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the lord-lieutenant should send a war. The only other business of the ses. rant authorizing and directing it. sion respecting Ireland, was a vote There was, indeed, to this regulation for adding 10,000 l. to the salary of the obvious objection, that, by the the lord-lieutenant ; the 20,0001., at delay which it must occasion, the op- which it was fixed in 1783, being portunity of preventing the mischief found altogether inadequate to supmight be lost. But he was convin- port the dignity of that important ced the advantages which would re. station. It was objected to by Sir J. sult from showing the people that Newport, Mr Martin, Mr Littleton, government was determined to give Mr Parnell, and Mr Bankes. Mr them as much liberty as possible, con- Tighe said, he saw no reason why the sistent with those precautions, which civil government of Ireland should were necessary for the general safety, cost ten times more than that of Scot. would more than counterbalance any land, nor why the farce of a vice-regal evil that might result. There was court should be kept up in Dublin. another

part of the insurrection act Mr Grattan did not think the pro. which he proposed likewise to alter. posed increase was too much, but he By that act, if any person, conceiving thought the bare assertion of the mihimself injured by the act of a ma- nister ought not to induce parliament gistrate, should apply to the law for to burden Ireland with the additional redress, and the jury should give a charge. Mr Whitbread objected to verdict in his favour, the judge had it upon the same ground. Mr Tierthe power of declaring, (if the facts ney went farther, and declared he saw of the case appeared to him to war- no necessity why a person serving rant him in so doing,) that the ma- the public in a high office should be gistrate had a justifiable cause for enabled to live entirely independent what he had done ; and in that case of his private fortune. If the Duke the person suing, although the jury of Richmond had spent 20,0001. a. had found in his favour, was only en- year in Ireland of his own fortune, it titled to sixpence damages and no was an expence which that forturic costs. But if the jury should find in could well affor«. His belief was, favour of the magistrate, he was en. that the increase was not intended titled to treble costs. This clause for the duke, but that his liberality was, he had no doubt, very necessary and private virtues were mentioned when it was enacted; but as the ne- to induce the house to vote this in. cessity of it did not appear to him creased income, which was designed any longer to exist, he should pro- as a temptation to some other lord, pose to repeal it, and in future to with whom ministers were bargain. place both parties on an equal foot. ing, to go over to Ireland as his sucing. In the present improved state cessor. Such an insinuation was not of the country, he did not think it worthy of being contradicted, and required such strong measures for the the vote passed by a majority of 95 protection of magistrates."

to 51.

CHAP. VI.

Measures of Reforn. Offices in Reversion. Sinecures. Remarks on the

Economical Reformers. Mr Brand's Motion for Parliamentary Reform, Sir Samuel Romilly's Reform of the Criminal Law. Poor Clergy. Benchers of Lincoln's-Inn.

One of the first proceedings of the rence of the peers. To this Mr Bankes economical reformers during the ses- assented; but this second bill was in sion, was to renew their attack upon like manner rejected by the lords, with

the practice of granting of a pertinacity, on the part of its opJan. 31. fices in reversion. Mr Bankes ponents, not less injudicious in itself,

moved, that the act for sus- than offensive to the public feeling. pending it should be made perpetual ; A kindred business was and the sense of the house was so deció brought before the house Feb. 12, dedly with him, that though Mr Per- by Mr Fuller, who moved ceval would rather have extended the for “ leave to bring in a bill to aboduration of the act than have perpe- lish all sinecure places, and to reduce tuated it, it was carried unanimous. the exorbitant emoluments arising out ly. When the bill reached the Upper of others to a standard equal to the House it was again thrown out. Mr service performed, after the lives of

Bankes, therefore, finding, the present possessors ;-and shame," March 6. he said, that there was a he said,“ upon England, if such a bill

