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state; and the legislature shall pass laws to prevent the sale of all lottery tickets within this state, except in lotteries already provided for by law.

Src. Xii. No purchase or contract for the sale of lands in this state, made since the fourteenth day of October, one thousand seven hundred and seventyfive, or which may hereafter be made, of, or with the Indians in this state, shall be valid, unless made under the authority, and with the consent of the legislature.

Sec. xm. Such parts of the common law, and of the acts of the legislature of the colony of New York, as together did form the law of the said colony, on the nineteenth day of April, one thousand seven hundred and seventyfive, aud the resolutions of the congress of the said colony, and of the convention of the state of New York, in force on the twentieth day of April, one thousand seven hundred and scventyseven, which have not since expired, or been repealed or altered; and such acts of the legislature of this state as are now in force, shall be and continue the law of this state, subject to such alteration ao the legislature shall make concerning the same. But all such parts of the common law, and such of the said acts, or parts thereof, as are repugnant to this constitution, are hereby abrogated.

Sec. Xiv. Alt grants of land within this state, made by the King of Great Britain, or persons acting under his authority, after the fourteenth day of October, one thousand seven hundred and seventyfive, shall be null and void; but nothing contained in this constitution shall affect any grants of land within this state, made by the authority of the said King, or his predecessors, or shall annul any charters to bodies politic and corporate, by hiin or them made before that day; or shall affect any such grants or charters since made by this state, or by persons acting under its authority; or shall impair the obligation of any debts contracted by the state, or individuals, or bodies corporate, or any other rights of property, or any suits, actions, rights of action, or other proceedings in courts of justice.

\Vh>\at in Telation to purchase of land from the Indians ?— natparts 0j-the common iaw are co„firmed fa fly, constitution} 'rhat abrogated?

Article VIII.—Intendments.

Sec. I. Any amendment or amendments to this constitution may be proposed in the senate or assembly; and if the same shall be agreed to by a majority of the members elected to each of the two houses, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be entered on their journals, with the yeas and nays taken thereon, and referred to the legislature then next to be chosen; and shall be published, for three months previous to the time of making such choice; and if, in the legislature next chosen as aforesaid, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be agreed to by two thirds of all the members elected to each house, then it shall be the duty of the legislature to submit such proposed amendment or amendments to the people, in sueh manner and at such time as the legislature shall prescribe; and if the people shall approve and ratify such amendment or amendments, by a majority of the electors qualified to vote for members of the legislature voting thereon, such amendment or amendments shall become part of the constitution.

Article IX.— When in force.

Sec. I. This constitution shall be in force from the last day of December, in the year one thousand eight hundred and twentytwo. But all those parts of the same which relate to the right of suffrage ; the division of the state into senate districts; the number of members of the assembly to be elected in pursuance of this constitution; the apportionment of members of assembly; the elections hereby directed to commence on the first Monday of November, in the year one thousand eight hundred and twentytwo; the continuance of the members of the present legislature in office until the first day of January, in the year one thousand eight hundred and twentythree, and the prohibition against authorising lotteries; the prohibition against appropriating the public moneys or property for local or private purposes, or creating, continuing, altering, or renewing any body politic or corporate without the assent of

Art. Viii. Bow may the constitution be amended ?--By whom must such amendment be ratified?

Art. Ix. When did this constitution come in force?

two-thirds of the members elected to each branch of the legislature, shall be in force and take effect from the last day of February next. The members of the present legislature shall, on the first Monday of March next, take and subscribe an oath or affirmation to support this constitution, so far as the same shall then "be in force. Sheriffs, clerks of counties, and coroners, shall be elected at the election hereby directed to commence on the first Monday of November, in the year one thousand eight hundred and twentytwo; but they shall not enter on the duties of their offices before the first day of January then next following. The commissions'of all persons holding civil offices on the last day of December, one thousand eight hundred and twentytwo, shall expire en that day; but the officers then in commission, may respectively continue to hold their said offices until new appointments or elections shall take place under this constitution.

