first four of which are termed Liquids, two or more letters giving a distinct sound make a Syllable, one or more syllables a Word, and words methodically arranged form Sentences.

Language is a mode of communicating our ideas to others.

The English Grammar is a selection of observations calculated to furnish a system of rules for speaking or writing the English Language with propriety.

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N the English Language there are ten

parts of speech, Article, Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Participle, Adverb, Conjunction, Prepofition, and Interjection.

OF ARTICLES. ARTICLES are used before Nouns to point out the extent of their signification.


OF NOUNS. A Noun or SUBSTANTIVE is a word ex. pressing the name of a person, place, or thing


Nouns have two NUMBERS, the Singular and Plural, three GENDERS, the Masculine, Feminine and Neuter, and three Cases, the Nominative, Genitive and Objective.

The Genitive case is sometimes formed by adding s with an apostrophe, to the Nominative.



Things without life when personified, are considered as masculine or feminine.

All Nouns are of the third person unless expressed with their pronouns in the first of second person.

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A PRONOUN being the fubstitute of a noun, partakes of all its properties - viz. Persons, Genders, Numbers and Cafes.

Pronouns may be divided into four claffes; Personal, Relative, Pofleffive and Demonstrative.



OF ADJECTIVES. An Adjective is a word that expresses the quality or property of a noun or pronoun, and has three degrees of comparison; the Positive, the Comparative and the Superlative.


OF VERBS AND PARTICIPLES. A Verb is a word that expresses the acting or being of a noun or pronoun.

The Verb that expresses action is active, and that which expresses being is neuter.

Verbs have five Modes--the Indicative, the Imperative, the Potential, the Subjunctive and the Infinitive.

When the action or being is declared or interrogatively expressed, the Verb is in the INDICATIVE MODE; when authoritatively expressed, the IMPERATIVE; when it expresses possibility or impossibility, propriety or impropriety, the POTENTIAL; when conditionally expressed, the SUBJUNCTIVE; and when expressed indefinitely, the INFINITIVE.

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There are six Tenses; the Present Tense denoting the Time Present; the Imperfect, the Time Past indeterminately; the Perfect, the Time Past determinately; the Pluperfect, the Time Paft previous to some other point of time; and the Future Perfect, which expreffes the accomplishment of the action at a future period.

The INDICATIVE Mode has fix TENSES the PRESENT, emphatically expressed by the auxiliary, Do, and its inflections; the IMPERFECT, sometimes expressed by Did, and its inflections: the Perfect, expressed by Have, and its inflections; the PLUPERFECT, by Had, and its inflections; the FUTURE, by SHALL and Will, and their inflections; the FUTURE PERFECT, by SHALL and WILL, with their inflections, and HAVE.


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