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Fretfal, childlike, wondering, and subdued by the correction of the faults of little Prince Fretful, this sudden change in his father, came timidly fairy Over-Indulgence had had him in her charge to his side, and caught the corner of his robe. rather too long, and her attendant imp SelfishThese things all happened more rapidly than ness had grown formidably large. Kind Queen anyone could tell; but strangest of all, as Queen Good Intent, too, loved him very fondly, and it Good Intent, overjoyed at the turn matters had always cost her many tears, whenever fairy Duty taken, placed herself beside her husband, and insisted that for the young prince's own future as he with uplifted arm settled his crown more benefit he should be punished not capriciously firmly on his

head, all the heavy curtains which but reasonably and sufficiently for his ill-doings. bad so long darkened the windows of his palace However, in time, as they could not possibly fell to pieces, the dome of rose-coloured glass live long with fairy Duty, who was far too was shivered to atoms, and the beautiful blue powerful a fairy for them both, his evil attendsky, with its pure air, its sunshine brighter than ants left him, and he became so good and diamonds, and its moonlight fairer than pearls, amiable a child, that he was no longer known as was to be seen in its place. He no longer saw prince Fretful, but as prince Kindheart ; his things through this false light as he desired them father's name was also changed from Lazy bones to be, but as they were, and as, aided by fairy to Energetic; the two, with beautiful Good Duty, who immediately made his palace one of Intent, being the happiest King, Queen, and her homes, he was determined they should be Prince that ever were known, no longer. One of his most difficult tasks was

PLANT COMMUNITIES

BY HARLAND COULTAS,

Lecturer on Botany at the Charing Cross Hospital,

THE WOODS.

received in the hours of weakness and infancy.

Under their summits the shadowed carth retains Among the different plant communities which its moisture, and the herbaceous plants and collectively considered are called the vegetable grasses the poorer plant-children of naturekingdom, :he woods undoubtedly take the first are thus fed, whose tender rootlets have not the rank. Trees are, indeed, the supreme rulers of the ability, like the roots of trees, to draw their plant world. When grouped together into fo- moisture deeply out of the earth. So also, when rests they exercise an important influence on the showers of rain fall on forests, the leaves of the climate of countries, and not only is the life of trees catch the drops, break the force of their the lowly plants which they overshadow con- decent, and the plants thus sheltered drink in nected with their existence by the most intimate the moisture of the storm whilst they escape its ties, but even the prosperity and well-being of violence. The mosses on the ground beneath man himself.

the woods also retain the fallen moisture long The woods show us, in the clearest manner, after the shower has passed away, whilst the that reciprocity of action which exists among shadow of the trees prevents its evaporation. plants. If the trees did not grow together into It follows that a wooded soil is favourable to communities, their life as individuals would be the production of springs; also that the con. in the highest degree endangered. United to-tinued existence of moisture in woods and the gether, trees mutually shelter each other on all constant evaporation from them will produce a sides against storms and the drying effects of the cooler atmosphere, and therefore a lower degree

rays. This reciprocity of action is in the of temperature, in a country where they abound. highest degree interesting. Thus herbaceous It is not difficult to make this intelligible to the plants and grasses envelop the earth with a pro- reader. The ocean, winds, and woods may be tective covering. They allow the sunbeams regarded as the several parts of a grand distilaccess to the young seedlings of trees, and also latory apparatus. The sea is the boiler from afford them a sufficient amount of shade, so that which vapour is raised by the solar heat; the the sun's rays are prevented from drying the winds are the guiding tubes which carry the soil, and thus injuring their young life. "It is vapour with them to the forests where a lower thus that the greatest trees of the forest grow temperature prevails. This produces a conop at first under the shadow of the smallest densation of the vapour, and showers of rain members of the vegetable kingdom, only to are thus distilled from the cloud-masses on the eturn, as they approximate to theperiod of their woods beneath them. The thirsty landscape maturity and strength, the favours which they drinks in the grateful moisture, which thus re.

sun's

commerce.

