on

winter temperature, 218.
Fortin's barometer, 35.
Fournet's Rainfall of France, 19.
Franklin's experiment on atinospheric

electricity, 579; suggests lightning-
conductors, 594 ; theories for decrease

of rainfall with the height, 398.
Frost, frequency of occurrence as an

element of climate, 166; degree in
which it penetrates into different
soils, 170; may be predicted by the
hygrometer, 335.
Fulgurites, 592.
Galton, Francis, anti-cyclones, 475; on

small barometric disturbances, 521.
Gases, law of independent pressure, how

modified in the atmosphere, 307.
Glaisher, 17; barometric range for

Greenwich, 72; corrections for heat
and rain temperatures to reduce
to mean temperature, 152; experi-
ments on terrestrial radiation, 196,
199; on long and short grass, 200;
temperature at different heights dur-
ing. 212; hygrometric tables, 331 ;
balloon ascents in relation to humidity
of atmosphere, 336; to currents of

HADLEY propounds theory of trade-

winds, 11.
Hail, 432; where most common, 469.
Hailstones, different forms, 433.
Hailstones of Orkney, 28th July 1818,

596, 599; of France, 596, 598; of Cate-

let, 7th May 1865, 597.
Halos, 626.
Hansteen, 17; on auroras, 605, 609.
Harmattan, 494 ; probable cause, 569.
Harrison, Park, on moon's influence on

clouds and temperature, 650, 652.
Hartnup, John, on velocity of the wind

at Liverpool, 1st February 1868, 530.
Heights measured by thermometer,

119; measured by barometer, 62.
Henispherical-cup anemometer, 440.
Henley's quadrant electrometer, 580.
Henry, Joseph, 564.
Hermetic barometer, 45.
Herschel, Alexander, on meteors, 641.
Herschel, Sir J., observation on effect

of forests on rain, 352; on rotation of
wind in storms, 549, 564; on atmos-
pheric electricity, 586; on an oak-tree
struck by lightning, 592; on height of
aurora, 607; on temperature of stellar
spaces, 642; on moon's influence, 649.
Hicks's maximum and minimum ther-

mometer, 133.
Hoar-frost, 202; crystals of, 418.
Home, D. Milne, experiments on drain-

age, 316.
Houzeau, 615.
Howard's nomenclature of clouds, 369.
Howson's barometer, 42.
Humboldt's isothermal lines, 16; re-

mark on borary oscillation of barome-
ter in tropics, 63; current, tempera-

ture of, 234.
Humidity, absolute, how distributed,

336; relative, of the air, how calcu-
lated, 332 ; low, observed at Djeddah,
338; Corrimony, 337.
Hurricane of Calcutta, 5th October 1864,

541 ; of Guadaloupe, 6th September
1865, 540; West Indian, of 1st October
1866, 640; barometric fluctuations,
540, 541 ; wave of sea accompanying,

541.
Hurricane, moisture of air, 513; track

of centre, see Plate VIII.'; rate of its
progressive motion, 546; direction of
wind, 543 ; veering of wind, 548; ba-
rometer and winds at St Croix, and

H.M.S. Buzzard, 570.
Hurricanes, West Indian, time of occur-

rence, 551.

345.

Hydrometer, 245.
Hygrometers, invention of, 9; of ab-

sorption, 321 ; condensation, 324;
evaporation, 325.
Hygrometry of the atmosphere, 319.
Ice, its manufacture in Bengal, 210.
Interruptions of temperature determined

by the wind, 297, by distribution of
pressure, 298; not by meteors, 643;

use in forecasting weather, 646.
Ireland, climate of (see British Islands;

its influence on Great Britain, 273;
its importance on a system of storm-

warnings, 511.
Isabnormals, thermie, 275.
Isobarometric charts, Plates I., II.,

III.
Isocheimals, or lines of equal winter

temperature. See Isothermals for Jan-

uary
Isotherals, or lines of equal summer

temperature. See Isothermals for

July.
Isothermal charts, Plates IV., V., VI. ;

British islands for July and January,

page 121.

JAMES's, Col. Sir H., tables of pressure

and velocity of wind, page 364.
Jelinek, Dr Carl, 17, 87, 502.
Jevons's theory for decrease of rainfall

with the height, 398.
Johnston's, Dr A. K., Physical Atlas,'

551, 640.
KAEMTZ on height of, on frequency of

auroras, 606; clouds, 367.
Keith's, Dr George, observations on

temperature of North Sea in August

1866, 244,
Khamsin, 489.
King, barometer admirably adapted for

registering small barometric fluctua-

tions, 446, 600.
Kuppfer, 17, 87.
LAND and sea breezes, 447.
Lang, Andrew, 540.
Lakes, their influence on climate, 208,

209, 267.
Laughton, J. Knox, on the permanent

and periodic winds, 476.
Levanter, 497.
Le Verrier, 24.
Liais, observations on polarisation of

the atmosphere, 639.
Lightning, 589; duration of flash, 589.
Lightning-rods, 594.
Lind's anemometer, 443.
Lloyd, Dr H., 564.
Lommel, Dr E., on colours of clouds,

631.
Loomis, Professor, 506, 536; on low

barometer in storms, 565; on auroras,

606, 607, 608.
Low barometer, its probable cause, 567;

its influence in storms, 572.

