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SOUTH CAROLINA COLLEGE. 201

was sold for debt. Better success attended the College of Charleston. The act of 1785 vested in it the land before given for a free school in that city. In 1823 the college received a considerable grant of es: cheated lands,” and in 1854 it was given four thousand dollars in money. The college is still in existence.” In 1795 all confiscated property in the district of Beaufort and all the vacant grants in the town of Beaufort were granted to a college to be established there.” “All the seminaries of learning * * * * in the interior part of this State, being, for some fatal cause, become extinct,” a college was established at Alexandria in 1797,” and two years later it was granted certain escheats."

These it is believed comprise all the instances of public aid to the colleges of the early period.

SOUTH CAROLINA COLLEGE.

The policy of multiplying institutions of limited means failed to meet the educational needs of the State. Governor Drayton drew attention to this fact in 1801 in his message to the Legislature, and urged upon that body the foundation of a State College, established and fostered by the Legislature and under its direct control." The suggestion was favorably received, and the same year the South Carolina College was incorporated. Fifty thousand dollars were appropriated to erect buildings and six thousand dollars yearly for the support of the college.” The college was opened in 1805. From its establishment until 1863, when it was closed on account of the War, yearly appropriations, amounting in the aggregate to $1,248,797,” were made to the institution by the State. During much of this time the State supported from one to three students at the college.

In 1865 the college was revived as the University of South Carolina." Since that time the State has given the university in yearly appropriations $499,911.28. From 1873 to 1876, the period when the institution was open to colored students, $44,200 additional were given in scholarships. In 1877 the university was closed, and for the next four years the only appropriations made were for keeping the buildings in order. In 1881 the university was re-opened, with separate colleges for the

1 La Borde, 6.

* Statutes at Large, VI, 211.

* A short account of the institution is given in “South Carolina; Resources, etc.” (Charleston, 1883), pp. 490 fs.

* Acts of Assembly, II, 65.

* Ibid., 185.

6 Statutes at Large, V, 364.

7 La Borde, 8.

*Acts of Assemby, II, 406. The act of incorporation is given in full in La Borde, 11.

* Definite appropriations for insurance do not appear before 1828, although it was ordered that the buildings should be insured in 1819.

10 Statutes at Large, XIII, 297. La Borde, 506, 573.

f

white and colored students. The total amount of money appropriated by the State down to 1887, exclusive of scholarships, was $1,748,708.28. The institution does not seem to have gotten all of this, as President McBryde says that from 1801 to 1888 $1,446,481 were received from annual appropriations.”

STATE MEDICAL COLLEGE.

The medical college of South Carolina at its foundation in 1825 received from the State ten thousand dollars for buildings and apparatus.” In 1853 it received a further grant of twenty thousand dollars,

THE MILITARY ACADEMY.

In 1842 the Legislature voted eight thousand dollars for a military school at the Arsenal at Columbia, and sixteen thousand dollars for a military school at the Citadel in Charleston, in lieu of the like sums before appropriated for the Arsenal and Magazine Guard at Columbia and the Citadel and Magazine Guard in Charleston.* This was the origin of the South Carolina Military Academy. In 1845, on the failure of an attempt to unite them, the Arsenal became auxiliary to the Citadel, providing for the instruction of the entering class." In 1861 it was enacted that the two academies should together form the South Carolina Military Institute, still retaining their distinctive titles." They continued on this basis until 1864, when they were closed. In 1882 the South Carolina Military Academy was opened at Charleston as a branch of the State university, and granted a yearly appropriation on condition that it should educate and maintain, free of charge, a certain number of cadets.”

During every year of its activity the institution has received money from the State. Down to and including 1864, the appropriations amounted to $916,021.57,” and since 1881 $128,270.50 has been granted, making a total of $1,044,291.07. In addition, beneficiary cadets were supported by the State for several years. The training has been by no means purely military; good literary and scientific instruction has also been given. The appropriations should not be regarded as entirely . for educational purposes. -

THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.

The Constitution of 1868, after declaring that “the General Assembly shall provide for the maintenance of the State university,” goes on to direct that provision be made, as soon as practicable, for the establishment

Resources, etc., of South Carolina, 488. "Statutes at Large, XII, 744. * Letter of November 28, 1888. 7 Acts of Assembly, 727. * Statutes at Large, VI, 280. *Appropriations were very much in* I bid., XI, 224. creased during the War, reaching

* Resources, etc., of South Carolina, 509. $147,200 in 1864,

SUMMARY OF – GRANTS. 203

of an agricultural college, and that the land appropriated by Congress for the latter purpose, be taken charge of." Accordingly, the Legislature accepted the donation the same year, and ordered that the proceeds of the land sales should be invested in United States bonds or South Carolina six per cents.” In 1872 the Agricultural and Mechanical College was established at Orangeburg in connection with the Claflin University. It was to be supported on the interest of the proceeds of the land sales.” Its income decreased from $11,508 in 1872 to $7,500 in 1876. In 1879 it was enacted that “the State Treasurer should issue to the trustees of the University of South Carolina a certificate of State stock in the sum of $191,800, bearing interest at six per cent, * * * to be held instead of the Agricultural College bonds, * * * heretofore used by the financial agent for general State purposes.” Provision was made at the same time for a college for white students, in addition to the one for colored students, to be established and maintained out of the same fund. As far as necessary the grounds and property of the University of South Carolina were to be used for the new college, which was established in 1880.* Up to 1881, when the appropriations became confused with those for the State university, the Agricultural College had received from the permanent fund $65,516.” The interest for the succeeding seven years would amount to $80,556.