plenishes its numerous springs. The little No country in the world was formerly more streamlets which issue from the springs continue healthy or more richly cultivated than Itrly, to flow, and by the confluence of their waters once the “garden of Europe," now only an exform brooks and rivers, the natural drainage of tensive morass. There malaria prevails, a disà country and its means of intercourse and ease whose existence is to be attributed solely to

the unhealthy decomposition of animal and veThe Turks, although only a semi-civilized peo- getable matter in the stagnant marshes so abunple, seem to be aware of the cooling influence dant in the country. The poisonous effluvium which forests exercise on the spot where they spreads. Ague, and liver and hy pochondriacal are located. There is now, in the neighbourhood affections are in its train. Pale and yellow comof Constantinople, a fine wood of beech and oak, plexions with weak eyes, a swollen abdomen, which is protected by law, because it feeds a and a wearisome gait-the accompaniment of spring, the water of which supplies the whole city, these diseases--are everywhere to be seen and which is conducted to Constantinople by an among the poor inhabitants of the plains and aqueduct.

valleys, the greater portion of whom are carried Hence, when a country is deprived of its forests, off prematurely. What has made this onceits springs and rivulets are exhausted, and its prosperous, healthy, and populous country so cli is rendered warmer and dryer. In the poor, diseased, and deserted ? The woods have temperate zone, and in countries where there been removed from its mountains! Look at the is an incessant supply of water from the neigh- map, and you will see that these run through bouring seas, it is best to cut down the woods, the centre and north-western portions of the because they render the climate too moist and Italian peninsula. The Apennines are at precold, and prevent the successful cultivation of sent almost entirely denuded of the noble the soil. The present state of the agriculture of forests which once flanked and protected their Finland in Northern Russia, establishes this fact; sides, and all travellers agree that there is now for the removal of its woods has dried up its no country so miserable as that which is in. swamps and forwarded cultivation, whilst it has cluded in what is called the States of the Church, rendered the climate milder and more habitable. and which lies along the Apennine chain But it is otherwise with countries situated far between Genoa and Naples. inland, where the climate is continental; there Leaving Italy for Germany, the traveller will the woods must be allowed to stand, and man find that that country also has not been exempt must be especially careful, in cutting them down, from evil consequences, wherever its mountain not to transgress the limits which nature forests have been removed. A journey amongst hasprescribed. These limits are the mountains. the forests of Thuringia and the Hartz Moun

Woods must not be removed from the tains furnishes abundant vouchers of this fact. sides of mountains. A wood, by the roots of its The woods have been cut down far more extrees as well as by its thick moss or grass co- tensively in England than Germany, and yet its vering, binds together the soil on the declivities meadows are the most luxurious and fertile in of mountains, and thus strengthens it in Europe. But this is owing to the moist climate the most natural and simple manner. If we which it possesses, the result of its being everytake the wood away, the springs are dried up, where surrounded by the sea. and the moss or grass covering disappears. In mountainous districts, where the tops The power of the rain, no longer broken by the of the mountains are so elevated that the millions of leaves and by the grassy mantle, snowfields on their summits remain unmelted comes down with unrestrained violence, and the all the year round, the woods which gros on loose soil, torn from the mountain side, is carried their sides are especially valuable, forming in down into the subjacent valleys. Here it settles their united strength a sort of natural fascine or as sandand mud, fills up the brooks and rivers, fortification, which stays the further progress of rendering their waters turbid, and causing them the glaciers, and protects the inhabitants of the to overflow their banks and inundate the valleys against the avalanche, or mountain plains. When the storm subsides and the snowball, which, as it rolls down the mountain overflowing waters return to their accustomed side, gradually accumulates in magnitude and channels, the sand and mud are left on the grass velocity until it encounters a forest of hardy covering, and every farmer knows that crops of pines, which bravely await its onset; and hay raised on meadows frequently inundated is though the foremost trees-with stems the worthless as food for cattle. At length, in the growth of centuries-may crash and fall becourse of years, these swampy pastures become neath its ponderous weight, yet they check its overspread with sand, the former riches and onward progress, and the united strength of prosperity of the inhabitants slowly disappear, its forest assailants finally shatters it to pieces. and the once happy valley becomes unin Woods are also useful along the sea-shore, habitable. But this is not all. An entirely where the coast is low and sandy, as their roots new plant-covering is gradually produced, and bind together the loose sand, and prevent its in warm climates poisonous gases are developed being drifted inland by the sea-breezes. One from the swamps, as in the Pontine Marshes in. or two exomples will show this in a striking Italy. It is thus that mischief done to the light. wooded sides of mountains is a bequest of de. Sea-sand having overflowed the country situstruction to coming generations,

ated in the neighbourhood of Gascoyne, on the

es

western coast of France, and threatened to make arrangements for our own good are com. it valueless and uninhabitable, Vermontier, a pletely frustrated. resident of the province, succeeded in opposing Manifold are the elements which form the an effectual barrier to its further progress by woods. We will glance at this point, as these planting a wood. He first of all planted the elements help to determine the features of a fosand-loving bloom (Sarothamnus scoparius), and rest landscape. These features depend on the produced under its shade young pine trees, and difference in the foliage of the trees. The so brought the overflow of the sea-sand to a stand-woods may be subdivided into leaf-woods, still.

