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with pride by the Legislature. But unfortunately the nature of the funds with which it was endowed in a short time rendered it odious to some and cooled the ardor of others. The torrent of prejudice could not be stemmed, the fostering protection of the Legislature was withheld, and the institution left dependent upon private munificence. Individuals contributed not only to relieve its necessities, but to rear up its edifices and establish a permanent fund for its support. * * * With the aid thus derived from individuals, together with occasional funds derived from escheats, the institution has been maintained thus far. The Legislature, after exhausting its patience in endeavoring to collect arrearages of debts due to the State, transferred to the trustees of the University those arrearages, with the hope that they would be able to enforce payment. But no better fortune has attended their efforts than those of the State, and this transfer has proved of no avail to the institution. The surplus remaining in the hands of administrators where the next of kin have made no claim within seven years have also been transferred to the trustees, but this has as yet yielded a very small sum, and probably never will yield much." * The General Assembly made no further provision for the support of the State University until 1859. The Bank of North Carolina was then chartered, with a view to promote the interests of the University. The trustees were allowed to subscribe to an amount of stock not to exceed two hundred thousand dollars. The trustees subscribed, and lost through repudiation of the War debt by the convention of 1865, the State having previously secured the control of all bank property.” The amount of the funds of the University over and above liabilities was $148,520.26, which was entirely lost. In 1866 the General Assembly granted the sum of seven thousand dollars for the relief of the institution, which, together with the sum granted in 1790, makes a total of seventeen thousand dollars, the entire amount appropriated for the support of the University from the public treasury prior to the date of 1867, during a period of eighty-eight years from the date of the charter. A modification of one of the old laws was made in 1868–69 by an act which declares that property, money, or real estate of whatsoever kind, remaining in the hands of the executors for a term of five years unrecovered and unclaimed, shall revert to the University.” Another provision is found in the revised statutes enacted for the purpose of assisting the University, which declares that the proceeds of all unclaimed freight, if not returned to the owner within five years, shall revert to the University.” Apparently, however, the Legislature is learning by degrees that a

| Report of Superintendent of Public Instruction (Alexander McIver), 1874, 20–21. * Memorial by Governor Worth to the General Assembly, 1867. *Laws of 1868–69, chap. 113, sec. 76.

*Revised Statutes, 1883, sec. 1987.

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA. 197

university can not be supported, nor even materially aided, by such gifts as the above, which are quite different from a constant income of twenty thousand dollars per annum.

THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE GRANT.

The State of North Carolina received two hundred and seventy thousand acres of land scrip from the grant of 1862. This scrip was transferred to the University in 1867 upon the condition that the terms of the grant should be fulfilled, and that one student from each county, appointed by the commissioners, should receive tuition and room-rent free at the University. The scrip was sold at fifty cents per acre, yielding the sum of one hundred and thirty-five thousand dollars, ten thousand dollars of which was devoted to building purposes.

In 1868 the trustees invested this fund of one hundred and twentyfive thousand dollars in State securities, part of which were valid, but bearing no interest, and part of which were worthless. In 1874 the Legislature came to the relief of the land-scrip fund, by directing the State treasurer to issue to the trustees of the University a certificate of indebtedness to the amount of one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars, bearing interest at 6 per cent. per annum from January 1, 1875, the interest payable semi-annually. By an act of the Legislature in 1887 the interest arising from this fund was ordered to be transferred to the account of the Agricultural and Mechanic Arts College as soon as the college should be ready for use.

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RECENT APPROPRIATIONS.

The General Assembly in 1881 appropriated the sum of five thousand dollars' annually for the support of the University, and in 1885 increased this amount to twenty-thousand dollars. The State has also made appropriations for the Agricultural and Mechanic Arts College to the amount of fifteen thousand five hundred dollars.

* RESTRICTIVE LAWS.

Notwithstanding the constant vicissitudes and struggles of this noble institution for existence, its value to North Carolina and to the country at large has been and is very great. Its attitude toward advanced learning is such as to deserve the earnest support of all classes of people throughout the State. History reveals the fact, however, that the zeal of various denominations for the advancement of their several schools has more than once crippled the institution in its best work.

Sometimes it is urged against State institutions that they do not tend to increase morals and religion; but the precautions taken by the

*Revised Statutes, sec. 2638; Laws of 1881, chap. 141, sec. 1. This law provide" for the application of the appropriation for the special instruction of teachers.

Legislature of North Carolina, prompted no doubt by the faculty and trustees, are quite remarkable.

It was provided in 1821 that theatricals should not be held within five miles of Chapel Hill without the consent of three members of the faculty." Afterward this act was enlarged so as to prohibit wire dancing and the exhibition of natural or artificial curiosities.” No gaming table, should be set up within five miles of the University. No games of chance or billiards should be indulged in by the students. No horse. racing or cock-fighting should be indulged in by any one within five miles of the University under a penalty of one hundred dollars.” No election of a member of Congress was allowed to be held at the seat of the University,” and it was provided in the Revised Statutes of 1883 that it is against the law for persons to indulge in election treats within four miles of the University.”

No license could be granted for the sale of spirituous liquors at retail within 2 miles of the institution, and merchants were prohibited from selling goods, wines, or spirituous liquors to students within 2 miles. These laws were collated and modified somewhat, but are still extant in their principal points in the revised statutes of 1883. It seemed to be the policy of the State to remove far from the institution all evil influences, and all things calculated to distract the minds or injure the morals of students. On the other hand, the rules of the faculty and the trustees in regard to moral and religious duties exceed the action of the Legislature in rigid requirements.