Lowe, E. J., snow- crystals, 417; on

height of auroras, 607.
M'CLINTOCK'S, Capt., observations on

the aurora, 609.
Mackerel sky, 381.
Magnetism, terrestrial, in relation to the

sun and to the aurora, 610; to storms,

611.
Magnus, Professor, experiments on dia-

thermancy of dry and moist air,
Mann, Dr, on climate of Natal, 561.
Marine barometer, 36.
Marriotte's law, 383.
Martin on decrease of temperature with

height in cold weather, 212
Maury's ocean-charts, 21, 242, 564.
Maximum thermometers, 125.
Mean temperature, importance of re-

solving into the extremes which com-
pose it, 159, 160; vague meaning of,

157.
Meldrum, Charles, region of calms in

Indian Ocean in January, 110; on
rainfall of Mauritius, 405; on storms
of Indian Ocean, 553 to 563; a revolv-
ing storm, 566 ; on notification of
storms at Mauritius, 659 to 662.
Mercury, freezing-point of, 116.
“Merry dancers," 605.
Meteors, 641.
Milne's, Admiral Sir A., observation on

temperature of Gulf Stream, 243.
Minimum thermometer, 129.
Mist and fog, how caused, 346.
Mist on hills, 356.
Mistral, 497.
Mitchell's, Dr A., evapometer, 309; on
cold weather of May, 294; prognostics,

654.
Mock-moons, 627.
Mock-suns, 627.
Moffat's, Dr, ozone periods in relation

to weather and disease, 614.
Mohn, Professor, 502, 677.
Moisture of the atmosphere, Chap.

VIII., page 145.
Monsoons, 466; their effect on rainfall of

India, 469.
Moon's influence on weather, 648 et

seq.
NEUMAYER, 342
Neutral point of barometers, 34; of

atmospheric polarisation, 635, 636,

637.
Newton, Professor, 641.
Nile, its inundation dependent on baro-

metric pressure, 470.
Northers or Nortes, 496.
OCEAN. See Sea.
Olinstead on the November meteors,

641.
Ombrometer, or Rain-gauge, q. v.
Ord, Dr, observations on density of the

sea, 249.

Osler's anemometer, 442.
Ozone, 618.
Ozonometer, 615.
PAMPERO, 495.
Paraselenæ, 627.
Parhelia, 627.
Parry, €07.
Phillip's maximum thermometer, 126.
Phillip's observations on rain, 397.
Plantamour, Professor E., on the distri-

bution of temperature in Switzerland
during the winter of 1863-64, 215.
Plants, their destruction by frost, how

prevented, 335.
Pluviometer, or Rain-gauge, q. v.
Poey's table of hurricanes, 551.
Polarisation of the atmosphere, 633 ;

prognostics from, 653.
Poor man's barometer, 45.
Prediction of storms. See Storms and

Storm-Warnings.
Proctor's, James, evapometer, 309.
Prognostics from amount of moisture in

the air, 322; the cirrus cloud, 373; the
cumulus cloud, 377; the stratus cloud,
379; cirro-cumulus cloud, 381; cirro-
stratus, 383 ; cumulo-stratus, 385 ;
colours of clouds, 630, 632; rainbows,
621; silent lightning, 589; polarisation
of the atmosphere, 653. See Weather
and Storm-Warnings.
Puna winds, 485.
QUETELET, A., 17, 87; on an interruption

of temperature, 299.
Quetelet, Ad., meterology of Belgium,

152.

Rankin's, Dr W., observation on density

of the sea, 249.
Rao's, G. V. Jagga, rain-gauge, 395.
Reaumur's thermometer, 122.
Regnault's table of elastic force of va-

pour, page 362.
Reid, 564.
Renou on the rain-cloud, 393.
Return shock, 593.
Richmann, 579.
Robinson's anemometer, 440.
Romas, 579.
Romer, 7.
Ross, Sir J. C., case of serein, 394.
Rostaing, Captain de, on Fitzroy's

storm-warnings, 663.
Rubinson's observations on polarisation

of the atmosphere, 638.
Russell, R., remark on northers, 496 ;

pressures at great heights, 500; chart-
ing storms, 501; direction of course
of American storins, 538; Ireland as
an outpost in warning of storms,

664.
Rutherford's maximum thermometer,

125.
Rutherford's minimum thermometer,

129.

