quality's house, he would never sit down, till he was thrice bid, and then upon the corner of the most distant chair. His whole demeanor was formal and starched ; which adhered so close, that he could neyer shake it off in his highest promotion.

His Lord was now in high employment at court, and attended by him with the most abject affiduity; and his fifter being gone off with child to a private lodging, my Lord continued his graces to Corusodes, got him to be a chaplain in ordinary, and in due time a parish in town, and a dignity in the church.

He paid his curates punctually, at the lowest salary, and partly out of the communion-money; but gave them good advice in abundance. He married a citizen's widow, who taught him to put out small fums at ten per cent, and brought him acquainted with jobbers in 'Change alley. By her dexterity he fold the clerkship of his parish, when it became vacant.

He kept a miserable house : but the blame was laid wholly upon Madam; for the good Doctor was always at his books, or visiting the fick, or doing other offices of charity and piety in his parish.

He treated all his inferiors of the clergy with a most fanétified pride ; was rigorously and universally censorious upon all his brethren of the gown. on their first appearance in the world, or while they continued meanly preferred ; but gave large allowance to the laity of high rank or great riches, using neither eyes nor ears for their faults. He was never sensible of the least corruption in courts, parliaments, or ministries, but made the moft favourable constructions of all public proceedings; and power, in whatever hands, or whatever party, was always secure of his most charitable opinion. He had many wholesome maxims, ready to excuse all miscarriages of state: Men are but men; Erunt vitia donec homines ; and, quod fupra nos, nil ad nos; with several others of equal weight.

It would lengthen my paper beyond measure, to trace out the whole system of his conduct ; his dreadful appre. henfions of Popery; his great moderation towards Dirfenters of all denominations ; with hearty wishes, that, by yielding somewhat on both fides, there might be a


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general union among Protestants; his short, inoffenfive sermons, in his turns at court, and the matter exactly fuited to the present juncture of prevailing opinions; the arts he used to obtain a mitre, by writing against Epiicopacy; and the proofs he gave of his loyalty, by palliating or defending the murder of a martyred prince.

ENDUED with all these accomplishments, we leave him in the full career of success, mounting fast towards the top of the ladder ecclefiaftical, which he hath a fair probability to reach ; without the merit of one single virtue ; moderately stocked with the least valuable parts of erudition ; utterly devoid of all taste, judgment, or gepius; and, in his grandeur, naturally chuling to hawl up others after him, whose accomplishments most resemble his own ; except bis beloved sons, nephews, or other kindred, be in competition ; or, lastly, except his inclinations be diverted by those who have power to mortify or farther advance him.

Eugenio set out from the fame university, and about the same time with Corufodes. He had the reputation of an arch lad at school, and was unfortunately posleffed with a talent for poetry ; on which account he recei. ved many chiding letters from his father, and grave advice from his tutor. He did not neglect his collegelearning ; but his chief study was the authors of antiquity, with a perfect knowledge in the Greek and Roman tongues. He could never procure himself to be chosen fellow : for it was objected against him, that he had written verses, and particularly fome, wherein he glanced at a certain Reverend Doctor, famous for dulnefs ; that he had been seen bowing to ladies, as he met them in the streets ; and it was proved, that once he had been found dancing, in a private family, with half a dozen of both sexes.

He was the younger son to a gentleman of a good birth, but small estate ; and his father dying, he was driven to London to seek his fortune. He got into orders, and became reader in a parish church at twenty pounds a year, was carried by an Oxford friend to Will's coffee-house, frequented in those days by men of wit, where in some time he had the bad luck to be distinguished. His fcanty falary compelled him to run


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deep in debt for a new gown and casfock, and now and then forced him to write fome paper of wit or humour, or preach a sermon for ten shillings, to supply his neceffities. He was a thousand times recommended by his poetical friends to great persons, as a young man of excellent parts, who deserved encouragement, and received a thousand promises : but his modesty, and a generous fpirit, which disdained the slavery of continual application and attendance, always disappointed him; making

2 room for vigilant dunces, who were sure to be never out of fight.

He had an excellent faculty in preaching, if he were not sometimes a little too refined, and apt to trust too much to his own way of thinking and reasoning.

