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The first great contribution of the State in favor of higher education was made by the Legislature in the year 1779. The university was granted certain escheated lands estimated to be of the value of twentyfive thousand pounds, or $66,666.66. Nothing more was done for the university by the State except to grant three thousand dollars for a botanic garden in 1807,” to exempt its real estate from taxation for fifteen years beginning in 1832,” and to appropriate the sum of two hundred thousand dollars for the building of the university hospital in 1871.

It is safe to say that the university has received, from its earliest existence as an academy, pecuniary aid from the State amounting to $271,266.66, besides one thousand six hundred dollars raised by means"

of lotteries. COLLEGES.

From the year 1783 to the year 1836 thirteen colleges were incorporated within the State. The first of these was Dickinson College at Carlisle, chartered in 1783. Three years after its incorporation it received a grant of ten thousand acres of land and five hundred pounds; in 1788 a lot of ground in Carlisle; the following year the privilege of raising two thousand dollars by lottery; in 1791, four thousand dollars and in 1795 five thousand dollars on condition that any number of students not exceeding ten should have free tuition in the common branches for a time not to exceed two years. In 1803 the State loaned the college six thousand dollars, and in 1806 fourthousand dollars more, taking a mortgage on the college lands. In 1819 the State cancelled the debt, principal and interest, but bought back the lands for six thousand dollars in 1821, and in the same year made an appropriation of two thousand dollars per annum for five years. Subsequently, in 1826, the State granted three thousand dollars annually for seven years. Dickinson must have received from the legislative appropriations at least sixty thousand dollars besides the grants of land.

Franklin College, chartered in 1787, “received with its charter a grant of ten thousand acres of land in the western part of the State,” a lot of land the following year in the town of Lancaster, and in 1819 a grant of four hundred and fifty-five acres.

The grants to Jefferson College, incorporated in 1802, are as follows: In 1806 three thousand dollars, on condition that four poor children should be educated free; and in 1821 the sum of one thousand dollars annually for five years; in 1826 one thousand dollars a year for four years; and in 1832 two thousand dollars a year for four years. This last appropriation was made on the condition that six students receive free tuition for four years, and after that twenty-four students be fitted for teaching in the common schools.

| Wickersham, 377. (One pound equalled about $3.33+.) *Afterward applied to general purposes (Laws of 1836–37, 39). * Laws of 1831–32, 517.

ACADEMIES AND SEMINARIES. 157

Washington College, incorporated in 1806, received from the State the sum of three thousand dollars in money and five thousand acres of land. Between the years 1820 and 1835 the State donated at different times the sum of seventeen thousand dollars to this institution. Allegheny College, located at Meadville, and incorporated in 1817, received with its charter two thousand dollars, and subsequently seventeen thousand dollars additional, prior to 1835. The Western University at Allegheny, incorporated in 1819, received an appropriation from the State of two thousand four hundred dollars for five years beginning with 1826. Lafayette College received in 1834 a grant of twelve thousand dollars; Madison College, in 1828, five thousand dollars; Pennsylvania College, in 1834, eighteen thousand dollars; Marshall College, in 1837, twelve thousand dollars. From the State Superintendent's Report of 1838 the following is taken: “The colleges have already been tried as a means of supplying teachers, and with little success. Within the last eight years $48,500 have been given by the State to five of these institutions, principally on condition that they should instruct a certain number of persons (ninety-one) for teachers of English schools, annually for a specified time.”! In the year 1838 the Legislature passed an act granting to colleges, seminaries, and academies annual aid. The following is that part of the act pertaining to colleges: “To each University and College now incorporated, or which may be incorporated by the legislature, and maintaining at least four professors, and instructing constantly at least one hundred students, one thousand dollars.” This law was to have been in force for ten years, but was repealed after the sixth year of its operation. During this time the sum of $46,615.50 was appropriated, and this virtually ended State aid to colleges in Pennsylvania, if we except five thousand dollars given to the Polytechnic College and the appropriations to the State College.

ACADEMIES AND SEMINARIES.

The plan of the legislative authorities of Pennsylvania in regard to education seems to have been to provide universities, colleges, and seminaries of learning, that these might furnish teachers for the common schools. For forty years after the organization of the State government there were no laws enacted for the creation of a public school system. Nearly all of the educational legislation was in favor of academies and seminaries. During this period many acts were passed favoring these institutions, and nearly three hundred thousand dollars were spent in their aid. In 1833 there were two universities, eight colleges, and fifty academies, all of which had been liberally aided by the State.

* Pennsylvania Education Report, 1838, 27.

It was a recognition of the principle that the higher education is necessary to the existence of the lower, and that the State has a right, and owes it as a duty to the people, to provide such when necessary for the same. The seminaries and academies of Pennsylvania established at this period (prior to 1838) cannot be strictly classified under the head of higher education. The majority of those established fall under a classification of secondary instruction, while a few may be classified with institutions of higher learning. Yet they are worthy of notice in the State structure of education, on account of the relation which they bear to the State policy and to institutions of higher education. The order of development of the State system was, university, college, academy, seminary, and common school. Before the firm establishment of the last, common schools, the State policy in regard to the other classes of institutions mentioned had changed. From 1784 to 1829, sixty academies and seminaries were chartered, each receiving, with two or three exceptions, an endowment by the State either in money or land, or in both. The aggregate amount of the appropriations by the Legislature to these institutions during the period was $118,900 and over 37,480 acres of land." Dr. Burrowes, Secretary of the State, reports in 1837 to the constitutional convention as follows: “Academies from forty-five counties have from time to time received aid from the State, sometimes in money, generally in the proportion of two thousand dollars to each county, amounting to $106,900, and sometimes in land, whose value it is difficult to estimate, but supposed to be worth at least $135,000, making a gross amount of $241,900.”” The law of 1838° caused a rapid increase in the amount expended in endowments and appropriations for academies and seminaries. Within a short time after its passage, many institutions were chartered, seven of which received the regular two thousand dollar endowment, and others received land. The regular appropriations to acade. mies and female seminaries for the six years following its passage were as follows:*