EXEMPTION FROM TAXATION.

The Constitution of 1868 exempts from taxation all buildings and premises actually occupied by colleges and institutions of learning.”

SUMMARY OF GRANTS.

We thus find the idea of State aid running through all the educational history of South Carolina, from 1710 to the present time. The policy has been generally that of annual appropriations. Frequent instances of public assistance occur among the colonial free schools and the colleges of the early period, while the Military Academy has received regular appropriations. But since the foundation of South Carolina College, the education of the State has had its center there, and there the State has been most liberal in its support.

* Art. X, sec. 9; Poore's Charters and Constitutions, 1661. * Statutes at Large, XIV, 169.

* Acts of Assembly, 172.

“Ibid., 86.

* Resources, etc., of South Carolina, 488. * No appropriation is given for 1873–74. * Art. IX, sec. 5; Poore's Charters and Constitution, 1659.

APPROPRIATIONS FOR 1887–88.1

South Carolina College---------------------------------------------------- $37,000
South Carolina Military Academy.----...--------- - - - - - - - - - - - - -------- ,.... 20,400
Claflin University --------------------------------------------------------- 5,000
$62,400
The appropriations of State money may be thus summarized :
South Carolina College. --------------------------------------------. $1,748,708. 28
South Carolina Military Academy ----------------------------------. 1,044, 291.07
South Carolina Medical College ------------------------------------- 30,000.00
College of Charleston .......* - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4,000.00
$2,826,999.35
- -
GEORGIA.2

EARLY EDUCATION.

The earliest evidence of the attitude of Georgia toward education, as shown in her laws, is found in the Constitution of 1777,” which directs that “schools shall be erected in each county, and supported at the general expense of the State.” Six years later one thousand acres of land were given to each county for the support of schools,” and an academy was established at Augusta, and endowed with public land, not to exceed two thousand acres.” These were the first steps in State education.

TJNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA.

The University of Georgia traces its origin to an act of 1784, laying out the counties of Franklin and Washington, by which forty thousand acres of land were reserved for the endowment of a college." In the following year the university was chartered." In 1801 it received a private donation of six hundred and thirty acres of land near what is now the city of Athens, and there, soon afterward, it opened its doors.”

It was at first thought best to lease the lands of the university and apply the rent to its support; but, as this proved unprofitable, the lands were sold, payment being secured by bond and mortgage. These bonds and mortgages were deposited in the State treasury, and a warrant issued for two-thirds of the amount they covered. As the State did MEDICAL COLLEGES IN GEORGIA. 205

"Letter from J. H. Rice, State Superintendent of Education, July 20, 1888.

*See Education in Georgia, by Charles Edgeworth Jones. (Circular of Information No. 4, 1888, Bureau of Education.)

* Art. LIV, Poore: Charters and Constitutions, 383.

*White: Statistics of Georgia, 68.

*Marbury and Crawford's Digest, 134.

"Stevens: History of Georgia, II, 353. Cobb's Digest, 1082.

7 Ibid., 1083.

*Stevens, 363. Centennial Catalogue of the State University, 1.

not redeem this warrant it was regarded as a permanent debt, and eight per cent. interest on it was paid to the university. -

This was the origin of the annuity of eight thousand dollars which the university has regularly received since 1815."

Other benefactions have from time to time been received. Loans by the State to the amount of twenty-five thousand dollars have been made, and various minor appropriations amount to seven thousand five hundred dollars. Permission was given in 1806 to raise three thousand dollars by a lottery.” In 1830 one of the college buildings was destroyed by fire, and to replace this, six thousand dollars were annually appropriated until 1841.” In 1885 sixty-five thousand dollars were granted to establish a technological school in connection with the university.”

The donations of money made by the State since 1815 form a total of $722,500.

GEORGIA MILITARY INSTITUTE.

The Georgia Military Institute was established in 1851 at Marietta.”

By the terms of the charter its property was exempt from taxation. The State set aside two thousand dollars annually for the support and education of not more than ten cadets," and at least $29,681.87 was appropriated in money, in the period before 1865. The institute disappears toward the close of the War, and in 1870 its lands were granted to the Marietta Male Academy.”

MEDICAL COLLEGES.

At its foundation in 1833, the Medical College of Georgia received from the State ten thousand dollars in money and thirty lots in Augusta,” and the aid subsequently received is estimated at thirty-five thousand dollars.” In 1873 it became the medical department of the State' university."

The Southern Botanico-Medical College has received ten thousand dollars from the State," and the Atlanta Medical College fifteen thousand dollars.”

| Stevens, 2. Laws of 1815, 103. Cobb's Digest, 1088. * Laws of 1806, 9.

* Laws of 1830, 4.

“Laws of 1884–85, 69.

* Laws of 1851–52, 298.
* Ibid., 6. Additional cadets were supported in 1860 and 1861.
7 Laws of 1870,455.

*Laws of 1833, 130. Cobb's Digest, 892.
* White: Statistics of Georgia, 81. Laws of 1860, 66.
10 Centennial Catalogue of University, 5.
in Laws of 1851–52, 300. Laws of 1855–56, 279.
* Laws of 1857, 22.

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