attack of the British armies on the 24th. The inmediated attack of the enemy was a measure of prudence as well as of courage. Having provided for the security of bis baggage and stores, which were left at Naulmair, under the protection of a battalion of Seapoys and four hundred men taken from the native corps, General Wellesley moved on towards the army of the confederates, which he found encamped between and along the course of two rivers, the Kaitna and the Juah, towards their junction. Their line extended east and west along the north bank of the Kaitna river, the banks of which are high and rocky, and are impassable for the guns, excepting at places close to the villages.

The right of the enemy, which consisted entirely of cavalry, was posted in the vicinity of Bokerdun, and extended to their line of infantry, which was encamped in the neighbourhood of the fortified village of Assye. The British army had marched fourteen miles to Naulmair, and the distance from that place to the enemy's camp being six miles; it was one o'clock in the afternoon before the British troops came in sight of the combined army of the confederates.

Although Major-General Wellesley arrived in front of the right of the enemy, be determined to attack their left, where the guns and infantry were posted ; and accordingly marched round to their left flank, covering the march of the column of British infantry, by the British cavalry in the rear, and by the Marbatta (the Peishwah's) and Mysore cavalry on the right flank.

The British troops passed the river Kaitna at a ford, beyond the enemy's left flank, near the village of Pepulgaon. Major. General Wellesley formed the infantry in two lines, with the British cavalry as a reserve in a third, in an open space between the Kaitna and the Juah rivers, which run nearly parallel. The Peishwah's and the Mysore cavalry boccupied the ground beyond, or to the southward of the Kaitna river on the left flank of the British troops, and kept in check a large body of the enemy's cavalry, which had followed General Wellesley's route from the right of their position. The first line of M jor-General Welles


b This corps performed all the duties of light troops with General Wellesley's army since its march from Mysore in March 1803, (during which time they were frequently engaged with the enemy) with a degree of alacrity and zeal which has seldom been displayed by troops of this description. To the credit of the government of Mysore, this body of cavalry is as regularly paid as the British troops. The Peishwah's troops also conducted themselves in a manner to merit approbation.


2 H

ley's infantry consisted of the advanced piquets to the right, two battalions of Sepoys, and his Majesty's seventy-eighth regiment'; the second, of his Majesty's seventy-fourth regiment, and two battalions of Sepoys; and the third, of his Majesty's nineteenth dragoons, with three regiments of native cavalry. The number of British troops engaged, appears to have amounted to about 1200 cavalry, European and native, 1300 European infantry and artillery, and 2000 Sepoys, in all about 4500 men. The force of the enemy consisted of sixteen regular battalions of infantry (amounting to 10,500 men) commanded by European officers; a wellequipped train of artillery, exceeding in number one hundred guns; and some very large bodies of horse, consisting it is stated (and as it would appear from a reference to the statement of the forces of the confederates as they stood at the commencernent of the month of August,) of between 30 and 40,000 men. d

The enemy commenced a cannonade (but with little effect) as the British troops advanced to the Kaitna river, and having discovered General Wellesley's intention to attack their leit, changed the position of their infantry and guns, which no longer (as at first) was along the north bank of the Kaitna river, but extended from that river cross to the village of Assye, and its rear to the Juah river, along the bank of which it extended in a westerly direction from the village of Assye. General Wellesley immediately attacked the enemy, and the British troops advanced under a very severe fire from the enemy's cannon, the execution of which was terrible. The British artillery had opened upon the enemy at the distance of four hundred yards, but General Wellesley finding that it produced little effect on the enemy's powerful and extensive line of infantry and guns, and that his guns could not advance on the account of the number of men and bullocks which had been disabled, ordered his artillery to be left behind, and the whole line to move on : at the same time the General directed Lieut.-Col. Maxwell with the British cavalry, to take care of the right of the infantry as the line advanced towards the enemy, who were soon compelled (notwithstanding their tremendous cannonade) to fall back upon the second line in the front of the Juah river. At length the enemy's line, overawed by the steady advance of the British troops, gave way in every direction, and the British cavalry, who had crossed to the northward of the Juah river, cut in among their broken infantry, and charged the fugitives along the bank of the river with the greatest effect. General Wellesley's force was not equal in numbers to the duty of securing all his advantages in the heat of the action, and many of the enemy's guns, which had been left in his rear, were turned again upon the British troops by individuals, who having thrown themselves upon the ground near the enemy's guns, had been passed by the British line under the supposition that they were dead, and who availed themselves of this artifice (which is often practised by the troops composing the armies of native powers in india) to continue for some time a very heavy fire.

e The Rajah of Berar's infantry, and Scindiah's irregular infantry, are not included in this number.

d Notes on the Marhatta War, p. 69.