SUMMARY OF GRANTS.

University. In 1791, loan and fund gift -----------------------------------------------. $10,000 In 1866, appropriation----------------------------------------------------- 7,000 Annual appropriation, 1881 to 1885 ($5,000) ...... .................... --... 20,000 Annual appropriation, 1885 to 1889 ($20,000) ---...----...-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 80,000 Other appropriations (see below)--------------------------------------.... 223,080

Agricultural College. Appropriations.-----------------------------------------------------...----. 15,500

Total.--------------------------------- ------------, ------------‘. . . . $355,580

The following summary is kindly furnished me by the president of the University of North Carolina, Kemp P. Battle." (1) The State gave the university escheats of lands, including land warrants granted Revolutionary soldiers. The receipts for these came in slowly and spasmodically. The total amount received from this source is estimated at two hundred thousand dollars, of which one hundred and fifty thousand went into a permanent endowment, and

Laws of 1821, chap. 22, p. 17. “Ibid., p. 17. * Revised Statutes (1837), chap. 116. *Revised Statutes, 1883, sec. 2644. * Laws of 1823, chap. 13, p. 16. "Letter dated March 4, 1889.

souTH CAROLINA. 199

was lost by the results of the War. The remainder was spent in paying professors and for other current expenses. (2) Ten thousand dollars in cash were appropriated for building purposes prior to 1800; fourteen thousand for the same purposes since 1800, and seven thousand in 1867 for paying professors. (3) Four thousand dollars in bricks for building purposes. (4) Five thousand dollars per annum from 1881 to 1885, or twenty thousand"dollars. (5) Twenty thousand dollars annually from 1885 to 1889, or eighty thousand dollars. This would give a total appropriation to date of $335,000. If we add to this sum $5,080, the proceeds of two lotteries granted by law in 1803, it swells the total to $340,080, representing the State appropriations to the University of North Carolina.

souTH CAROLINA.” COLONIAL EDUCATION.

“It is a gratifying fact in the history of Carolina that as soon as the English settlers placed their feet upon its soil they gave the most earnest attention to the business of education.”* The earnest example of this educational spirit is found in the formation of a public library at Charleston, which the Assembly in 1700 placed under the control of the Episcopal minister there resident.” From the first, education was assisted by public money. We find the Assembly providing for a free school as early as 1710.” This act did not go into operation in the form intended and was superseded two years later by more comprehensive legislation. By an act of December 12, 1712," commissioners were designated to take charge of all legacies that had been left for a free school, to take up land in Charleston, and to build a school-house and houses for the teachers.

Instruction was to be given in grammar and other arts and sciences, and also in the principles of the Christian religion. The master must “be of the religion of the Church of England and conform to the same,” and “becapable to teach the learned languages, that is to say, Latin and Greek tongues.” He was to have the use of the land and buildings of the school and a salary of one hundred pounds a year, to be paid out of the public treasury, for which he was to teach twelve scholars free. For all others he was to receive four pounds a year. Provision was also made for an usher and for a master to teach writing and mathe. matics, each of whom was to have a salary of not over fifty pounds from the public treasury, besides fees from each scholar. It was enacted at the same time that any school-master settled in a country parish and approved by the vestry should receive ten pounds a year from the public treasury, and each vestry was permitted to draw from the same source twelve pounds towards building a school-house in each of the country parishes." This act repealed an earlier act of the same year, which had granted the school-master for the parish of St. James, Goose Creek, sixteen pounds a year from the public treasury.” In 1756 it was provided that the school-master at Dorchester should have yearly fifty pounds proclamation money out of the public treasury. In return for this he was to teach ten poor scholars free.”

" Smith, 59.

*See Education in South Carolina, by C. Meriwether. Circular of Information No. 3, 1888, Bureau of Education.

*La Borde: History of South Carolina College, 1.

*Statutes at Large of South Carolina, VII, 13. Ramsay: History of South Carolina, II, 196.

*Statutes at Large, II, 342. Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1876, 362.

*Statutes at Large, II, 389. Ramsay, II, 197. Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1876, 362.

Although these instances of public aid occur, education was largely carried on by private contributions. Sir Francis Nicholson, the first royal Governor, contributed to the support of education and urged its importance upon the inhabitants, and his influence is a partial explanation of the many private donations of this period. The activity of the Assembly was chiefly confined to forming centers, about which private donations might gather. By the end of the colonial period the various free schools gave the inhabitants of the province opportunity for instruction in the common branches and in the rudiments of Latin, Greek, and mathematics.

EARLY COLLEGES.

The colleges founded toward the close of the last century form a transition from the free or Latin schools of the colonial period to the South Carolina College. State aid was manifested in gifts of land for building-sites, in permission to hold lotteries, and in grants of the escheated lands in certain districts. The last-mentioned form of aid was also frequent in the case of academies.

Legacies had been left at various times to the first college that should be founded. - These were divided equally among the three colleges which the Legislature chartered in 1785.4 These colleges were located at Winnsborough, Ninety-Six, and Charleston. The college at NinetySix (College of Cambridge) did not flourish. In 1792 the trustees were authorized to hold a lottery for its benefit,” and in 1803 the property

* Statutes at Large, II, 295. Ramsay, II, 198. Ramage, Local Government and Free Schools in South Carolina, Johns Hopkins University Studies, Vol. I.

*Statutes at Large, II, 377.

3 Ibid., IV, 23.

“Ibid., 674.

*Acts of Assembly (Columbia, 1808), I, 258.

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