facture or commodity, whatever, are hereby abolished, and no such office shall hereafter be created by law; but nothing in this section contained, shall abrogate any office created for the purpose of protecting the public health or the interests of the State in its property, re. venue, tolls, or purchases, or of supplying the people with correct standards of weights and measures, or shall prevent the creation of any office for such purpose hereafter.


Section 1. The Assembly shall have the power of impeachment, by the vote of a majority of all the members elected. The court for the trial of impeachments, shall be composed of the President of the Senate, the Senators, or a major part of them, and the judges of the court of appeals, or a major part of them. On the trial of an impeachment against the Governor, the LieutenantGovernor shall not act as a member of the court. No judicial officer shall exercise his office after he shall have been impeached, until he shall have been acquitted. Before the trial of an impeachment, the members of the court shall take an oath or affirmation, truly and impartially to try the impeachment, according to evidence; and no person shall be convicted, without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. Judge ment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, or removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under this State; but the party impeached shall be liable to indictment, and punishment according to law.

2. There shall be a Court of Appeals, composed of eight judges, of whom four shall be elected by the electors of the State for eight years, and four selected from the class of Justices of the Supreme Court having the shortest time to serve. Provision shall be made by law, for designating one of the number elected, as chief judge, and for selecting such Justices of the Supreme Court, from time to time, and for so classifying those elected, that one shall be elected every second year.

3. There shall be a Supreme Court having general jurisdiction in law and equity.

4. The State shall be divided into eight judicial dis tricts, of which the city of New York shall be one; the others to be bounded by county lines and to be compact and equal in population as nearly as may be. There shall be four Justices of the Supreme Court in each district, and as many more in the district composed of the city of New York, as may from time to time be authorized by law, but not to exceed in the whole such number in proportion to its population, as shall be in conformity with the number of such judges in the residue of the State în proportion to its population. They shall be classified so that one of the justices of each district shall go out of office at the end of every two years. After the expiration of their terms under such classification, the term of their office shall be eight years.

5. The Legislature shall have the same powers to alter and regulate the jurisdiction and proceedings in law and equity, as they have heretofore possessed.

6. Provision may be made by law for designating from time to time, one or more of the said justices, who is not a judge of the Court of Appeals, to preside at the general terms of the said Court to be held in the several districts. Any three or more of the said justices, of whom one of the said justices so designated shall always be one, may hold such general terms. one or more of the justices may hold special terms and circuit courts, and any one of them may preside in courts of oyer and terminer in any county.

7. The Judges of the Court of Appeals and justices of the Supreme Court shall severally receive at stated times for their services, a compensation to be established by law, which shall not be increased or diminished during their continuance in office.

8. They shall not hold any other office or public trust All votes for either of them, for any elective office (except that of Justice of the Supreme Court, or judge of the court of appeals), given by the Legislature or the people, shall be void. They shall not exercise any power of appointment to public office. Any male citizen of the age of twenty-one years, of good moral char.

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acter, and who possesses the requisite qualifications of learning and ability, shall be entitled to admission to practice in all the courts of this State.

9. The classification of the Justices of the Supreme Court; the times and place of holding the terms of the court of appeals, and of the general and special terms of the Supreme Court within the several districts, and the circuit courts and courts of oyer and terminer within the several counties, shall be provided for by law.

10. The testimony in equity cases shall be taken in like inanner as in cases at law.

11. Justines of the Supreme Court and judges of the Court of Appeals, may be removed by concurrent resolution of both houses of the Legislature, if two-thirds of all the members elected to the Asseinbly, and a majority of all the members elected to the Senate, concur therein.

All judicial officers, except those mentioned in this section, and except justices of the peace, and judges and justices of inferior courts not of record may be removed by the Senate, on the recommendation of the Governor; but no removal shall be made by virtue of this section, unless the cause thereof be entered on the journals, nor unless the party complained of, shall have been served with a copy of the complaint against him, and shall have had an opportunity of being heard in his defence. On the question of removal, the ayes and noes shall be entered on the journals.

12. The judge of the Court of Appeals shall be elected by the electors of the State, and the justices of the Supreme Court by the electors of the several judicial districts, at such times as may be prescribed by law.

13. In casc the office of any judge of the Court of Appeals, or justice of the Supreme Court, shall become vacant before the expiration of the regular term for which he was elected, the vacancy may be filled by appointment by the Governor, until it shall be supplied at the next general election of judges, when it shall be filled by election for the residue of the unexpired term.

14. There shall be elected in each of the counties of this State, except the city and county of New-York, one county judge, who shall hold his office for four years. He shall hold the county court, and perform the duties of the office of surrogate. The county court shall have such jurisdiction in cases arising in justices' courts, and in special cases, as the Legislature may prescribe; but shall have no original civil jurisdiction, except in sach special cases

'The county judge, with two justices of the peace, to be designated according to law, may hold courts of sessions with such criminal jurisdiction as the Legislature shall prescribe, and perform such other duties as may be required by law.

The county judge shall receive an annual salary, to be fixed by the board of snpervisors, which shall be neither increased nor diminished during his continuance in office.

The justices of the peace, for services in courts of sessions, shall be paid a per diem allowance out of the county treasury.

In counties having a population exceeding forty thousand, the Legislature may provide for the election of a separate officer to perform the duties of the office of surrogate.

The Legislature may confer equity jurisdiction in special cases upon the county judge.

Inferior local courts, of civil and criminal jurisdiction, may be established by the Legislature in cities; and such courts, except for the cities of New-York and Buffalo, shall have an uniform organization and jurisdiction in such cities.

15. 'The Legislature may, on application of the board of supervisors, provide for the election of local officers, not to exceed two in any county, to discharge the duties of county judge and of surrogate, in cases of their inability or vacancy, and to exercise such other powers in special cases as may be provided by law.

16. The Legislature may reorganize the judicial districts at the first session after the return of every enume ration under this constitution, in the manner provided for in the fourth section of this article, and at no other time; and they may, at such session, increase or diminish the number of districts, but such increase or diminution shall not be more than one district at any one time. Each district shall have four justices of the Supreme

Court; but no diminution of the districts shall have the effect to remove a judge from office.

17. The electors of the several towns, shall, at their annual town meeting, and in such manner as the Legislature may direct, elect justices of the peace, whose term of office shall be four years. In case of an election to fill a vacancy occurring before the expiration of a full term, they shall hold for the residue of the unex. pired term, Their number and classification may be regulated by law. Justices of the peace and judges or justices of inferior courts not of record and their

clerks may be removed after due notice and an opportunity of being heard in their defence by such county, city or state courts as may be prescribed by law, for causes to be assigned in the order of removal.

18. All judicial officers of the cities and villages, and all such judicial officers as may be created therein by law, shall be elected at such times and in such manner as the Legislature may direct.

19. Clerks of the several counties of this State shall be clerks of the Supreme Court, with such powers and duties as shall be prescribed by law. A clerk for the Court of Appeals, to be ex-officio clerk of the Supreme Court, and to keep his office at the seat of government, shall be chosen by the electors of the State ; he shall hold his office for three years, and his compensation shall be fixed by law and paid out of the public Treasury.

20. No judicial officer, except justices of the peace, shall receive to his own use, any fees or perquisites of office.

21. The Legislature may authorize the judgments, decrees and decisions of any local inferior court of record of original civil jurisdiction, established in a city, to be removed for review directly into the Court of Appeals.

22. The Legislature shall provide for the speedy publication of all statute laws, and of such judicial decisions as it may deem expedient. And all laws and judicial decisions shall be free for publication by any person.

23. Tribunals of conciliation may be established.

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