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7. The judges of the court of common pleas of each county, any two of whom shall be a quorum, shall compose the court of quarter sessions of the peace, and crphans' court thereof; and the register of wills, together with the said judges, or any two of them, shall compose the register's court of each county:

8. The judges of the courts of common pleas shall, within their respective counties, have like powers with the judges of the supreme court, to issue writs of certiorari to the justices of the peace, and to cause their proceedings to be brought before them, and the like right and justice to be done.

9. The president of the court in each circuit within such circuit, and the judges of the court of common pleas within their respective counties, shall be justices of the peace, so far as relates to criminal matters.

10. A register's office, for the probate of wills and granting letters of administration, and an office for the recording of deeds, shall be kept in each county.

11. The style of all process shall be - The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.” All prosecutions shall be carried on in the name and by the authority of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and conclude, ** against the peace and dignity of the same."

ARTICLE 6. SEC. 1. Sheriffs and coroners shall, at the times and places of election of representatives, be chosen by the citizens of each county. One person shall be chosen for each office, who shall be commissioned by the Governor. They shall hold their offices for three years, if they shall so long behave themselves well, and until a successor be duly qualified ; but no person shall be twice chosen or appointed sheriff in any term of six years. Vacancies in either of the said offices shall be filled by an appointment, to be made by the Governor, to continue until the next general election, and until a successor shall be chosen and qualified as aforesaid.

2. The freemen of this commonwealth shall be armed, organized, and disciplined for its defence, when and in such manner as may be directed by law Those who


conscientiously scruple to bear arms, shall not be com pelled to do so, but shall pay an equivalent for personal service.

3. Prothonotaries of the supreme court shall be ap pointed by the said court for the term of three years, if they so long behave themselves well. Prothonotaries and elerks of the several other courts, recorders of deeds, and registers of wills, shall at the times and places of election of representatives, be elected by the qualified electors of each county, or the districts over which the iurisdiction of said courts extends, and shall be comis

oned by the governor. They shall hold their offices for three years, if they strall so long behave themselves well, and until their successors shall be duly qualified. The legislature shall provide by law the number of persons in each county who shall hold said offices, and how many and which of said offices shall be held by one per

Vacancies in any of the said offices shall be filled by appointnients to be made by the Governor, to continue until the next general election, and until snccessors shall be elected and qualified as aforesaid.

4. Prothonotaries, clerks of the peace aird orphans' courts, recorders of deeds, registers of wills, and sheriffs, shall keep their offices in the county town of the county in which they, respectively, shall be officers, unless when the Governor shall, for special reasons, dispense therewith, for any term not exceeding five years after the county shall have been erected.

5. All commissions shall be in the name and by the authority of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and be sealed with the state seal, and signed by the Governor.

6. A state treasurer shall be elected annually, by joint vote of both branches of the legislature.

7. Justices of the peace or aldermen, shall be elected in the several wards, boroughs and townships, at the time of the election of constables by the qualified voters thereof, in such number as shall be directed by law, and shall be commissioned by the Governor for a term of five years. But no township, ward or borough, shall elect more thap two justices of the peace or aldermen without the consent

of a majority of the qualified electors within such township, ward or borough.

8. All officers whose election or appointment is nut provided for in this constitution, shall be elected or appointed as shall be directed by law. No person shall be appointed to any office within any county who shall not have been a citizen and an inhabitant therein one year next before his appointment, if the county shall have been so long erected; but if it shall not have been so long erected, then within the limits of the county or counties out of which it shall have been taken. No member of Congress from this state, or any person holding or exercising any office or appointment of trust or profit under the United States, shall at the same time hold or exercise any office in this State, to which a salary is, or fees or perquisites are, by law, annexed; and the legislature may by law declare what state offices are incompatible. No member of the Senate or of the House of Representatives shall be appointed by the Governor to any office during the term for which he shall have been elected.

9. All officers for a term of years shall hold their offices for the terms respectively specified, only on the condition that they so long behave themselves well; and shall be removed on conviction of misbehaviour in office or of any infamous crime.

10. Any person who shall, after the adoption of the amendments proposed by this Convention to the Constitution, fight a duel, or send a challenge for that purpose, or be aider or abettor in fighting a duel, shall be deprived of the right of holding any office of honor or profit in this Site, and shall be punished otherwise in such manner as is, or may be prescribed by law; but the executive may remit the said offence and all its disqualifications.

ARTICLE 7. Sec. 1. The legislature shall, as soon as conveniently may be, provide, by law, for the establishment of schools throughout the State, in such manner that the poor may be taught gratis.

2. The arts and sciences shall be promoted in one or laore seminaries of learning.

3. The rights, privileges, immunities and estates of religious societies and corporate bodies, shall remain as if the Constitution of this State had not been altered os amended.

4. The legislature shall not invest any corporate body or individual with the privilege of taking private property for public use, without requiring such corporation or individual to make compensation to the owners of said property, or give adequate security therefor, before such property shall be taken.

ARTICLE 8. Members of the general Assembly and all officers, executive and judicial, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support the Constitution of this commonwealth, and to perform the duties of their respective offices with fidelity.

ARTICLE 9. That the general, great and essential principles of liberty and free government may be recognized and unalterably established, we declare:

1. That all men are born equally free and independent, and have certain inherent and indefeasible rights, among which are those of enjoying and defending life and liberty, of acquiring, possessing, and protecting property and reputation, and of pursuing their own happiness.

2. That all power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority, and instituted for their peace, safety, and happiness: For the advancement of those ends, they have, at all times, an unalienable and indefeasible right to alter, reform, or abolish their government, in such manner as they may

3. That all men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences; that no man can, of right, be compelled to attend, erect, or support any place of worship, or to maintain any ministry against his consent; that no human authority can, in any case whatever, control or interfere with the rights of conscience; and that no pre

think proper


ference shall ever be given, by law, to any religious establishments or modes of worship.

4. That no person who acknowledges the being of a God and a future state of rewards and punishments, shall, on account of his religious sentiments, be disqualified to hold

any office or place of trust or profit under this commonwealth.

5. That elections shall be free and equal.

6. That trial by jury shall be as heretofore, and the right thereof remain inviolate.

7. That the printing presses shall be free to every person who undertakes to examine the proceedings of the legislature or any branch of government: and no law shall ever be made to restrain the right thereof. The free communication of thoughts and opinions is one of the invaluable rights of man; and every citizen may freely speak, write and print on any subject, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty. In prosecutions for the publication of papers, investigating the official conduct of officers, or men in a public capacity, or where the matter published is proper for public information, the truth thereof

may be given in evidence; and, in all indictments for tibels, the jury shall have a right to determine the law and the facts, under the direction of the court, as in other


8. That the people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers and possessions, from unreasonable searches and seizures; and that no warrant to search any place, or to seize any person or things, shall issue withont describing them as nearly as may be, nor without probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation.

9. That in all criminal prosecutions, the accused hath a right to be heard by himself and his counsel, to demand the nature and cause of the accusation against him, to meet the witnesses face to face, to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and in prosecutions by indictment or information, a speedy trial by an impartial jury of the vicinage: that he cannot be compelled to give evidence against himself, nor can he be deprived of his life, liberty or property, unless by the judgment of his peers or the law of the land.


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