RADIATION of heat, 175; SOLAR, first dis-

cussed by Halley, 13; its effect on
earth's surface estimated by black-
bulb thermometer, 187; on land, 177;

on water, 183.
Radiation, why small in insular climates,
344; why great in elevated situations
and at the poles, 343; TERRESTRIAL,
191; first discussed by Lambert, 13;
how estimated, 197 ; its effects on dif-
ferent substances, 199; circumstances
affecting, 212.
Rain, general causes of, 392; specific

conditions required, 393: in relation

to atmospheric pressure, Chap. XI.
Rainbow, solar, 617; lunar, 620; extra-

ordinary. 619; supernumerary, 617.
Rain-cloud, 386.
Rainfall diminishes with the height

above the ground, theories to account
for, 398 ; cases of heavy falls, 400; re-
lation to storms, 514, in the region
of calms, 403 ; the tropics, 402, 407;
Hindostan, 404, 406; Europe, 408;

Mediterranean, 413; America, 414.
Rain-gauges, 395; size of, 396; position

of, 397.
Rainless regions of the globe, 399.
Rainy days, 401.

SABINE, General, on relation of terres-

trial magnetism to the sun, 610; on

storm-warnings, 666.
St Elmo's fire, 595.
St Martin's sumnier, 647.
Samiel, 492.
Sanctorio, inventor of the air-thermo-

meter, 7.
Saturation of the air, 319.
Saussure's hygrometer, 9, 321; on forms

of clouds, 376.
Schönbein on ozone, 613.
Schübler, 652
Scoresby's, Capt., observations on solar

radiation, 344; classification of snow-

crystals, 417.
Sea, density of, 245; causes of difference

in, 250; as affected by rains, 249.
Sea temperature, 223 ; at the surface,

226; daily range of, 205; round Scot-
land, 227; in different parts of the
globe, 228 ; depth at which it is uni-

formly 39°, 223
Sea and land, their daily range of

temperature in Scotland compared,

211.
Secchi, 611; Bulletino Meteorologico,

87.
Serein, 394.
Shooting stars, 641.
Simoom, 489; cause of high temperature,

178.
Siphon barometer, 39.
Sirocco, 492; cause of high temperature,

178.
Sleet, 426.
Smyth, Professor C. Piazzi, 87.
Snow, 417; influence on mean tempera-

ture of the soil, 253; limit of its fall,
420; cause of its colour, 421; red
and green, 422 ; how measured, 424;
natural snowballs, 425; use of, as a
protection to the soil in winter, 172,

423.
Snow-crystals, 417.
Snow-line, 427.
Soils - sandy, light, and heavy-how

affected by drainage, 313; by frost,

170.
Solano, 493.
Solar radiation, where best observed,

190.
South-east wind, as a prognostic, 656.
Springs in relation to mean temperature,

257.
Stephens on velocity of clonds, 391; on

crystals of hoar-frost, 418.
Stevenson's, T., box for thermometers,

136; barometric gradient, 531.
Stevenson, W., on motion of cirrus

cloud, 479, 654 ; 564.
Stewart, Balfour, freezing-point of mer.

cury, 116; on auroras and terrestrial
magnetism, 610.
Storms, Chap. XII., page 239; of Eu-

ROPR, 502, form and extent, 504 ; di-
rection of progressive motion, 505;
rate they travel, 510; general path,
512; relation to monthly barometric
range, 512; relation to tenperature
and moisture, 513; relation to rain
and cloud, 514 ; relation to wind, 515;
veering of the wind, 535; their spiral
rotation in relation to theory, 567;
regions of the globe where they chiefly
occur, 681 ; necessity for a more com-
plete investigation of, 25; prediction
of. 22 (see Storin - warnings); of the
MEDITERRANEAN, 509; of AMERICA,
536; of the TROPICS, 540; of South-
ERN Asia, Typhoons, 552; of the
INDIAN OCEAN, 553; of West Indies,

540. See Hurricanes.
Storm-warnings, as practised at Mauri-

tius, 659; Admiral Fitzroy, 22, 23;
large percentage of success, 666, 669;
canses of failures, 667; their practi-
cability, 669; requisites for carrying
them out, 671 et seq.; importance of
Scottish stations, 672; of Stornoway,
Iceland, the Azores, 673.
Storm-wave, 541.
Strachy, Lieut.-Col., on relation of the

temperature to vapour in the atmo-

sphere, 342.
Streamers, 605.
Skyes, Colonel, on a remarkable case of

great difference of pressure during a
cyclone, 547; on circular rainbows,

618.
Symons's, G. J., British rainfall investi-
gations, 19; rain-gauge, 397 ; defini.

tion of a "rainy day," 401.
Sympiesometer, 44.
Synchronous or synoptic charts indis-
pensable in studying storins, 498;
their construction, 499.