determined principle to re- should be rejected ? It would not, he sist the measure, and that it had no hoped, be imagined, that he meant this chance of passing the lords, moved, as as an attack upon the power and influ. the only constitutional course which ence of the crown. No; he was glad to remained, an address to his majesty, as see the influence of the crown increa. had been done on a former occasion, sing in proportion as the national praying him not to make any such wealth of the countryincreased, when grant till six weeks after the next sese of course its morals got worse ; but sion. Mr Ryder, observing that the this was sufficiently done by the imhouse should be cautious how it legis- mense collection of our revenue. His lated for the country at large, except attack was upon thoseavaricious memin cases of absolute necessity, propo. bers of the aristocracy, who think it: sed that they should pass a limited their duty to lay hold of these sinebill, which they had every reason to cure places, in order to save them the believe would meet with the concure expence of providing for their younger children, by paying them large service of his majesty or the royal fa. sums out of the pockets and the suf. mily; and to reduce the salaries of ferings of individuals,-a thing nei. such as were executed by deputy to ther done nor thought of, he belie. the sụm for which the service was ved, by any other class of his majes- performed, with an allowance for the ty's subjects whatever. The sum to- additional responsibility ;-all to be tal of these places, if he were not done after the present interest in wrong in his calculation, amounted to these offices had expired. “It would 355,612 1. 2s. 7d. ; so that if 55,0001., be better," he said, “ that services speaking in round numbers, were to should be rewarded by direct pen. be allotted to the payment of those sions, instead of having what, in fact, places which there is a necessity of were direct pensions, lurking under preserving, the public would, after the name of offices. The granting of the lives of the present possessors, be pensions would be notorious and une a gainer of 300,000l. He thought equivocal, and this very notoriety this measure would, instead of lessen- would prevent their being conferred ing the influence of the crown, give in a profuse or glaringly improper it still more strength, as it would manner ; but there was no such secu. enable it to reward those who really rity with regard to sinecure offices. deserved rewards, instead of paying Therefore, he thought the proper those who are idle. It was to the measure would be to abolish these manly virtues of our gracious sove. offices altogether, and give his majes. reign, to the courage and skill of ty the power of granting pensions to Lord Nelson, and to the divine mind a limited amount, in lieu of the offices of Mr Pitt, that, in his opinion, we abolished; the power of giving the owed our present exalted character additional pension always commen. as a nation, and he should be sorry cing with the fall of the sinecure. to see his benevolent sovereign, per- This was necessary, in order to prehaps, compelled in his old age to do vent the crown from having for a what Sir Robert Walpole was said time double power ; and without this in his last moments to have desired caution it would not be a measure of his physician to do for him ; that is, economy in the first instance, but a to turn his head to the wall, that he measure of extravagance. The sube might no longer look at the villainies, stitution would take away all objec. or the base political ingratitude of tions to the abolition, while it would those he had formerly served, and be more agreeable, not only to the that he might hide from his view the country, but to such meritorious offiiniquity that prevailed.”

cers as were entitled to reward ; for Mr Fuller, however, withdrew his sinecures had fallen so much into dis. motion at the suggestion of Mr grace, that a brand was fixed upon Bankes, who undertook, as a mem- those who accepted them, and instead ber of the finance committee, to bring of conferring honours they attached the matter forward. Accordingly, a stigma, so much did the people re. when the report of that committee volt against them. He did not ex« was under consideration, Mr Bankes pect, that by any measure of this namoved a resolution, that it was expe

ture the clamour of certain persons dient to abolish sinecures, except such could be satisfied; they were not to as were connected with the personal be satisfied by any thing which that house could, or onght to concede. of five to one." “ This sort of reaBut whatever might be the conduct soning,” Mr Whitbread made an. of the factious, the house would never swer, “ would suit a discussion upon lose sight of the propriety of con- the assize of bread much better than sulting the wishes, and cultivating the a debate upon the propriety of regood disposition of the sound and ra. stricting these grants of the crown. tional part of the community, who The country had but one opinion would materially be conciliated by the respecting sinecures ; and scarce a adoption of a measure so long and so man out of that house could be found unanimously called for.”

