when called for by them. The council shall appoint their own clerk, who shall take an oath to keep secret such matters as he shall be ordered by the board to conceal. The senior counsellor shall be Lieutenant-Governor, and in case of the death, resignation, inability, or absence of the Governor from the seat of government, shall act as Governor.

6. The manner of appointing militia officers shall be provided for by law; but no officer below the rank of a brigadier-general shall be appointed by the general Assembly.

7. Commissions and grants shall run in the name of the commonwealth of Virginia, and bear teste by the Governor, with the seal of the commonwealth annexed.

the peace.

ARTICLE 5. 1. The judicial power, shall be vested in a supreme court of appeals, in such superior courts as the legislature may from time to time ordain and establish, and the judges thereof, in the county courts, and in justices of

The legislature may also vest such jurisdiction as shall be deemed necessary in corporation courts ; and in the magistrates who may belong to the corporate body. The jurisdiction of these tribunals, and of the judges thereof, shall be regulated by law. The judges of the supreme court of appeals and of the superior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, or until removed in the manner prescribed in this Constitution; and shall, at the same time, hold no other office, appointment, or public trust; and the acceptance thereof by either of them shall vacate his judicial office.

2. No law abolishing any court shall be construed to deprive a judge thereof

of his office, unless two-thirds of the members of each House present concur in the passing thereof; but the legislature may assign other judicial duties to the judges of courts abolished by any law enacted by less than two-thirds of the members of each House present.

3. The present judges of the supreme court of appeals, of the general court, and of the supreme courts of chance. ry, shall remain in office until the termination of the session of the first legislature elected under this Constitution, and no longer.

4. The judges of the supreme court of appeals and of the superior courts shall be elected by the joint vote of both Houses of the general Assembly.

5. The judges of the supreme court of appeals and of the superior courts shall receive fixed and adequate salaries, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

6. Judges may be removed from office by a concurrent vote of both Houses of the general Assembly; but twothirds of the members present must concur in such vote, and the cause of removal shall be entered on the journals of each. The judge against whom the legislature may be about to proceed, shall receive notice thereof, accompanied with a copy of the causes alleged for his removal, at least twenty days before the day on which either House of the general Assembly shall act thereupon.

7. On the creation of any new county, justices of the peace shall be appointed, in the first instance, in such manner as may be prescribed by law. When vacancies shall occur in any county, or it shall, for any cause, be deemed necessary to increase the number, appointments shall be made by the Governor, on the recommendation of the respective county courts.

8. The attorney-general shall be appointed by joint vote of the two Houses of the general Assembly, and commissioned by the Governor, and shall hold his office during the pleasure of the general Assembly. The clerks of the several courts, when vacancies shall occur, shall be appointed by their respective courts, and the tenure of office, as well of those now in office as of those who may be hereafter appointed, shall be prescribed by law The sheriffs and coroners shall be nominated by the respective county courts, and when approved by the Governor, shall be commissioned by him. The judges shall appoint constables. And all fees of the aforesaid officers, shall be regulated by law.

9. Writs shall run in the name of the commonwealth of Virginia, and bear teste by the clerks of the several

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courts. Indictments shall conclude, against the peace and dignity of the commonwealth.

ARTICLE 6. A treasurer shall be appointed annually by joint vote of both Houses.

ARTICLE 7. The executive department of the government shall remain as at present organized, and the Governor and privy counsellors shall continue in office, until a Governor, elected under this Constitution, shall come into office: and all other persons in office when this Constitution shall be adopted, except as is herein otherwise expressly directed, shall continue in office, till successors shall be appointed, or the law shall otherwise provide; and all the courts of justice now existing shall continue with their present jurisdiction, until and except so far as the judicial system may or shall be hereafter otherwise organized by the legislature. Done in convention, in the city of Richmond, on the

fifteenth day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty, and in the fiftyfourth year of the independence of the United States of America.


President of the Convention. D. BRIGGS, Secretary of the Convention.


ARTICLE 1. Sec. 1. The legislative authority of this state shall be vest. ed in a general assembly, which shall consist of a Senate

а and House of Representatives.

2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen by ballot, every second year, by the citizens of this State, qualified as in this Constitution is provided.

3. The several election districts in this State shall elect the following number of representatives, viz.:

Charleston, including St. Philip and St. Michael, fifteen members ; Christ Church, three members; St. John, Berkely, three inembers ; St. Andrew, three members; St. George, Dorchester, three members ; St. James, Goose Creek, three members ; St. Thomas and St. Dennis, three members; St. Paul, three members; St. Bartholomew, three members; St. James, Santee, three members ; St. John, Colleton, three members; St. Stephen, three members ; St. Helena, three members; St. Luke, three members; Prince William, three members ; St. Peter, three members; All Saints, (including its ancient boundaries,) one member. Winyaw, (not including any part of All Saints,) three members; Kingston, (not including any part of All Saints,) two members; Williamsburgh, two members ; Liberty, two members; Marlborough, two members; Chesterfield, two members; Darlington, two members; York, three members ; Chester, two members ; Fairfield, two members ; Richland, two members; Lancaster, two members; Kershaw, two members; Claremont, two members; Clarendon, two members; Abbeville, three members; Edgefield, three members : Newberry, (including the fork between Broad and Saluda rivers,) three members ; Laurens, three members : Union, two members ; Spartan, two members ; Greenville, two members ; Pendleton, three members; St. Matthew, two members; Orange, two members ; Winton, (including the district between Savannah river, and the north fork of Edisto, three members ; Saxe Gotha, three members.

4. Every free white man, of the age of twenty-one years, being a citizen of this State, and having resided therein two years previous to the day of election, and who hath a freehold of fifty acres of land, or a town lot, of which he hath been legally seized and possessed, at least six months before such election, or, not having such ,freehoid or town lot, hath been a resident in the election district, in which he offers to give his vote, six months before the said election, and hath paid a tax the preceding year of three shillings sterling towards the support of this government, shall have a right to vote for a member or members to serve in either branch of the legislature, for the election district in which he holds such property, or is so resident.

5. The returning officer, or any other person present, entitled to vote, may require any person who shall offer his vote at an election, to produce a certificate of his citizenship, and a receipt from the tax collector of his having paid a tax, entitling him to vote, or to swear, or affirm, that he is duly qualified to vote agreeably to this Constitution.

6. No person shall be eligible to a seat in the House of Representatives, unless he is a free white man, of the age of twenty-one years, and hath been a citizen and resident in this State three years previous to his election. If a resident in the election district, he shall not be eligible to a seat in the House of Representatives, unless he be legally seized and possessed, in his own right, of a settled freehold estate of five hundred acres of land, and ten negroes; or of a real estate, of the value of one hundred and fifty pounds sterling, clear of debt. If a nonresident, he shall be legally seized and possessed of a settled freehold estate therein, of the value of five hundred pounds sterling, clear of debt.

7. The Senate shall be composed of members to be chosen for four years, in the following proportions, by the citizens of this State, qualified to elect members to the House of Representatives, at the same time, in the same manner, and at the same places, where they shall vote for representatives, viz.:

Charleston, including St. Philip and St. Michael,) two members ; Christ church, one member; St. Johr., Berkeley, one member; St. Andrew, one member; St. George, one member; St. James, Goose Creek, one member; St. Thomas and St. Dennis, one member; St. Paul, one member; St. Bartholomew, one member; St. James, Santee, one member; St. John, Colleton, one member; St. Stephens, one member; St. Helena, one

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