Sec. Ii. The existing laws relative to the manner of notifying, holding and conducting elections, making returns, and canvassing votes, shall be in force, and observed, in respect. to the elections hereby directed to commence on the first Monday of November, in the year one thousand eight hundred and twentytwo, so far as the same are applicable. And the present legislature shall pass such other and further laws as may be requisite for the execution of the provisions of this constitution, in respect to elections.

Sec. Ii. Political Divisions. To facilitate the operations of government, the state is divided into fiftyfour separately organised counties, which are subdivided into about six hundred and sixty townships. Albany was in 1807 constituted the capital of the state, where the sessions of the Legislature have since that period been regularly held. Each of the counties have likewise a capital or county toivn,

Ii. What political divisions in New York! What is the capital?

What is said of the counties?

where the courts are held, and the county business transacted. The state is also divided agreeable to the constitution into eight senatorial districts for the election of senators to the state legislature, and into thirty congressional districts, for the election of representatives to the congress of the United States.

The following presents a list of the counties in 1824, arranged according to their population. New York, Oneida, Dutchess, Otsego, Onondaga, Orange, Rensselaer, Genesee, Cayuga, Washington, Columbia, Albany, Montgomery, Saratoga, Ontario, Jefferson, Westchester, Madison, Chenango, Herkimer, Ulster, Delaware, Munroe, Tompkins, Suffulk, Schoharie, Greene, Steuben, Queen's, Wayne, Livingston, Seneca, Cortlandt, St Lawrence, Erie, Tioga, Schenectady, Essex, Chatauque, Oswego, Clinton, Putnam, King's, Broome, Yates, Warren, Allegany, Lewis, Sullivan, Rockland, Niagara, Richmond, Franklin, Cataraugus.

Sec. Hi. Cities and Villages. The state contains five cities, and a large number of incorporated villages. The cities are New York, Albany, Troy, and Hudson, situated on Hudson's river; and Schenectady, on the Mohawk. Among the most important villages, are Utica, Rochester, Brooklyn, Buffalo, Lockport, Lansingburgh, Canandaigua, Auburn, Geneva, Sackett's Harbor, and Poughkeepsie. Some of these, and many others, particularly on the line of the canal, have arisen within a few years, and increased with astonishing rapidity. New York, the metropolis of the state, is situated on the southern part of the Island of Manhattan. It is the

Mention some of the most populous counties.

Sec. Hi. What number of cities, and what are they? Wha

can you say. of villages?

What is said of JVew York? largest, and, in a commercial point of view, the most important city in the union. Its charter was first granted in 1686, and has subsequently received frequent alterations and amendments. It was renewed with additional privileges by Gov. Montgomery, in 1730, and confirmed by the provincial legislature in 1732.

According to the charter, the city of New York embraces the whole of York, or Manhattan Island. .This entile tract ha3 been laid out by act of government into streets, squares, and roads; and the location, which has been formed with great care and skill, is made perpetual, no person being permitted to erect buildings on the grounds thus appropriated to public use. Of this extensive location, commencing at the southern extremity, near three miles have been filled up along the Hudson, and about four on East River. In a looser sense, the buildings are spread over most of the Island. A great number of villas are scattered throughout eight or ten miles from the southern point; and with these, many houses of an inferior class, belonging to gardeners, farmers, and mechanics, who reside in them through the year. The principal collection of ttiese -buildings is contained in Haerlem village, and its neighborhood. Manhattanville is a similarcollection near the Hudson. The villas are placed in almost all the pleasant positions on the island, and spread over it a brilliancy and cheerfulness not surpassed in the United States*

The city of New York, according to more general acceptation, limited to about four miles of the southern extremity of the island, is from half a mile to two miles in width, and from eight to ten in circuit. The streets of the southern part, which is the most ancient, are irregular, many of them extremely narrow, and laid out with little regard to beauty or convenience. The northern part, having been more recently built, is laid out with better taste, and presents many spacious and elegant avenues. The three principal streets are Pearl street, Broadway,

• * Dwight.

What does it embrace according to the charter? What is the

extent of the compact part? Mention some of the principal

streets.

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