to defend them. They were not Mr Martin supported the resolu- suited to the taste of the army or tion. “ One circumstance,” he said, of the navy, but Mr Long had said 6 struck him most forcibly, which they were fitted for the civil departwas, that when a person of large he. ment; that was, for such efficient reditary fortune had done meritorious public servants as himself. One of services, he ought not to expect the the evils arising from such grants same degree of remuneration as a per. was, that they prevented the necesson who had dedicated his whole life, sary increase of salary to the great without any fortune of his own to offices of state. Thus when it was support him, save only his own ex- intended to give Mr Perceval the ertions and superior talents.” Mr Chancellorship of the Duchy of Lan. W. Smith spoke on the same side, caster for life, it was contended in his and objected to sparing the offices favour that the salary of the Chanattached to the crown and princes of cellor of the Exchequer was not a the blood, saying, “that the dignity sufficient remuneration : It was how, and honour of the crown would be ever to be presumed, now that the more effectually consulted in attach. same right honourable gentleman was ing the affections of the people, than also first Lord of the 'Treasury, that by pensioning twelve lords of the he would not condescend to take that bed-chamber at 1000 l. a-year, who of the duchy, and to receive the sahad votes in the other house, and ge. laries of three offices." Here Mr nerally voted one way." « There Whitbread was informed that Mr was a ferment abroad,” Mr Bastard Perceval did not receive the salary said ; " the principle of retrenchment of Chancellor of the Exchequer, must be followed up in every depart. “This," he continued, “ he had never ment; and even if the house was not heard before, and therefore it was not inclined to be honest from principle, to be wondered at that he had made the time was come when it should be the mistake. But the option of such 60 from necessity," Mr Wharton emoluments ought not to be left to replied, “ that the retrenchment of any man, and sinecures ought to be sinecures would not lessen the bur. abolished for their inherent impro. thens of the people in any degree priety, as well as for their lately worth notice. The influence of the incurred disgrace. To prove how crown, instead of increasing, had in grossly they were misapplied, it was fact decreased; for though its patron- enough to state that Mr Yorke had age had doubled since the year 1782, 27001. a-year, and Lord Wellington the wealth of the nation since that only received 20001. Thus it was time had increased in the proportion that court favourites were rewarded

t.

VOL. III. PART. !,

above even those whom the ministers expenditure, which is consistent with themselves thought deserving of re- the interests of the public service, ward."

is at all times a great and important “ As to the emoluments of Mr duty," was carried unanimously. The Yorke,” Mr Perceval replied, “ if it second was, “that for this purpose, would afford the honourable gentle. in addition to the useful and effective man any pleasure, he could inform measures already taken by parliahim that Mr Yorke had, in conse- ment for the abolition and regulaquence of holding the office of Teller tion of various sinecure offices, and of the Exchequer, relinquished the offices executed by deputy, it is ex. additional 2000 1. a-year, granted du- pedient to extend the like principles ring the Grenville administration to of abolition, or regulation, to such Mr T. Grenville as first Lord of the other cases as may appear to require Admiralty. The proposition before and admit of the same." Upon this the house,” he pursued, “was recom- Mr Bankes moved an amendment, to mended as being economical, and as the same purport as the resolution tending to diminish the prerogative : which had before been lost. toward the latter object it would do “ He was one of those," he said, little, toward the first nothing, and if “who opposed any motion for inquisinecures were commuted for pen. ring into the state of the representasions, not a particle of the clamour tion, because he was convinced that which had been excited against them the greater part of the respectable would abate ; in fact, the same ob. class of society, whose opinions were jections would apply in the same deserving of grave and serious attenforce.” To this argument Lord Mil. tion, did not desire that such a ques ton replied, “that a sinecure, when tion should be entered into : But it became vacant, must be conferred there did exist in that part of socie. anew, whether there was, or was not; ty a real and sincere desire for every a deserving person ready to receive moderateand substantial reform which it, but this was not the case with a would not attack the frame and foun. pension. He should vote for the mo. dation of our constitution ; and there tion," he said, “ because, though it never had been a time in which it was was otherwise indifferent in itself, it more necessary to draw a line of sewas possible, by agreeing to it, to se. paration between these persons, and parate those who

felt well-grounded those who wished for no reform at discontent from those whom nothing all, but for the subversion of the conwould satisfy.”. Mr Bankes' resolu. stitution ; for if the reasonable wishes tion was negatived by a very small and expectations of the moderate majority,–99 to 93.' That gentle. were opposed, they might be driven

man was more successful into an alliance with the designing May 31.

a subsequent trial, and the desperate, whose intention

when Mr Davies Giddy was to destroy. It would be a danreported from the committee of the gerous opinion indeed to go abroad, whole house their resolutions on the that no sort of reform was to be exreport of the

committee of public ex. pected from that house, constituted penditure. The first, containing the as it was at present. Moderate men truism,“ that the utmost attention to knew and felt that there were abuses economy in all the branches of public which ought to be redressed; as to

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