When, upon the vacancy of preferment, he was hardly drawn to attend upon some promising lord, he received the usual answer, that he came too late, for it had been given to another the very day before. And he had only this comfort left, that every body said, it was a thousand pities fomething could not be done for poor Mr Eugenio.

The remainder of this ftory will be dispatched in a few words. Wearied with weak ho pes, and weaker purfuits, he accepted a curacy in Derbyshire, of 30 pounds a-year ; and when he was five and forty, had the great felicity to be preferred by a friend of his father's to a vicarage worth annually fixty pounds, in the most desert

parts of Lincolnshire ; where his fpirit quite funk with those refletions that folitude and disappointments bring, he married a farmer's widow, and is still alive, utterly indistinguished and forgotten ; only some of the neighbours have accidentally heard, rhai he had been a potable man in his


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ROM frequently reflecting upon the course and me. .

thod of educating youth in this and a neighbouring kingdom, with the general success and confequence thereof, I am come to this determination, that education is always the worse in proportion to the wealth and grandeur of the parents : nor do I doubt in the least, that if the whole world were now under the dominion of one monarch (provided I might be allowed to chuse where he should fix the seat of his empire), the only fon and heir of that monarch would be the worst educated mortal that ever was born fince the creation ; and I doubt the same proportion will hold thro' all degrees and titles, from an Emperor downwards to the common gentry.

I do not say that this has been always the cale : for in better times it was directly otherwise; and a scholar may fill half his Greck and Roman shelves with authors of the noblest birth, as well as highest virtue. Nor do I tax all nations at present with this defect ; for I know there are some to be excepted, and particularly Scotland, under all the disadvantages of its climate and foil, if that happiness be not rather owing even to those very disadvantages.

What is then to be done, if this reflection must fix on two countries, which will be most ready to take offence, and which of all others it will be lealt prudent or safe to offend?

Bu'r there is one circumstance yet more dangerous and lamentable : for if, according to the poftulatum already laid down, the higher quality any youth is of, he is in greater likelihood to be worse educated; it behoves me to dread, and keep far from the verge of fcandalum magnatum.

RETRACTING therefore that hazardous postulatum, I hal venture no farther at present than to say, that perhaps some additional care in educating the sons of nobility and principal gentry might not be ill employed. If

this # This Essay was also printed in the Intelligencer, No.9. See vol. iii. p. 344.

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this be not delivered with softness enough, I must for the future be silent.

In the mean time, let me ask only two questions which relate to England. I ask first, How it comes about, that, for above fixty years past, the chief conduct of affairs hath been generally placed in the hands of new men, with very few exceptions ? The noblest blood of England having been thed in the grand rebellion, many great families became extinct, or were supported only by minors.

When the King was restored, very few of those Lords remained, who began, or at leaft had improved, their education under the reigns of King James, or King Charles I. ; of which Lords the two principal were the Marquis of Ormond, and the Earl of Southampton. The minors had, during the rebellion and usurpation, either received too much tincture of bad principles from thofe fanatic times, or coming to age at the restoration, fell into the vices of that diffolute reign.

I date from this æra the corrupt method of education among us, and the consequences thereof, the neceffity the crown lay under of introducing new men into the chief conduct of public affairs, or to the office of what we now call prime ministers; men of art, knowledge, application, and infinuation; merely for want of a fupply among the nobility. They were generally (tho not always) of good birth, sometimes younger brothers, at other times fuch, who altho inheriting good estates, yet happened to be well educated, and provided with learning. Such under that King were, Hyde, Bridgeman, Clifford, Ofborn, Godolphin, Ashley Cooper. Few or none under the short reign of King James II. Under King William, Sommers, Montague, Churchill, Vernon, Boyle, and many others. Under the Queen, Harley, St John, Harcourt, Trevor ; who indeed were persons of the best private families,' but unadorned with

So in the following reign, Mr Robert Walpole was for many years prime minifter, in which poft he ftill happily continues: his brother Horace is Ambaffador-extraordinary to Franc Mr Addison and Me Craggs, without the least alliance to support them, have, been sucretaries of state.


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