needle-leaved woods, and casuarina and palmAgain, by reference to the map of Prussia, woods. The first includes not only trees with the reader will see that there is situated in horizontal, but with vertical leaves. The last Eastern Prussia, between latitude 54° 15' and are peculiar to the Australian continent, the 54° 45' north, and longitude 19° 15' and forests of which, owing to this peculiarity, even 20° 25' east, an extensive lagoon, called the when in full leaf, cast no shade on the earth beFrische-Haff (Fresh Gulf), which is separated neath them. Among these Australian trees from the Baltic by the Frische-Nehrung, or we find some with false leaves. In this case Fresh Beach, a tongue of land thirty-eight either the leaf stalk or a branch has expanded miles in length by one in breadth, the north into a leaf surface: the true leaf is wholly absent eastern extremity of which communicates with or reduced to a rudimentary state. These leafthe Baltic by a channel half a mile across. like expanded leaf-stalks or branches are called The low shores along this coast are washed by botanically, Phyllodia, from the Greek word the waters of the Gulf of Dantzig, and in the phyllon, a leaf. These phyllodia form middle ages, its dunes, or hills of blown sand, pecially the foliage of many of the acacias, myrwhich stretch almost from Dantzig to Pillau, tles, and mimosas of Australia. Such foliage were covered with a thick pine forest and an is not by any means so ornamental or attractive undergrowth of heath.

as the foliage of trees which have true leaves, King Frederick William of Prussia wanted which grow horizontally aud not vertically. money. One of his noblemen, wishing to se. The needle-leaved woods may be subdivided cure his favour, promised to procure it for him into pine woods aud Cypress woods. The first without loan or tax, if he would permit these form has narrow linear leaves, with a blade or woods to be removed. The king not only expanded surface, which are either scattered over allowed the forests in Prussia to be cleared, the branches, as in the fir, or come out in faswhich at that time were certainly of little value, ciculi or bundles, as in the larch and cedar ; the but he also permitted the whole of the woods on cypress form has the needle leaves reduced to the Frische-Nebrung to be felled, so far as the condition of scales, which are closely imbrithey were Prussian. The financial operation cated or lie on each other like the tiles on the was perfectly prosperous. The king had roof of a house. The needle-leaved forest is money. But in the elementary operations generally found on mountains where high winds which resulted the state received such an injury prevail, as this form of foliage presents a less that its effects are felt even now.

The sea

amount of resisting surface to the winds, and winds can now sweep unimpeded over the de- renders the tree less liable to be blown down. nuded hills; the Frische-Haff is already half. In the more sheltered lowlands the leaf-woods filled with sand, its depth being now in no place prevail. These needle-leaved woods show a more than twelve feet, and sedges grow for much greater uniformity and want of variety some distance in its shallowing waters, threat in their landscape aspect than the leaf-woods. ening to convert it into a monstrous swamp; But far duller and more uniform are the cathe anchorage extending between Elbing, suarina woods, which resemble in their appearand Konigsberg is endangered, and the fishing ance weeping willows, the branches of which in the Haff injured. In vain have all possible have been deprived of leaves. This form of tree efforts been made, through sand-heaps and pas- prevails in the South Sea Islands, the Indian tures of coarse grass, to cover again these hills Archipelago, and Australia. According to the with matted roots : the wind mocks at every ex German naturalist F. Müller, the casuarina ertion. The operation of the Prussian nobleman woods occupy the place of pines in Australia. brought the king two hundred thousand thalers, Lastly we have the palm-woods, which consist Now the people would give millions if they of trees mainly distinguished by their tall cylinhad the woods back again.

drical, tapering, pillar-like stems; and the noble It is plain, from these considerations, that crown of foliage at their summit consists of there are other things which ought to enter into long, drooping leaves, sometimes broad, exour calculations, before a woodis cut down, beside panded, and fan-form;at other times narrow, and themere value of the trees or timber. If trees are rush-like. The pandani, or screw pines of the removed from a mountain-side, from low, sandy tropics, and the grass trees of New Holland, beand exposed shores, or from an inland district long to this class of trees, although the palms only scantily supplied with water, there is no alone unite together so as to form forests. All end to the mischievous consequences which may these peculiar forms of trees are not unfrequently ensue. By such ignorant work as this, the intermingled more or less together, and when equilibrium in the household of Nature is fear- this is the case it adds greatly to the variety Milly disturbed, and her wise and beneficent and beauty of a wooded landscape.