No. No. feYear acade. Appropria- male | Appropriaears. mies. tions. semi- tions. naries. 1838---------------------------------------------------------. 43 $3,790.00 15 $700.00 1839-------------------, -------------------------------------- 52 21,329.87 29 8, 413.83 1840---------------------------------------------------------. 57 21,237.33 33 9,977.08 1841---------------------------------------------------------- 60 23, 802.72 34 13,500.02 1842---------------------------------------------------------- 65 16,001.80 41 13,044.89 1843---------------------------------------------------------. 64 27,929.04 37 10,444.27 * Wickersham, 379–80. * See School Legislation. * Quoted by Wickersham. * Wickersham, 386–7.

PENNSYLLANIA STATE COLLEGE. 159

The total amount appropriated during this period was, by general law, $171,170.85, and by special appropriation, $14,000. Prior to this there had been granted $241,900, making a total grant to academies and seminaries of $427,070.85.

PENNSYLVANIA STATE COLLEGE.

At a meeting of the State Agricultural Society of Pennsylvania, held at Harrisburg, in January, 1853, measures were adopted for the establishment of an agricultural school. As a result of these measures the Farmers' High School was incorporated by an act approved April 13, 1854. In July of the following year' the executive committee of the State Society donated the sum of ten thousand dollars, and two hundred acres of land in Centre County, to the school. Centre County also gave ten thousand dollars for the purchase of two hundred acres of land joining the site, for the benefit of the school.”

Private donations followed, and in the year 1857 the Legislature granted the sum of fifty thousand dollars for the support of the school, on condition that a like sum be obtained by private donation. In 1859 the school was formally opened, there being in this year one hundred and twenty-three pupils in attendance. By reason of this successful showing the Legislature was prevailed upon to appropriate an additional fifty thousand dollars in the year 1861. The following year the name of the school was changed to that of “Agricultural College of Pennsylvania.”

Subsequently the college received the United States grant of seven hundred and eighty thousand acres of land, and the scrip yielded from sale the sum of $439,186.80.” Of this sum, $43,886.50 were used to purchase an experimental farm and the remainder was placed to the credit of the college, as a permanent endowment. The latter sum had increased by investment to the amount of $410,290.50 in 1872, when the Legislature raised the endowment fund, by a special act, to an even half-million." The name of the college was changed again, in 1874, to “Pennsylvania State College.” Subsequently the Legislature granted to the college, at different times, the total amount of $154,285.” The entire amount granted is as follows:

From the Legislature to Farmers' High School------------------------. $100,000.00
From the Legislature to State College --------------------------------- 274,609.00
From United States land scrip----------------------------------------- 451, 187.00
From other sources --------------------------------------------------- 164,285.00
Estimated value of property (1885)” -----...----...------------...-------- 451, 615, 17

1 Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1868, 259.
*Ibid., 260.

9 Laws of 1861.

* Wickersham, 434.

* Laws of 1872, 39.

6 Wickersham, 434.

7Ibid.

SUMMARY OF GRANTs. State appropriations to the

University of Pennsylvania, about---------------------------...------- $287,267

Colleges, academies, and seminaries ---------------------------------- 427,071

State College.------------------------------------------------------- 374,609

Total grants.----------------------------------------------------- 1,088,947
NEW JERSEY.

ATTITUDE OF THE STATE.

In New Jersey, as in Delaware, education was, in early times, closely connected with religion. “The school-house was the general attendant of the place of worship.” The basis for a settled school-fund was laid in 1683 by setting apart for educational purposes the proceeds of the sale or lease of a valuable island in the Delaware. In 1693 the General

Assembly of East New Jersey passed an “Act for the establishment of

school-masters in the province; ” the election of three school commissioners in each town was authorized and compulsory taxation provided for.1

Higher education was first made possible by the establishment of the College of New Jersey in 1746. While the attitude of the colony and the State toward this institution has been friendly, aid has been granted only in the form of a liberal charter, amended from time to time on the petition of the trustees. “The Legislature of New Jersey never contributed any funds for sustaining its oldest college.”

New Jersey's share in the land granted for agricultural colleges (forty thousand acres) was accepted by an act of March 21, 1863,” and in the following year the proceeds of the sales of scrip were granted to the scientific department of Rutgers College.” The annual income from this source is $6,960."

New Jersey's position, with reference to higher education, has been passive, though not unfriendly.

DELAWARE.
EARLY EDUCATION.

The first settlement in Delaware was made by the Swedes in 1638. In Sweden, at this time, the elements of learning were probably more widely diffused than in any other country of Europe, and it is not surprising to meet with provisions for education in the early documents

1 Raum : History of New Jersey, II, 285. Report of the United States Commissioner of Education for 1876, 262.

* Maclean: History of the College of New Jersey, I, 67.

* Laws of 1863, 441.

“Laws of 1864, 650. Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1867–68, 187.

*Reports of Rutgers Scientific School.

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