Some of the enemy's corps, however, went off in good order, and Lieut.-Colonel Maxwell was killed in charging with the British cavalry (who had re-crossed the Juah river) a body of infantry which had retired, and was again formed. Some time elapsed before the fire which the enemy kept up from the guns, which they had manned in the rear of the British line, could be stopped, and General Wellesley was himself obliged to take the seventy-eighth regiment, and the seventh regiment native cavalry, to effect this object. In the course of this operation, the General's horse was shot under him. The enemy's cavalry also, which had been hovering round the British troops throughout the action, still continued near General Wellesley's line. In a short time, however, the body of the enemy's infantry, which had formed again, and had been charged by the British cavalry, gave way; and General Wellesley having compelled the parties of the enemy in the rear of the line, to abandon the guns which they had seized and turned against the British troops, the victory was decided, and the enemy retreated, leaving 1200 men dead on the field of battle, the whole country covered with their wounded, and in the possession of the British troops ninety-eight pieces of cannon, seven standards, their camp equipage, a great number of bullocks and camels, and a large quantity of military stores and ammunition.

During this severe and brilliant action, the conduct of MajorWellesley united a degree of ability, prudence, and of dauntless spirit, seldom equalled and never surpassed. It is impossible to bestow any commendation superior to the skill, magnanimity, promptitude, and judgment, displayed by the General on this occasion, nor can any instance be adduced from the annals of ou. military glory, of more exemplary order, firmness, discipline, and alacrity, than was manifested by the British troops in every stage of the arduous contest which preceded the VicTORY OF Assye. The whole line, led by General Wellesley in person, advanced to the charge with the greatest bravery and steadiness, without its guns, against a most severe and destructive fire of round and grape, until within a very short distance of the enemy, whom the British troops compelled (notwithstanding their superior numbers) at the point of the bayonet to abandon their guns, and to relinquish the field of batile, which Scindiah's infantry bad maintained with much obstinacy for more than three hours.

While Major-General Wellesley was employed in watching the movements and checking the inroads of the armies of Dowlut Rao Scindiah and the Raiah of Berar, these chieftains received the most severe blows from the successes of the other divisions of the British armies employed in the operations against the provinces of Guznat on the western, and of Cuttack on the eastern side of India.

In 1804, Major-General Wellesley received the distinction of the Order of the Bath.

In 1802, he was elected member of parliament for Rye in Sussex; and on January 15th, 1807, was returned for St. Michael's in Cornwall; and at the general election immediately afterwards, was chosen for Newport in Cornwall.

In May 1904, he received the unanimous thanks of both houses of parliament for his services in the Dekan.

In 1807, he was appointed Secretary of State to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.

In spring 1808, he was sent with the command of a considerable force to Portugal; and on August 21st, fought and won the celebrated battle of VIMIERA. : “ In this action, in which the whole of the French force in Portugal was employed, under the command of the Duke d’Abrantes in person, in which the enemy was certainly superior in cavalry and artillery, and in which not more than half of the British army was actually engaged, the enemy sustained a signal defeat, and lost thirteen pieces of cannon, twenty-three ammunition waggons, with powder, shells, stores of all descriptions, and 20,000 rounds of musket ammunition. One general officer (Beniere) was wounded and taken prisoner, and a great many officers and soldiers were killed, wounded, and taken.”'f

e Notes on Marhatta War, p. 71, 74.

The convention of Cintra which followed, signed by Generals Sir Hew Dalrymple, Sir Harry Burrard, and Sir Arthur Wellesley, was afterwards investigated by a court of military inquiry, on the supposition that the terms were not sufficiently favourable, considering the means in the hands of Sir Hew, who had then arrived, and taken the chief command.

In 1809, Sir Arthur fought the celebrated battle of TalaVERA.

On the 17th and 18th of July, Sir Arthur Wellesley broke up with the British army from Placentia, and reached Oropesa on the 20th, where he formed a junction with the Spanish army under General Cuesta, with whom he had previously concerted a plan of operations against the French army concentrated in the neighbourhood of Talavera, and on the Alberche. This army con sisted of the corps of Marsh.l Victor, and had lately been joined by Joseph Buonaparte in person with further reinforcements, and amounted in ihe whole to about 35,000 men. On the 22d, the combined British and Spanish armies moved from Oropesa, and the advanced guards attacked the enemy's out-posts at Talavera. Their right was turned by the first hussars and the twenty-third light dragoons, under General Anson, directed by LieutenantGeneral Payne, and by the division of infanıry under the command of Major-General Mackenzie; and they were driven in by the Spanish advanced guards under the command of General Sarjos and the Duc d'Albuquerque. On the 23d, the army was formed in columns for the attack of the enemy's position on the Alberche, but it was postponed till the 24th by the desire of General Cuesta, when the different corps destined for the attack were put in motion ; but the enemy bad retired at about one o'clock in the morning to Santa Olalla, and thence towards Torrijos, for the purpose of forming a junction with the corps under General Sebastiani. General Cuesta followed the enemy's march with his army from the Alberche on the morning of the 24th as far as Santa Olalla, and pushed forward bis advanced guard as far as

f Gazette Extraordinary, September 2d

See Gent. Mag. vol. lxxvii.

p. 832, &c.

In this action fell the gallant Colonel Taylor, of the 20th diagoons, at the head of his regiment,

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