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GREEK LACE BORDER (as promised in our last). MATERIALS.-Boar's Head crochet cotton, Nos. 12 and 14, of Messrs. Walter Evans and Co., Derby.

1st Dot. Fill the shuttle with the coarser ending at the joining to the last oval. In the thread, and leaving an end of two yards, com- centre it should be joined to both pearls of the mence a loop; work 2 double stitches, take No. 5th oval. When finished, reverse the work, and 1 pin and make a pearl loop with it, then 2 still using the straight thread, work 4 double, i double; draw close. Turn this dot down pearl, 4 double; join to the last pearl of the under the left thumb.

oval, then 2 double, join to the thread between 1st Oval. Commence a loop, work 2 double, the oval and 1st dot, and fasten off by knotting 1 pearl, 4 double, 1 pearl, 4 double, 1 pearl, 2 the two cottons firmly together. double, draw close.

The Second Scallop is worked the same as 2nd Dot. Work as the 1st dot, and when first to the commencement of the 8th circle, finished turn it down under the left thumb. then to attach them together make the following

2nd Oval. Commence a loop, work 2 double, alterations :join to the last pearl of previous oval; 4 8th Circle. Commence a loop, work 5 double, double, 1 pearl, 4 double, 1 pearl, 2 double, join to the last pearl; 3 double (1 pearl and 3 draw close.

double, 3 times); take the finished scallop and 3rd Dot. Work as the ist; when finished, join to the centre pearl of the 2nd circle of it; turn it down.

3 double (1 pearl and 3 double, 4 times); 2 3rd Oval. Work as the 2nd; then work a double more, draw close. Reverse the work, 4th dot as the 1st.

make 4 double on the straight_thread, join to 4 Oval. As the 2nd.

the oval; 4 double as before. Reverse. 5th Oval. Commence, work 2 double, join to 9th Circle. As the last, joining it to the opthe pearl of the last oval ; 4 double, (1 pearl and posite circle of the other scallop; finish this 4 double, twice); 1 pearl, and 2 double, draw scallop as the first. close.

Repeat the 2nd scallop until the required 6th. Oval. As the 2nd; when finished, join length is made. the cotton to the pearl of the last dot. Work 3 ovals more the same as the 2nd,

THE HEADING. joining after each to the next dots.

When 9 ovals are made and joined, 1st Rosette. Fill the shuttle, and using No. 3 take the end of the cotton left at the com- pin, commence a loop, work 2 double (1 pearl mencement in the left hand, and holding it and 2 double, twice); take the 1st circle of the for a straight thread, make 2 double with the scallops and join to the 3rd pearl of it; 2 doushuttle, so that all these stitches are formed by ble, then (1 pearl and 2 double, 9 times) draw the straight thread; join the shuttle cotton close. * Keep the cotton at the back of the last to the 1st pearl of the 1st oval; then with the 5 pearls and join to the 6th, which will be the shuttle and straight thread work 4 double ath pearl from the other joining. stitches, 1 pearl, putting the straight thread over 2nd Rosette. Commence a loop, work 2 douthe pin; then 4 double. Reverse the work, and ble, join to the next pearl of the rosette, 2 doujoin to the centre pearl of the oval by bringing ble, then (1 pearl and 2 double, twice) join to the straight thread through in a loop and the pearl over the oval, 2 double, then (i pearl passing the shuttle into it; then with the and 2 double, nine times) draw close, shuttle and straight thread work 4 double; Repeat from *, joining the 3rd rosette to the leave the straight thread. Reverse.

pearl over the next oval, and the 4th rosette to 1st Circle. Work with the shuttle and No. 3 the 3rd pearl of the next circle. pin. Commence a loop, work 5 double, then (1 pearl and 3 double, 9 times) 2 double more, to make 5 in all, draw close. * Reverse the work, and with the straight thread and shuttle, Fill the shuttle and join the cotton to the first work 4 double as before; join to the pearl of unattached pearl of the 4th circle; then to make the next oval as before; then 4 double more a dot, commence a loop, work 6 single stitches, with the straight thread. Reverse the work. draw it quite close, and join the cotton to

2nd Circle. Commence a loop, work 5 double, the next pearl of the circle. Work 4 dots more join to the last pearl of the previous circle, 3 the same, joining after each one is made. Work double, then (1 pearl and 3 double, 8 times) 2 a 6th dot, then join the two next pearls together, double more, draw close.

by bringing the joining-loop first through the Repeat from * until 9 circles in all are made; nearest pearl and then through the next pearl in

THE EDGE.

the other circle, pass the shuttle into the loop,

THE LACE STITCHES. and draw it tight.