TAYLOR, Professor, 519, 564.
Temperature, mean daily, 140; its rela-

tion to atmospheric pressure, Chap.
VII., page 129; vague meaning of,
157; from maximun and minimum
thermometer, 150; of earth's crust,
secular cooling of, 258; underground,
254 ; of the soil, 252; as affected by
drainage, 313 ; of the atmosphere,
259; daily range of, 141 et seq., 161 ;
interruptions, 293 ; how affected by
physical configuration of earth's sur
face, 213; low, their distribution in
mountainous countries in winter and
during night, 215; increases with
height in cold weather, 212; decrease
with height, 277, 278; of the globe
varies during the year, 276; abnor.
mal, distribution of, 275 ; charts,
value of, 16; of evaporation, 329; of
Gulf Stream, 233, 243; of the sea,

see Sea; of stellar spaces, 642.
Tension of vapour. See Elastic force.
Theophrastus, 4.
Thermometers, 116 et seq.; invention of,

7; Fahrenheit, Reaumur, and Cen-
tigrade compared, 123, and Table V.,
page 361 ; box, directions for placing,
136, 138; directions for observing the
thermometer, 139; best hours for
observing, 148 ; spirit, method of set-
ting them right when out of order,
131; beights measured by, 119.
Thomas, Capt., 204, 205, 249.
Thomson, Sir William, on secular cool.

ing of the earth, 258.
Thomson's, Dr D. P., Introduction to

Meteorology,' 435.
Thorlacius, A. O., 502.
Thunder, 590.
Thunderstorms, 587.
Tornados, 569.
Torricelli's experiments, 6, 27.
Torricellian vacuum, 27.
Toynbee's, Capt. Henry, barometric ob.

servations on the Atlantic, 102.
Trade-winds, 11, 451.
Trail, Mr W., a remarkable case of St

Elmo's fire, 595.
Travelling barometer, 36.
Trombes. See Whirlwinds.
Tuz Gul, saltest known lake, 247.
Tweeddale, Marquess of, 313.
Tyas's, Rev. R., How to use the B&-

rometer,' 658.
Tyndall on the vapour of the atmo-
sphere, 15; observations on hail,

435.
Typhoons, 552.
UNDERGROUND temperature, 254.
VAPOUR of the atmosphere as affecting

the temperature, 340; relation to

storms, 115, 513, 671, 687.
Vegetation, influence on temperature,

179.
Vent du Mont Blanc, cause of, 217.

Ventnor as a winter and spring resort,

157.
Vernier, mode of setting, in reading

barometers, 35; how to use it, 46.
Volta's electrometer, 580.
WALL, 479.
Wallace, Alexander, observations on

two thunderstorms, 587, 589.
Ward's, Colonel, observations with rain-

gauges, 396.
Warm or mild weather of February 1867,

281; November 1867, and September
1865, 283.
Water barometer, 29; freezing and boil-

ing points in constructing thermome-
ters, 118; influence of its great spe-
cific heat on climate, 184; fresh and
salt, maximum densities and effects

on climate, 207.
Waterspouts, 604.
Weather, Chap. XIV., page 330.
Weather-glass, 40.
Wells's, Dr, Theory of Dew,' 13.
Wheatstone's, Professor, thermometer,

suggested use of, 212; experiment
showing duration of a flash of light-
ning, 589.

Wheel barometers, why imperfect, 40.
Whirlwinds, 601; dust, of India and

Africa, 602.
Williams on making ice in Bengal,

210.
Wilson's, Patrick, 'Memoirs of Great

Frosts,' 13.
Winds, Chap. XI., general causes, 446,

447; constant, 451; periodical, 451;
prevailing winds as determined by
differences of mean barometric pres-
sure, 457 et seq. ; in the Arctic re-
gions, 473; as illustrating Buys Bal-
lot's law of the winds, 474 ; variable,
482; direction and force as deter-
mined by the barometer, 515, 524 ;
flow in towards an area of low pres-
sure, and out from an area of high
pressure, 474, 475; velocity in storms,
530; table comparing different scales

of force, page 211, and Table VIII.,
Winter climates, best situations for re-

sidences, 221.
Yablonoi or Stanovoi Mountains, their
relation to the atmospheric pressure
of Asia, 105.

page 364.

THE END.

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