With the fine cotton work a wheel in each of Repeat these 6 dots until 21 dots are made; the circles. In the centre of each rosette work a then join the cotton to the centre pearl of the round of button-hole stitches, sewing each stitch corresponding circle of the next scallop; repeat over to draw them together. A twisted thread the dots, working 24 dots on each scallop. is made between the circles of the scallops.

KNITTED BOOT FOR LADIES. MATERIALS for one Pair. -One-and-a-half ounce black, one-and-a-half white fleecy, some black Berlin wool,

thick steel knitting needles. The pattern is worked in common brioche stitches; then knit 14 rows without increasing; knitting, alternately one row with black, one then 14 rows in plain black Berlin wool for the with white wool. Cut the wool at the end of sole of the boot (knit in the first of these rows, each row, fasten it off, and begin with another as one stitch, the stitch and the wool thrown colour. Begin the boot at the top with black forward in the preceding row). Knit twice two fleecy; cast on 38 stitches.

together in the middle of each row; then fold 1st row of the Brioche-knitting. Slip the 1st the work in the middle, so that the stitches stitch, alernately knit 1, throw the wool forward, come opposite each other, and cast off two opslip 1, taking it on the needle as if you were posite ones together. The sloped long sides are going to purl it. 2nd row, with white wool. sewn together; the black rows must be on the Knit together the stitch that was slipped, and outside; fasten the ends off carefully. Sew that which was made, by throwing the wool for- also the toe of the sole against the toe of the ward in the preceding row, and slip the knitted boot, and cover the seam on the instep with a stitch after you have thrown the wool forward. row of slip-stitches in black Berlin wool. Two Knit all the other rows like the 2nd one, but long cords are made in chain-stitches, to lace change the colours. Knit 32 rows without in the boot on both sides of the seam, and are creasing. Increase once at the beginning of the completed by small tassels of white wool, and next 44 rows, so that the 76th row has 82 tied in a bow at the top and bottom.

SLIPS AND CUTTINGS FOR MENTAL CULTURE.

EDUCATION OF CHILDREN.—It is strange , toward their own proper maturity, whereby they that men should ever have overlooked, that merge into those of youth. children are not mere memories, nor native lo This business of conversation is a very serious gicians, with capacities for reasoning without matter. There are men that it weakens one to any data ; but that they are human beings, with talk with an hour, more than a day's fasting souls of average breadth, comprehending the would do. Mark this that I am going to say, faculties of memory, reason, sensation, and for it is as good as a working professional man's ernotion, which in order to be rightly educated advice, and costs you nothing : It is better to must be educated all together; that they are also lose a pint of blood from your veins than to moral, as well as intellectual beings; and that have a nerve tapped. Nobody measures your they have bodies, upon the health of which the nervous force as it runs away, nor bandages progress of the whole to a great degree depends. your brain and marrow after the operation. We also recognize the propriety of treating There are men of esprit who are excessively children as children, with instructions and exhausting to some people. They are the methods suited to their age. It is as important talkers that have what may be called jerky that the child should be a child, and be educated minds. Their thoughts do not run in the natuas a child, as that the education of youth should ral order of sequence. They say bright things be manly. Childhood is an important part of on all possible subjects, but their zig-zags rack human existence, which it is not well for ma- you to death. After a jolting half-hour with turer life to have missed. To be treated as a one of these jerky companions, talking with a man in one's childhood has a painfully harden- dull friend affords great relief. It is like taking ing effect upon later years. The child should the cat in your lap after holding a squirrel. be respected, but treated as a child; his soul What a comfort a dull but kindly person is, filled with the love and gentleness and beautiful to be sure, at times! A ground-glass shade simplicity which belong to his age. Our over a gas-lamp does not bring more solace methods of instruction ought not to be such as to our dazzled eyes than such a one to our to harden or deface those lovely features; but minds.-The Autocrat of the Breakfast-table. rather to develop them in truth and symmetry

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